This paper is concerned with psychiatric rehabilitation which has been recently developed but unknown to Korea. First, it deals with the necessity of its dicipline through the history of psychitric rehabilitation. Next, the theoretical model and the steps of intervention strategy were described with it's major programs. And the possibility of applying psychiatric rehabilitation to the Korean Mental Care System was mentioned. Finally, the education and training of clinical psychologists for psychiatric rehabilitation was discussed.
This study examines the clinical utility of the MMPI-168 in psychiatric settings. Subjects were 213 psychiatric patients of both sexes. Not only correlation coefficients or group mean comparisons between standard MMPI and MMPI-168 but also difference score and correspondence of individual profile-pairs were examined. Correlations were also generally within acceptable limits, but difference scores were too large and correspondence of individual profile-pairs was limited. These results suggested that using MMPI-168 in psychiatric settings instead of standard MMPI is undesirable.
This study investigated the psychometric characteristics of the alcoholism scale. From the item analysis of 153 restandardization samples, 49 items(NAL) were extracted as more valid items among the original 69 items. The NAL was administered to 66 alcoholics and 66 normal adults. The results were found to have relatively high internal consistency of the scale(split-half reliability, α coefficient and test-retest reliability). Most items of the scale showed good validity index. The means of the scale of the alcoholics were significantly higher than those of normal adults, and the optimal cut-off score of the scale was 16 points. The corelation between NAL and AST was significant. Five factors were extracted as a result of the factor analysis based on NAL. The extracted 5 factors were : psychological unstability & physical discomfort, cognitive impairments, social introversion & lack of self-confidence, family discord & projection, and drinking factors. Finally we discussed the considerations for the diagnosis, screening, and limitations of this study.
This study was to investigate MMPI patterns in schizophrenics, bipolar disorder and schizoaffective patient group and to discriminate among three groups by discrimination function analysis of MMPI. There were no significant code type differences in three groups. Schizophrenic group had 8-9-6 profile, bipolar group 9-6 profile and schizoaffective group 6-8-9 profile. Among three groups, probability to be discriminated schizophrenics in schizophrenics was 76%, probability to be discriminated bipolar disorder patients in bipolar disorder patients 52%, and probability to be discriminated schizoaffective parients 52% by discrimination function analysis of MMPI.
This study examined the factor structure of the K-WAIS in a sample of 141 psychiatric patients(ages 16 to 73). The two-factor solution proved more informative and showed the familiar two-factor structure(Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Organization). Vocabulary, Comprehension, Information, Arithmetic, and Similarity subscales showed strong loadings on Verbal Comprehension factor, whereas all Performance subtests and Digit Span subscale showed strong loadings on Perceptual Organization factor. And, the robustness of an overall intelligence dimension was supported. The first unrotated factor clearly represented general intelligence and all subscales loaded significantly.
The present study is purposed to identify and differentiate between manic group(N=75) and schizophrenic group(N=77) on Rorschach responses. Rorschach was administered, scored, and analyzed by Exner's comprehensive system(1986). Manic group consisted of hypomania(N=7), bipolar disorder, manic without psychotic features(N=52), and bipolar disorder, manic with psychotic features including schizoaffective, manic type(N=16). Schizophrenic group consisted of schizophrenia, paranoid type(N=26) and schizophrenia, ocher type(N=51). In 70 variables proposed by Exner, manic group was scored higher than schizophrenic group on 14 variables(R, P, W, FQo, M, Ma, FM, a, Wgt Sum C, Sum C', Zf, EA, es, X＋%), but was scored lower on 4 variables(X-%, SCZI, SUM6 SP SC, WSUM6 SP SC). 9 variables(R, P, Ma, a, Sum C', es, X-%, SUM6 SP SC, WSUM6 SP SC) well discriminate these two groups. Further, manic disorder with psychotic features subgroup(MP subgroup) was compared to schizophrenia, paranoid subgroup(SP subgroup) on the same 70 variables. MP subgroup was scored higher than SP subgroup on 10 variables(R, W, DQv, FQo, Ma, a, CF, Wgt Sum C, Primary content, All H), but was scored lower on 2 variables(S-CON, DEPI). These results suggested that manic group showed more active thinking and affective responses but less cognitive slippage than schizophrenic group, and that MP subgroup showed more active thinking, pleasant affective responses, and concern to human relationship than SP subgroup, but cognitive slippage was not different in these two subgroups.
This study was designed to investigate performance on implicit and explicit memory tasks in schizophrenia. Tasks included the cued recall test as explicit task and the word stem completion test as implicit task under the two conditions(unrelated word condition vs related word condition). And then, analyses were done on scores of cued recall test, word stem completion test under the two conditions. The results were that schizophrenic patients showed impaired performance on both the explicit and implicit memory tasks under the two conditions. Many previous studies showed that amnesic patients who showed deficits on explicit memory task did not show impaired performance on implicit memory task in comparison with normals. It is clear that abnormalities in attention, arousal and motivation are present in schizophrenia. However, the results of this study suggest that it may be necessary to reconsider the implications of the brain structual or physiological abnormalities in schizophrenic's memory deficit.
This study was designed to evaluate the loose construing of formal thought-disordered(TD) schizophrenics' personal construct system and to clarify whether their loose construing does occur in a specific construct subsystems, i.e., especially in interpersonal experience areas. For the experimental instruments five different Rep Grids were used, which were consisted in the possible combination of elements(photographs of people, real people, and objects) and constructs(psychological, body-related physical, and object constructs). Split-plot factorial design was used to evaluate the subjects' construct subsystems. The results were that TD schizophrenics were less disordered relative to NTD schizophrenics and normals when using object constructs than when using psychological constructs and body-related physical constructs irrespective of whether photographs of strangers of known people are used as elements to be construed. That is, TD schizophrenics obtained significantly lower construct intensity and element consistency than NTD schzophrenics and normals on Rep Grid employing psychological constructs and body-related physical constructs but not on object constructs. The inconsistency was inferred as a genesis of the schizophrenic formal thought disorder for its possible relations of interpersonal conflict.
This study was to not only examine the cognitive performances and psychiatric morbidity of patients with epilepsy but also compare pre-post performances after adequate antiepileptic treatment. 13 epileptic subjects without persistent antiepileptic treatment before whose extent of seizure control was poor were selected. First KWIS, Wechsler Memory Scale, BGT, MMPI were administered and followed by retest session 10 weeks later with vigabatrin treatment. The results was following. In cognitive performences KWIS and BGT copy score were not significant. But post score on the BGT recall, Wechsler MQ, and logical memory of Wechsler Memory subscale were significantly higher than prescore. In psychiatric symptoms MMPI showed a 2-3-1-7-8 profile which suggested the depression or depression with anxiety. They also showed a significantly decreased score on D, Pt, Pa & Sc scale after antiepileptic treatment.
The present study investigated effects of self-consciousness and negative life-events on drinking behaviors of college students. A questionnaire was administered to 985 college students. The measures of interest included the following : self-consciousness scale, negative/ positive life events, personal background information, quantity and frequencey of alcohol use and problem drinking. With self-consciousness scores, life event impact rating scores and personal background information as predictors multiple regression analyses were performed in order to test direct effects of predictors. The results showed that women are more self-conscious than men and Korean college students are much more self-conscious than their American counterparts. For men low self-consciousness, greater negative life event ratings, low major satisfaction were associated with a higher degree of drinking in general and also with more problem drinking. Family history of alcohol abuse was also associated with problem drinking. For women, greater negative life event impact was associated with more drinking as well as more problem drinking. High degree of participation in club activities was also associated with a greater degree of drinking. The interaction between self-consciousness and negative life events was not obtained for either male or female drinkers. Contrary to what has been reported in studies with American subjects, the results of the present study suggest a high level of self-consciousness affect alcohol use of Korean male college students as an inhibiting factor. Future research is needed to clarify the role of self-consciousness in alcohol use and also to determine whether these findings apply to a alcohol use among adolescents and adults.
The present study was designed to investigate the psychological mechanism underlying neurotic delinquency, particularly delinquency associated with depression. Beck Depression Inventory, Scale for Escape from the Self, Latent Delinquency Questionnaire and the brief questionnaire concerning social-enconomic status, academic performance level of the students were administered to 528 students in high school students. First, factor analysis and discriminant function analysis were conducted to validate LDQ and the results demonstrated that LDQ is valid. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that the delinquent behaviors committed by depressed adolescents might be mediated by the state of "cognitive deconstruction" as defined by Baumeister. The results of analyses showed that depression was significantly related to delinquency among that high school students and that the relations between the two variables were mediated by "cognitve deconstruction" as measured by SES. When the subjects were devided into two groups(a high depression group and a low depression group on the basis of BDI score), the cognitive deconstruction variable accounted for more variance in the high depression group than in the low depression group. The results were interpreted to mean that Baumeister's theory of cognitive deconstruction is useful in understanding delinquency associated with depression. Finally, the pattern of results obtatined did not differ depending on the specific types of delinquent behavior, suggesting that the personal characteristics of delinquents are mare important than the type of delinquent behaviors displayed in understanding juvenile delinquency.
This study attempted to examine the changes of psychosocial adjustment to illness, coping behaviors, emotions and sickness impact of 110 kidney recipients in before(N=32) and following kidney transplantation operation(1 to 6 months(N=29), 6 to 12 months(N=23), 12 to 36 months(N=26) and comparing the difference between 78 posttransplant kidney recipients and 78 normal controls. It was found that there was no significant differences among four kidney recipients groups on psychosocial adjustment and coping behavior measures, except social enviornment, However on emotional and sickness impact measures, pretransplant recipient group exhibited significantly higher scores on state anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, ambulation, mobility, body carement measures than three posttransplant recipient groups. In comparing the difference between the posttransplant kidney recipients and normal control groups, on psychosocial adjustment, emotion and social impact measures, normal controls revealed higher scores on health care orientation and social enviornment than the posttransplant kidney recipients. But posttransplant kidney recipients were higher scores on psychological distress, depression, ambulation, mobility and body carement than normal controls. Finally, posttransplant kidney recipients showed more affect-oriented coping behaviors than normal controls, on the contrary normal controls were more problem-oriented coping behaviors than the posttransplant kidney recipients.
This study investigated the relationship between locus of control and social problem solving inventory on middle-aged women. Seventy three wemen(37-54 age=44, SD=3.72) completed locus of control scale and social problem solving inventory. The data were analyzed through zero-order correlation and analsis of variance. The results showed positive relation(r=.44, p<.001) between locus of control and social problem solving inventory and significant difference between internals and externals insocial problem solving. This results suggested that internals have more positive orientation and active problem solving skill than externals on social problem solving.
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate adjective scales to assess the Millon personality types in a normal population. Scale construction and validation followed a method outlined by Loevinger. Nine scales containing 178 words were developed, one for each of Millon's eight basic personalities plus a Problem Indicator scale measuring aspects of his three more severe types. Extensive reliability and validity analyses were conducted, including a factor analysis of scales. These revealed high internal consistency for each scale, high test-retest reliability over a 2-week period, and good convergent and discriminant validity based on self-report data. In factor analysis, these scales yielded dimensions which were interpreted as Affective Neuroticism, Assertiveness-Aggressiveness, Conformity, and Social Introversion-Extraversion. Research efforts focusing on Millon's theory as it applies to normals may bring a more complete understanding of the entire spectrum of personality.
Since many variables found as moderaters for stress and depression in previous studies have been inconsistent, this study was to see wheather social support, dysfunctional attitude, and coping style among moderaters moderatet or mediate for stress and depression. In addition, classified were work-related stress and interpersonal-related stress, this study was to see how independent variables including stress influence depression according to stress types. Subjects were 305 college students. The result was that social supports, dysfunctional attitude, and coping style were not found as moderators but mediators for stress and depression. However, interaction effect of social support and dysfunctioal attitude was so significant that dysfunction attitude moderated for social support and depression. On the other hand, for people with work-related stress depression explained significantly by social support and stress in sequence, and for people with interpersonal-related stress depression explained significantly by stress and social support in sequence. Stress by people with interpersonal-related stress explained more significantly depression than stress by people with work-related stress. This result can provide more precise predictors depression, and also can approach more profoundly the relationship between stress and depression. Implications and limitations of this study were also discussed.
An attempt was made to develop a life stress and coping scale for Korean junior high school students. Items, used in the preliminary scale were selected from a variety of sources, including references on life stress and coping in both English and Korean. In addition, some items were selected from a preliminary survey on life stress and coping, using an open questionnaire. Items used in the scale were selected by item analysis. Participants were 204 (preliminary survey) and 279(item analysis and reliability and validity study) junior high school students. Reliability and validity of the life stress scale composed of 8 subscales were shown to be satisfactory. Those of the coping scale which is also composed of 8 subscales were shown to be satisfactory too. Finally, construct validity of the scale and cross-situational consistency in coping strategies were discussed.
The present study was to analyse to direction of coping strategies as found in proverb and the hypothetical mediate variables. The analysis of proverb is consist of largely two stages. The first stage is the sample quantitative analysis of proverb which is selected the proverb related to the mediate variable of stress as found in proverb cyclopedia. The proverb selected was as 172 and the result divided according to mediate variable show that stressor, emotional divided according to mediate variable show that stressor, emotional coping and A-type behavior are many. That is, The proverb of a Korean see the life as stress, and it is consisted mainly the content with is emotional copied as possible as quickly. The second stage selected finally 93 proverb which is considered the higher knowledge event among 172 proverb. The present analyzed the tendency for degree of the knowledge, empathy and use of the proverb seperately. The proverb interpreted the life as the possible perspective rather than the negative perspective. The will to live with the relationship of social support is strong and the result showed the reality tendency rather than the affective tendency. The sense of sex distinction is dissolved considerably but the related behavior yet expressed. The traditional life philosophy converted from the negative affective to the positive, realistic dimension.