The purpose of this study was to find psychopathological factors and personality-dimensions which were assessed by MMPI, and to examine the construct validity of content scales and personality disorder scales. For this purpose, the degree and nature of intercorrelation among scales were investigated by using correlation and factor analysis of standard validity, clinical scales, content scales and personality disorder scales in MMPI. The results showed that 3 factors were extracted in standard scales, 2 factors in content scales, 3 factors in personality disorder scales, and 6 factors in combining these scales, Also, the number and structure of factors are compartively consistent by groups and sex. These results suggest that the specification and clarity of interpretation of MMPI may be improved. This study may be helpful to expand the application of the MMPI and obtain additive various informations.
This study was conducted to examine the effectivity of invalid profile identification strategies with MMPI profiles of 700 invalid responses, 553 psychiatric patients, 326 normal populations, and 209 undergraduates. For this purpose this study executed discriminant analysis in which 10 clinical scales as well as validity scales, CA, TR, Korean version MMPI scales(NP, NSc) were included. The results showed that valid response and invalid response were highly accurately classified. Also, this criterion were stable in cross validation. It was discussed whether different identification strategies were used in different groups and the type of invalid profiles was understood. Considering that massive scoring, using computer automatic scoring, is being pervasive, we can expect that identification strategies suggested by present study may be effective.
This study was investigated to find out psychological characteristics of post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) patients who were at law because of compensation after traffic accident. MMPI was administered to 50 PTSD patients and 1-2-3-7-8 profile was founded by total mean of T score of each MMPI scale. Three groups were noted by multivariate cluster analysis of each T scores. They were 1-3-7-8 profile and above 70 T score(8%), 3-1-2 profile (22%), and 1-3-2-7-8 profile(70%). The results indicated that the most typical MMPI characteristics of PTSD was "floating profile", that is, the increase of both neurotic and psychotic scale. In addition to this, the authors founded the probability of somatic displacement as another characteristic of PTSD.
The MMPI and somatic symptom checklist were administered to 69 chronic pian patients who came to Kang-Nam pain clinic. Seeded multivariate clustering analysed the MMPI profiles into four homogeneous subgroups. There were subgroup differences in terms of somatic complaints and type of pain. Subgroup 1, characterized by significantly elevated clinical scale 1, 2, 3, and subgroup 3, characterized by elevated scale 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9 complainted more somatic symptoms than subgroup 2, characterized by 'conversion V' profile, and subgroup 4, which show normal profile. Back pain patients belonged mostly under subgroup 2 and 4, headache patients mainly subgroup 1 and 4, and patients who complainted both back pain and headache mostly subgroup 1 and 3. Analysis of covariance procedure with control group was performed to identify personality differences among different pain type patients. It seemed that chronic patients with both pain and multiple somatic symptoms has personality problem, especially in interpersonal relationships.
The present study was investigated about cognitive characteristics of the patients with schizophrenia on quantitative and qualitative analysis of Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale (KWIS). Subjects were positive and negative schizophrenics, and depressions of 14 each persons, diagnosed by psychiatrists based on criteria by DSM-III-R(APA, 1987). Through the result of quantitative and qualitative analysis, it was found that cognitive function of the schizophrenics were declined in quantitative analysis compared with the depressions. In the evaluation of thought disorder, qualitative analysis, positive schizoprenics were found significantly severe on the thought disorder level(0.50, 0,75) compared with negative schizoprenics and depression. Finally, suggestions and limitations of this study were described.
We determined the cut-off score for the Korean version of BDI in order to establish empirical and clinical criteria for screening clinical depressives from the populations with two different prior probabilities of clinical depression. To this end, BDI was administered to 89 patients who were diagnosed by psychiatrists and clinical psychologists as depression and 272 normal adults aged from 20 to 45. The cut-off score assuming the prior probability of .50 was turned out to be sixteen, which was determined by randomely selecting 89 normal subjects and analysing their BDI scores along with the scores of the 89 patients by a probit analysis. The cut-off score assuming the prior probability of .30 was twenty-two, which was determined by subjecting the BDI scores of the entire subjects to the same analysis. The cut-off score of sixteen under the assumption of .50 prior probability classified 71.6% of the depressives and 77.3% of the normals correctly. That of twenty-two under the assumption of .30 prior probability classfied 60.2% of the depressives and 94.8% of the normals correctly. The situations where each of the two cut-off scores would be appropriate or not were discussed.
This study investigated premises that tendency of people to be optimistic about future in general and that of depressives to be pessimistic. Two hundred college students participated in this study. Participants were presented with a questionaire containing eight positive and eleven negative future events. The subjects were asked to estimate their own chance of experiencing positive and negative future events compare to average others on the 10-point scale. Overall, they rated their own chance to be above average for the positive events and below average for the negative events. To examine the hypotheses that depressives make negative predictions about the future, the depressed and nondepressed subjects were selected based on the scores of BDI and the two groups were compared. As hypothesized, depressives estimated greater perceived probability of the negative future events and less probability of the positive events than did nondepressives. Several theoretical explanations for the results and the limitations were discussed.
The present study was designed to test the effects of electromyographic(EMG) biofeedback training and cognitive therapy on headache reduction, self-efficacy and levels of health locus of control in tension headache patients. Seventeen tension headache patients were randomly assinged either to a group receiving EMG biofeedback training(n=9) or to a cognitive therapy(n=8). From baseline state to post-treatment(60days), all subjects were required to report their daily headache activities on headache diary and to complete self-efficacy scale and health locus of control scale at before and after treatment. There were 8 treatment session(50 minutes each, one session every 5days) in treatment. A comparison of overall headache activity (headache index) revealed that both treatments were highly effective and nearly eqivalent for reducing headache complaints. Also, both EMG biofeedback training and cognitive therapy produced an increased sense of self-efficacy and internal locus of control. There were positive correlations between EMG level reduction and headache index reduction. These findings suggested that the mechanism of action for EMG biofeedback training involve cognitive as well as physiological components. Finally, implications, restrictions and suggestions of the present study were discussed.
The therapeutic image, which is characterized by decrease and improvement of pathological neurotic symptom, is regarded as the necessary process for the imagery psychotherapy, and said to be the basically same phenomenon like that of meaningful imagination image in optic area through RPS stage. So, on the basis of it, this study regards the experience of menaingful imagination image in optic area through RPS stage as the therapeutic image and necessary process for the imagery psychotherapy. The purpose of this study is to measure and compare the frequences of meaningful imagination images, which could be evocated by "RPS-flame glassess instrument", and to ascertain, Schultz's autogenic training (AT) effect on the normal and depressive neurosis group. It was hypothesized that the depressive neurosis group would experience the less meaningful images through PRS stage than normal group, maybe because the depressive neurosis group has the more defensive mechanisms and resistance to experience images than normal group in imagery psychotherapy situation. This study was composed of two experiments. In experiment I, only PRS was given to both groups without any preceding conditions. In experiment. II, RPS was given to both groups after AT was given to them. MMPI-saarbrücken in Germany and FRI(Preiburger Personality inventar Test) were administered to both groups, and during the RPS(rhytimic-photic-stimulation) stage, the flameglasses, renewed stroboscopic instrument was used. The results were as follow : 1) Before Schultz's autogenic traning, the frequences of the meaningful imagination image experiences, in optic area through RPS stage in normal group, were significantly more than those of depressive neurosis group. 2) Schultz's autogenic traning significantly increased the frequences of the meaningful imagination image expereinces in optic area through RPS stage in the both groups. 3) Even though Schultz's autogenic traning significantly increased the frequences of the meaningful imagination image experiences in optic area through RPS stage in depressive neurosis group experiences, they are significantly fewer than those of normal group. In this result, it was suggested, that the strong unconsicous resistance to experiences of therapeutic images in depressive neurosis group, makes them experience fewer therapeutic images than normal group. The Leuner's assumption, that autogenic traning is one of the important preceding conditions for the therapeutic image in imagery psychotherapy, was partially testified by this experiment. And Stroboscopic-Renewed Flameglasses was turn out as the useful method for testifying image phenomena in clinical psychotherapy. The following experiments is required for 1) testifying the relation between the therapeutic image in the imagery psychotherapy and meaningful imagination image in optic area through RPS stage, 2) investigating the therapeutic function of meaningful imaginatian image in optic area through RPS stage in various mental disorder group, and finally 3) identifying the pecularities of meaningful imagination image in optic area through RPS stage.
This research was to see the relationship of dysfunctional attitude and coping style with depression, and to explore how interaction of dysfucntional attitude and coping style influences depression by use of multiple regression analysis. Dysfunctional attitude and coping style have been known moderators for stress and depression. Subjects were 196 college students who attended introduction of psychology. The result was that dysfunctional attitude and passive coping style were found positively significant for depression. And active coping style and problem-focused coping style were found negatively significant for depression. It implies that higher dysfunctional attitude and more passive coping style increase depression, while more active coping style and more problem-focused coping style decrease depression. Interaction effects between dysfunctional attitude and both active and problem-focused copihg styles with depression were found significant. This explains the fact that if depression increases due to high dysfunctional attitude, active coping style and problem-focused coping style can buffer influence of dysfunctional attitude. In conclusion, it was found that partial interaction between dysfunctional attitudes and coping style influenced depression. Finally significances, limitations and suggestions of this study were also discussed.
In this study, 77 schizophrenic inpatients participating in the psychiatric rehabilitation and 52 schizophrenic inpatients were compared concerning on stress, coping, perceiced social support, and self-perception. The result showed that there was not significant difference between two groups in demographic variables such as age, education, the duration and number of hospitalization, marital status, and the severity of symptoms. However, rehabilitation group showed more positive self-perception, less mysterious coping than those of control group. In addition, rehabilitation group showed a tendency to perceive more emotional support from others than that of control group. With regard to the type of perceived stress, there was significant difference between two groups ; most subjects of the rehabilitation group reported 'no stress' or 'difficulty in interpersonal relationship', but control group reported various type of stress such as 'no stress', 'difficulty in interpersonal relationship', 'discharing problem', and 'health problem'. The limitation of this study and the direction of future research were discussed.
The present experiment explored whether compulsive-checker symptoms result from the ability of recall and recognition or discrimination of memory source. Using a Korean version of the Maudsley Obsessive-Complusive Inventory, four groups of students were divided into each experiment : an compulsive-checker group, an compulsive-nonchecker group, mild-compulsive group and control group. The measure of main concern was the number of correct free-recall, recognition and discrimination of memory source in three different tasks : experimenter-presentation, subjet-covert generation, subjet-overt generation. In free recall and recognition, compulsive-checker group did show no poor performance than the other groups. However, In discrimination of memory sources Compulsive groups showed poor performance than the other groups. The present results indicate that obsessive-compulsive disorder might result from decision bias of discrimination of memory source. Several limitations and suggestions of the present study were discussed.
A study was conducted to assess the effect of such psychosocial determinants as stress, expectancy to alcohol effects and social influence on drinking behavior. The drinking behavior was measured with frequency and average amount of drinking, and drinking problems. As expected, the stress, the cognitive expectancy and the social influence variables significantly predicted drinking behavior. The male subjects, the drinking frequency measure was affected by the social influence, the stress and the social facilitation effect of alcohol. Average amount of drinking was predicted by the stress and the negative expectancy about alcohol. The predictive variables of the drinking problem were the stress and the social influence. In contrast, social influence was highly predictive of drinking frequency and drinking volume among female. The drinking problem among female was predicted by the stress and the social influence. This findings suggest that stress, alcohol expectancy and social influence were differentially related to drinking measures, and that sexual difference must be considered to account for the relationship.
The possible relationship between sleep habits and personality traits was investigated in 565 college students. Four aspects of sleep patterns(length, circardian rhythm, regularity, refreshed feeling at the time of awakening) were evaluated on the basis of sleep questionnaire. In each aspect, subjects were categorized into three groups : two extreme groups of those who belong to upper or lower ends of the distribution(long vs. short, morning vs. evening, regular vs. irregular, refreshing vs. nonrefreshing) and an intermediate group of those who do not belong to either group. To compare personality characteristics between groups, the Korean version of MMPI (1989) was administered to all subjects and the results were interpreted according to methods of Kunce & Anderson (1976, 1984). The main findings are as follows. 1. In sleep lengths, the intermediate group was better able at organization and imagination than the short and long sleep groups. The short sleep group showed greater zest than the long sleep group. 2. From the view point of circadian rhythms, the evening type showed higher perception of stress than the morning type but lower than the intermediate type. The ability for conservation and evaluation was higher in the evening type than in the morning type while assertiveness was greater in the intermediate type than in the morning type. 3. The irregular sleepers showed higher ability of evaluation and imagination than the regular sleepers. 4. The unrefreshed group showed a greater ability to be conservative than both the refreshed and the intermediate groups. Also the unrefreshed group showed greater ability at evaluation, expression, organization, and imagination than the refreshed group. The present findings support the assumption that a relationship exists between specific aspects of sleep patterns and personality traits in normal young adults. However, the limitations in generalizing these findings should be considered and there is need for further study.
This study is to present of Korean norms of developmental test of visual-motor integration. This copy rest was tested in the children of 630 ranged from 6 to 14. The result was presented. And the correlation with IQ was .84. The implications for use of this test were discussed. The number of subjects would be added.