The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating effects of peer victimization and rejection sensitivity in the relationship between negative parenting and depression. We collected data from 577 students of 4-6th grade in elementary schools at Gyeongsangnam-do. First, all the correlations among the four variables included in this study was proved meaningful. Second, we set a research model supposing that children can experience peer victimization if their parents have negative parenting style, and the negative parenting and the experience of peer victimization can be precedent factors of rejection sensitivity and depression; structural equation model was applied to the analysis. As the result, the entire effect of negative parenting on depression was .564 (direct effect: .250, indirect effect: .314), and the explanatory power of negative parenting, experience of peer victimization and rejection sensitivity on depression was 54.5%. Third, it was examined that the experience of peer victimization and the rejection sensitivity mediate in the relation between negative parenting and depression: simple mediating effect and dual mediating effect have statistically significant meaning. It is meaningful that this study examined the integrated structural relation among parents factor, peer factor, and individual inner factor, which affect children’s depression, and proved the sequential relation of these factors. Furthermore, to prevent children’s depression, the individual inner factor such as rejection sensitivity should also be considered with home environment and the peer factor such as parenting style and peer victimization. In addition, the limitation of this study was discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate structural relationships of achievement goal orientation, achievement emotions, and academic engagement, especially focusing on the moderating effect of teachers' autonomy support in these relationships. With 306 elementary school students as subjects, this study found that the students who perceived teachers as highly autonomy supportive showed the higher mastery goal, performance-approach goal, and academic engagement, as well as higher enjoyment and lower boredom compared to the students who perceived their teachers as rarely autonomy supportive. In the high teachers' autonomy support group, mastery goal predicted high academic engagement through the higher enjoyment. In the low teachers' autonomy support group, mastery goal predicted high academic engagement through the higher enjoyment as well as lowered boredom. This group also showed that performance-avoidance goal predicted low engagement through the lowered enjoyment. The significant group differences in structural relationship were found in the effect of enjoyment on academic engagement, which was significant only in the low teachers' autonomy support group. Nevertheless students who perceived their teachers as rarely autonomy supportive were less likely to experience enjoyment, high enjoyment could compensate the negative effect of low autonomy support of teachers. This study showed that the students’ perception of their teachers' autonomy support could differentiate the effect of students' achievement goals on achievement emotion and academic engagement.
This study examined the problem of suicide crisis intervention of university counseling agency and to present improvement of suicide crisis interventions. After three focus group interviews conducted targeting 12 counselors of college counseling center, we analyzed it for the study. As a result, a total of four categories, the concept of the 13 sub-regions were derived as the problems of suicide crisis intervention which the college counselors would think. Four categories were absence of written guidelines for the crisis intervention, lack of the systems and management of the college counseling center, lack of awareness of the suicide problem and difficulties of referral process. In addition counselors said that change in the perception of the suicide problem across the college, establishing a management system for crisis students, preparation of written crisis intervention guidelines, training for counselors and post intervention were necessary effective suicide crisis intervention. Finally they proposed the implications and directions of this study.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean School Engagement Scale for Middle School Students (K-SES:M) and to test its reliability and validity. Free-response questionnaire surveys and focus group interviews, which were conducted to overcome the construct bias resulting from the use of translated scales, yielded 90 pilot items. These items were administered to 1,036 middle school students in Grades 7 to 9 and the data were analyzed through exploratory factor analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, correlational analyses, and concurrent validity analyses. The Korean School Engagement Scale for Middle School Students consisted of 48 items, which were divided into 8 subscales (i.e., satisfaction with school life, valuing of schoolwork, rule compliance, extracurricular activities, peer relations, student-teacher relations, attentiveness during instructional activities, self-regulated learning). Internal consistency reliabilities of the subscales were high, and positive correlations among the subscales were statistically significant. The eight subscales of the Korean School Engagement Scale for Middle School Students were positively correlated with the subscales of the School Engagement Measure and the Korean Academic Engagement Inventory. The results from confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the fit of the first-order eight-factor model was better than the second-order four-factor model and the second-order one-factor model. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that the Korean School Engagement Scale for Middle School Students may be a reliable and valid measure and may be useful for understanding and assessing various aspects of middle school students’ engagement with school. Limitations of this study and suggestions for future research were discussed.
In spite of its popularity, the self-report assessment of school bullying has been known susceptible to various biasing factors including respondents' individual characteristics and contextual variables. This study manipulated contextual variables (anonymous vs. confidential administration and time frames of reference) through written test instructions for 708 male and female middle school students in Korea and had them complete the self-report assessment instruments of respondents' characteristics, such as hostile attributional bias and social desirability, and participant roles in school bulling (bully, victim, follower, outsider, and defender) to explore the possibility that these respondent- and context-related variables function as potential biasing factors in self-reports of participant roles in school bullying. Correlational analyses revealed that respondent-related variables were significantly correlated with self-reports of all participant roles, while contextual variables were correlated with self-reports of only a few of the participant roles. Results of hierarchical regression analyses also showed that respondent-related variables significantly accounted for the variance in self-reports of all participant roles, controlling for the effect of gender, while contextual variables contributed only a small amount to the variance of self-reports of bulling and victimization with no contribution to self-reports of bystander roles. These findings were interpreted in the light of response biases in self-report assessment of bullying. Implications of this study for the improvement of self-report assessment practice of school bullying were discussed, and some suggestions for subsequent studies were provided.
The purpose of this study was to examine reciprocal causation between autonomy and competence and to specify how parental emotional support and parental academic support make influence on autonomy and competence of adolescents as time goes by. The panel data collected by Korea Education Longitudinal Study(KELS) was employed. The data of 5,459 students in the second and the third year of middle school and the second year of high school was used. Autoregressive Cross-Lagged Modeling was performed. The results of study were as follows. Autonomy and competence have reciprocal relationship. In addition, as time flows, parental academic support positively affect adolescents' competence while influence negatively on autonomy. On the other hand, parental emotional support have a positive effect on autonomy whereas the support have no impact on competence statistically. Practical implication regarding parent-child relationship was discussed to enhance students' competence and autonomy related to learning.
This study aimed to inquire into differences of students’ college adjustment by compromise types between preferred university and major. This study employed a national sample of 2147 freshmen students using the Seventh Korean Education Longitudinal Study. In the present study, compromise types of preferred university and major were categorized into four groups by applying Gottfredson's theory. As the results of MANOVA, the students of choosing the preferred university and major got the higher score in the total score of college adjustment. For the differences of college adjustment level by compromise types, ‘preferred university–preferred major’ group and ‘less preferred university-preferred major’ group had significantly higher score in the total score of college adjustment, and the students of choosing the preferred university and ‘preferred university-less preferred major’ group had significantly lower score in the GPA. The implication and limitation of the study and the suggestions for the future studies were discussed.