This study examined whether middle school boys and girls display different achievement goal orientation profiles and whether the levels of academic and psychological adjustment differ by the profile type. Six-hundred eighty students in Gr. 7 to Gr. 9 completed self-report questionnaires assessing achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, performance avoidance), academic adjustment (i.e., academic efficacy, engagement during learning activities, academic stress), and psychological adjustment (i.e., self-esteem, depressive-anxious symptoms). First, cluster analyses yielded five achievement goal orientation clusters in each gender: among boys, mastery avoidance oriented (29.5%), success oriented (20.6%), performance avoidance oriented (20.6%), mastery approach oriented (16.6%), and disengaged (12.6%); among girls, avoidance oriented (35.7%), success oriented (23.6%), indifferent (21.2%), mastery approach oriented (14.5%), and disengaged (5.1%). Second, analyses of variance indicated differences in the levels of academic and psychological adjustment among achievement goal orientation profile types in each gender. These findings signify that some of middle school students’ achievement goal orientation profiles are common to both genders but others are gender-specific and that the levels of academic and psychological adjustment vary by the profile type. Practical implications for developing instructional and psychological interventions, limitations of this study, and suggestions for future research were discussed.
The authors examined the extent to which Berry’s four types of acculturation(integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) would emerge from a cluster analysis within a sample of Chinese international students living in South Korea. In addition, the authors tested if there would be any significant differences among clusters in terms of acculturative stress and adjustment to college, and if subtypes of acculturative stress would influence adjustment to college. Chinese students (N=252) from Seoul participated in the survey. Cluster analysis revealed three clusters(identified as marginalization, integration, separation), but assimilation did not emerge. Compared to the marginalized or separated group, the integrated group lived in Korea for a shorter period of time and were less likely to be fluent in Korean. The integrated group reported a lowest level, the separated group a medium level, and the marginalized group a highest level of acculturative stress. In contrast, a highest level of adjustment to college was observed among the integrated group, followed by the separated and marginalized groups. Lastly, it was found that for the marginalized group, discrimination, homesickness, and hostility negatively influenced adjustment to college, while fear for the integrated group and discrimination for the separated group negatively influenced adjustment to college. The authors discussed the implications of these results for acculturation theory and program development.
The purpose of this study was to investigate defenders’ experiences targeting defenders among school violence participants using consensual qualitative analysis method (CQR: Consensual Qualitative Research. Hill, 2011; Hill, Knox, Thompson, Williams, Hess & Ladany, 2005). The subjects of study were 10 middle school boys nominated by school teachers and peers. As a result, defenders’ experiences were finally derived 5 domains and 11 categories about defenders’ experiences at the time of action, and the impact of defenders’ helping behavior. The results of the study are summarized as follow. First, before helping behavior defenders judged that bullying behaviors of perpetrators were too much and then immediately decided to help victims. Bystanders mainly played roles of outsiders, and several of them were reinforcers and rare defenders. Before helping behavior, defenders were afraid and scared of revenge, concerning future problems of friends and thinking that violence was unjust and feeling sorry for the victims. Second, defenders’ helping behaviors brought about major changes to defenders. Helping behaviors played a critical role in the growing of defenders through feeling proud and strong beliefs that helping behaviors are the right thing. The relationship between defenders and perpetrators got worse, and the relationship between defenders and victims was unchanged. After intervention of defenders, perpetrators tried not to hurt victims anymore, and victims got along with classmates. After intervention of defenders, perpetrators stopped bullying and more peers defended victims. This study extended the overall understanding of changing process of all participants’ behaviors, by investigating defenders’ psychological experiences in the process of helping behaviors focusing cognitive and emotional process of defenders, by addressing how defenders’ helping behaviors impact with all participants doing. Also, it is important that this study provided information focused on defenders’ roles for intervention of school violence, and proposed guidance related to altruistic helping behaviors about a desirable direction for prevention of school violence.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of parent attachment and psychological independence on the career preparation behavior. It was established the study modeling which shows the direct effect of attachment and independence, and the indirect effect of the mediate career decision making self-efficacy variables which can mediate attachment, independence and career preparation behavior. The questionnaire has carried out for 429 university students. The research findings were follow: There are significant differences in career preparation behavior to grade. but there are non significant differences in career preparation behavior to sex and affiliation. Parent attachment has significant influenced on the career preparation behavior in the direct way and in the indirect way. Psychological Independence don't has influenced on career preparation behavior. However, Specifically conflict independence of psychological independence subvariables provided significant explanation for career preparation behavior. Career decision making self-efficacy can mediate attachment and career preparation behavior in the partial mediation, and can mediate conflict independence and career preparation behavior in the full mediation. The more they had secure attachment with parent, the more they were career preparation behavior. and The more they had conflict independence, the more they were career preparation behavior.
The purpose of this study is to verify if self-esteem plays a role in relation to adolescent attachment to parents perceived by them and smart phone addiction. To fulfil its objective, the current study targeted 984 smart phone users from the data of year 2015 adolescent addiction to smart phone in Seongnam-si to measure the level of self-esteem, attachment to parents and addiction to smart phone. Also, based on its theoretical background, a mediation model was set using measured variables for regression analysis. Results of this study are as follow; first, level of adolescent addiction to smart phone were the same between boys and girls. Second, adolescent attachment to parents and self-esteem both negatively affected addiction to smart phone. Third, self-esteem showed partial mediation effect in relation between attachment to parents and addiction to smart phone. The more stable their attachment to parents was, the higher their self-esteem got and elevated self-esteem lowered adolescent addiction to smart phone. Conclusively, attachment to parents directly affected the addiction to smart phone and even self-esteem mediation had indirect grip on smart phone addiction. Lastly, what these results may mean was discussed along with the indications and limitations shown in this study.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the previous research on suicidal ideation among college students. The meta-analysis was used to analyze dissertations and academic journals published in Korea from the year of 2005 to 2015 which dealt the variables of college students' suicidal ideaton. Main results of this study were as follows: First, the variables related to suicidal ideation among college students were classified into 11 variables of triggering factors and 6 variables of suppressing factors. Second, the most influential triggering variable was depression, which was followed by negative emotion, hopelessness, dysfunctional family communication, maladaptive perfectionism, life stress, maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation, impulsivity, job-seeking stress, emotion-focused stress coping style, and problem drinking, respectively. Third, the most influential suppressing variable was self-esteem. And it was followed by self-identity, attachment, ego-resilience, social support, and problem-focused stress coping style. In conclusion, the results of this study can be applied to educational and counseling program for the prevention of college students' suicide. Limitations to the current study and recommendations for future research are discussed.
The present study provides an integrative review of dropout prevention programs, giving directions and implications for developing future programs. We reviewed 11 programs developed from the year 2000 to 2014 by applying Kratochwill and Stoiber (2002)’s Evidence-Based Intervention criteria and Kim (2011)’s model for program development and evaluation. Analyses revealed that many studies did not conduct needs analysis and consultation in developing programs. The majority provided empirical bases for their programs without giving theoretical rationale. Only one study implemented an alternative program and compared it with the treatment group. None reported effect sizes, nor did they examined whether the effects of the program sustained after the study ended. In addition, none of them reported validity information of the measures, nor did they examine the relations of program components to the criterion variables. Implications are discussed in relation to development, implementation and evaluation of future dropout prevention programs.