The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Korean-Parental Overprotection Scale (K-POS). In study 1, several focus-group interviews were conducted to identify the main factors of parental overprotection in Korea and the initial pool of items was constructed. An exploratory factor analysis (n=331) was conducted and yielded 5 factors with 33 items. The revised 33 items were administered to 956 adolescents whose data was split into two data sets. In Study 2, additional EFA and a CFA were conducted to finalize the instrument. An exploratory principal axis factor analysis (n= 478) with promax rotation was conducted for mothers and fathers separately. Four factors-Identification (three items), Control (four items), Goal achieving (four items) and Face culture (four items)-were extracted, resulting in a 15-item scale. To validate the four-factor model, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted (n= 478) and good/moderate fit indices were found for both mothers and fathers. In study 3, evidence of K-POS’s moderate internal consistency and test-retest reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity were also provided. Finally, the implications and limitations of the present study were discussed.
This study aimed to investigate the adjustment process of the youth who quit vocational high school. For this study, the base data of 16 adolescent who left vocational high school over a year and didn`t return to school was collected and Grounded theory approach was used to analyze. The result showed that dropouts experienced ‘anxiety’, causal conditions were ‘career maturity’, ‘achievement’, ‘trauma’ and contextual conditions of the phenomenon were ‘willpower’, ‘psychological stability’ and ‘inclination’. Also, Intervening conditions were ‘support system utilization’ and ‘motivation’, the action/interaction strategies for controlling phenomenon were ‘to challenge’, ‘to escape’ and ‘not to try’. Finally, ‘being developed’ and ‘being unsettled’ were observed as the consequence of the phenomenon. As the youth passed through indulgence stage, consciousness stage, trying change stage, and reestablishment stage, their adjustment process is increased. On the other hand, the youth stayed with status quo when they couldn't respond appropriately. The core category was ‘overcoming anxiety and finding identity’ and goal pursuit, transition, lethargy and escape types were showed as the following from the core category. This study gave an idea not only that process of development is needed to understand and approach the youth`s adjustment process, but also provided basis data that could help in increasing level of them.
This study was performed to examine the reliability and validity of the Friendship Quality Scale (FQS) for pre- and early adolescence. The participants were 466 students in 5th-9th grades. The results indicated that the FQS was a reliable instrument, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported a 5 factor model: companionship, conflict, help, security, and closeness. Also the 5 factor structure of the FQS fit well with the elementary and middle school student sample. Convergent validity was examined through investigating correlations between the FQS and other scales (Peer Relational Skill Scale, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Reverse, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). In addition, discriminant validity was confirmed by mean differences on the subscales between the clinical groups and non-clinical groups. On the basis of these results, implications and limitations of the instrument were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of self-concept in the relationship between the intention to drop out of school and the intention to seek help. In this study, a total of 276 middle school students were participated and hierarchiecal regression analysis was conducted for data analysis. The results indicated that self-concept(general self-concept. academic self-concept, significant others self-concept, emotional self-concept) mediated in the relationship between the intention to drop out of school and the intention to seek help. That is, intention to seek help was directly affected by intention to drop out of school and indirectly affected through self-concept. These findings identified the importance of role of self-concept. Finally, the implication and limitation of the findings were discussed.
This study analyzed to compare the model of the mediated moderating effect with that of the moderated mediation effect to investigate social support’s moderating effect in the relationship among the student misbehavior, teacher efficacy and burnout. The data were gathered from a survey of 243 elementary school teachers in South Korea. 240 questionnaire as the final analysis data that are available were finally selected. The student misbehavior, teacher efficacy, social support, burnout were measured and analyzed by using SPSS 21.0 and SPSS Macro. The results of this study are summarized as follow: First, teacher efficacy mediated the student misbehavior and teacher's burnout. Second, social support demonstrated a significant moderating effect between student misbehavior and teacher efficacy. In other words, mediated moderating effect of social support through teacher efficacy was found. Third, social support didn’t show a significant moderating effect between the teacher efficacy and burnout. Based on the results, researcher suggests practical intervention to prevent elementary school teachers' burnout.