The purpose of this study was to test the effect of perspective-oriented social skills training program on social perspective ability and social skills in schizophrenics. Three groups participated in the experiment, consisting of a total of 43 people with a control group of 14, a behavioral social skills group of 11, and a perspective-oriented social skills group of l8. All the subjects participated in a total of ten sessions twice a week. The perspective-oriented social skills training program is a combination of behavioral social skills training and social perspective training. Training for enhancing social perspective ability was composed of three activities. Behaviors of the subjects were assessed during the pre, post, and one month follow-up periods of the programs in order to verify the effect of the perspective-oriented social skills training. Assessment were made using the social skills scale and the social appropriateness scale as rated by two judges. The conclusions of this analysis are as follows: First, schizophrenics who had completed the program of perspective-oriented social skills training significantly improved in their perspective ability and its effects were maintained for more than one month. Second, the patients with perspective-oriented social skills training advanced themselves in verbal and nonverbal skills, and the effects of the training continued during the follow-up period. Specifically there were improvements in facial expression and self-confidence of posture in terms of nonverbal skills. Additionally speech content and speed of speech, voice volume, voice intonation, amount of speech, speech understanding, appropriateness of speech in terms of verbal skills were improved. The improvements were observed to continue beyond the one month follow-up periods. In conclusion perspective-oriented social skills training increased the patient's perspective ability and developed social skills through training.
This study was designed to test the effects of narrative psychotherapy(Self-Confrontation Method) on the reduction of middle school students' suicidal ideation. Beck's Scale for Suicidal Ideation(SSI) was administered to all participants. Among the participants with high suicidal ideation, five students were randomly assigned in the narrative-therapy group and six were in the control group. After all therapy sessions, SSI was re-administered for the narrative-therapy group as well as the waiting list control group. The results showed that the narrative-therapy was effective in reducing middle school students' suicidal ideation. For the waiting list control group, the effective change of the suicidal ideation was not found. The qualitative analyses of Valuation-Affect Matrix and Validation/Invalidation were also performed. The middle school students with high suicidal ideation had mostly -O valuations and -S valuations in the first investigation but significantly changed to +O valuations, +S valuations and +HH valuations in the second investigation. Finally, the limitations and the suggestions of this study were discussed.
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the similarities and differences in various beliefs and control-related dimensions between obsessionals and worriers. Questionnaires included the symptom measures(PI, PSWQ, BDI) and the personality measures(LOT-R, OBQ, PSI, SCI). Correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed on the data of college students. It was suggested that both obsessional symptoms and worry are characterized by the common personality dimensions of threat overestimation, need for control, and lack of positive accepting mode of control. It was also suggested that inflated responsibility, intolerance of uncertainty, perfectionism, negative assertive mode of control, and over-controlling attitude are the more specific personality characteristics of obsessionals, and that problem-solving inconfidence and negative accepting mode of control are the more specific characteristics of worriers. Finally, it was discussed how each personality dimension might differentially influence the content themes of obsessional symptoms or worry.
There have been many studies focusing on suppression of intrusive thoughts, but the results were not consistent. Five variables presumably cause these various results: the types of intrusive thought, individual differences, control strategies, experimental procedures and dependent measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ironic effects of suppression on intrusive thoughts considering these variables. Worriers didn't show the ironic effects in the self-report after suppressing intrusive thought, but they reported more intrusive thought than non-worriers when they were required to concentrate on intrusive thought. In the physiological measures, skin conductance level increased and finger pulse amplitude decreased after worriers suppressed their intrusive thought. These results indicated the activation of sympathetic nervous system. After concentrating on the intrusive thought, the skin conductance level of worriers decreased. This result support the suggestions of Borkovec(1994) that worriers mask negative emotional experiences related with worry through worrying.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived criticism and depression. Relationships among perceived criticism, dyadic adjustment, and dyadic communication behaviors were examined. In Study 1, participants of the Sample 1 were 117 married women and completed measures of perceived criticism, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Follow-up data on the perceived criticism and depression were collected after 3 months. Participants in the Sample 2 consisted of 112 married men and women and completed measures of depressive symptoms, perceived criticism, dyadic adjustment, dysfunctional attitude, and self-esteem. In Study 2, sixty-three couples participated in the study. Each couple completed measures of perceived criticism, depressive symptoms and personality styles and discussed about their marital conflicts for 30-45 minutes. Their discussions were tape-recorded and analyzed on their communication behaviors using the Korean version of Conflict Rating system(Heavy et al., 1993). Results indicated that the perceived criticism scale had a satisfactory test-retest reliability(r=.60). There were significant correlations between perceived criticism and concurrent depression, and between perceived criticism and depression of three months after. Perceived criticism was signifiantly associated with dysfunctional attitude and sociotropy personality style. Results indicated that there were significant gender differences in the relationships among perceived criticism, dyadic adjustment, and dyadic communication behaviors. Clinical implications of the findings were discussed.
The purpose of this study was firstly to examine the changes in familial relationships and characteristics of psychiatric patients' families among different generations, and secondly, to compare how these differ from the normal families. A total of 702 families, 235 families of psychiatric patients and 467 normal families, were involved in this study. In order to investigate the generational differences, the families were categorized into two groups based on the subject's age, those under 39 were categorized as the younger generation group and those over or equal to 40 as the older generation group. The Family Mental Health Test was used to evaluate the familial relationships and characteristics for each subject. The results indicated that within the psychiatric family group, there were no significant differences between the generational groups regarding the following factors: conflict between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law, inner openness of the family, parental over-protectiveness toward children, and outer openness to the social network. There were, however, significant differences in emotional stability, family cohesiveness, sexual satisfaction between the couple, patriarchal characteristic of the household, and parental attachment to children. Within the normal families, all other factors were significantly different between the generational groups except two which were parental over-protectiveness and reverence for parents.
The purpose of this study was to examine the mediational effects of children's perceptions of marital conflict and parental attitude on the process of marital conflict influencing children's internalizing and externalizing problems. The sample subjects were comprised of 461 4th, 5th and 6th grade elementary school children(220 boys and 241 girls), their parents and teachers participated in the study. Path analysis was conducted to verify and explore the relations among parental reports of marital conflict, childrens' perceptions of marital conflict, and negative parental attitude, and internalizing/ externalizing problems in the child. The results were as follows. For internalizing behavior problems, there was a significant path from parental reports of marital conflict to perceived marital conflict. Both the direct path from perceived marital conflict to internalizing problems and the indirect path from perceived marital conflict through perceived parental attitude to internalizing problems were significant. The results of fitting the model for externalizing problems showed that there was significant indirect path from parental reports of marital conflict to children's externalizing problems through perceived marital conflict and perceived parental attitude. In addition, that there was a significant direct path from parental reports of marital conflict to externalizing problems. The results of path analyses showed that the gender of child didn't moderate the influences of marital conflict on children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Finally, implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
This study examined for the first time in Korea the rate of sexual abuse both for the general and clinical population. Of the 1,032 females from general population nonabused were 13.3%, noncontact abuse 53.6%, contact abuse 18.8%, attempted or completed rape 14.3 %. The psychological effects of childhood sexual abuse(CSA) as measured by the SSCS(Sungshin Selfconcept Scale) and MMPI(short form) were that the nonabused group proved to be emotionally more stable, more competent in interpersonal relationship, problem solving, more able to trust other people and showed less clinical symptoms than sexually abused group. Furthermore the nonabused group and the noncontact abuse group showed less clinical symptoms such as depression, hystery, personality disorder, schizophrenia compared to the contact group and the attempted or completed rape group. It turned out that those who experienced contact abuse or rape but experienced good familial relationship showed a higher level of self esteem and less clinical symptoms such as depression, hystery, personality disorder, schizophrenia compared to those who belong to the same group but experienced unfavorable familial relationship.
In the present studies, second and fourth grade reading disabled(RD) children were compared with normal children on word list reading task, syllables reading task, and reading span task. In study 1, 15 second grade and 15 fourth grade RD children performed poorly on word list reading task, syllables reading task, and reading span task. They spent more time in word list reading and made more errors than normal children in syllables reading. Word frequency and pronouncibility of syllables had little influence on normal children, whereas they had significant impact on the reading disability group. The two reading ability groups showed large differences for low frequency word and difficult-to-pronounce syllables. It suggests that RD children may have failed to develop automatic decoding skills and that some RD children have insufficient grapheme-phoneme correspondence knowledge. On reading span task RD children showed smaller reading span and slower sentence verification time than normal children. This result suggests that RD children have deficits in working memory. In study 2, 10 RD children were taught with a decoding skill training, and another 10 RD children trained for reading comprehension skills. After training, their performances were compared with those of 10 non-trained RD children. Two training groups' reading comprehension scores were significantly improved to the normal range. The decoding skill training group's syllable reading errors were diminished, and second grade RD children showed larger training effect than fourth grade RD children. The results of these studies suggest that both decoding skills and working memory would be the causing or maintaining factors of reading disability. Decoding skills are more influential on 2nd-grade students than 4th-grade students, and working memory is more important to 4th grade students than 2nd-grade students. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed with suggestions for the future study.
This study was intended to compare RAD children with autistic children in social cognition. Also RAD children whose LIPS are above the average compared with those whose LIPS are below the average in social cognition. A social referencing and joint attention were used to examine the social cognition. 32 children(24 RAD, 8 autistic children) ranged in CA from 13 to 57 months. Of the 24 RAD children, 11 were matched as a group with the children who had autistic on MQ. Social referencing was measured by the children's gaze frequency which is one of the Kown's measurements(1990) in SSP. Two measures(language, language+gesture) of joint attention were obtained using the Mundy, Sigman and Kasari(1990). The results from this study read as follow. 1) A social referencing in SSP(Strange Situation Procedure) was RAD children> MQ-matched autistic children. 2) The RAD children did not show any significant difference from the autistic children about the social referencing to their mothers in distressed SSP. RAD children displayed avoidant behaviors and autistic children played with the toy without any reaction toward their mothers. 3) Joint attention was RAD children> MQ-matched autistic children 4) Both social referencing and joint attention experiments were not significantly correlated with MQ within the RAD children. The result of the present study indicated that RAD show significant difference from autistic disorder about the social cognition.
The magnitude of Stroop interference has been used as an indicator of the efficiency of the inhibitory process (Dempster, 1992), an aspect of frontal lobe functions. Comalli, Wapner, & Werner (1963) found that the amount of interference begins to increase in the 65- to 80-year-old group in healthy adults. This study was conducted to examine the efficiencies of four interference indexes of Stroop test, such as Interference score, Interference ratio, CW correct response, and CW correct rate. First, the Korean-Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (K-CWST) was administered to 393 healthy older adults (age range: 50-83, mean age=66.57±6.20). After controlling the effect of education using ANCOVA, significant age effects were found in Interference score, Interference ratio, and CW correct response, not in CW correct rate. Second, 96 dementia patients and 132 healthy elderly whose age and education level were matched to the dementia patients were given the K-CWST. There were significant differences in all four indexes between two groups. Discriminant analysis, however, showed that CW correct response is the most efficient index to classify dementia patients and normals. The severity of dementia was the most highly correlated with CW correct rate (r=-.49, p<.001). These results suggest that although all four indexes are efficient measures of the inhibitory process, the best index for a specific study should be chosen according to the purpose of the study.
The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical characteristics and HABGT performance among Traumatic Brain Injured groups. Subjects were 87 Traumatic Brain Injured patients(23 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder; 22 Postconcussional Disorder; 21 Mental Disorder Not otherwise specified Due to Head Trauma; and 21 Dementia due to Head Trauma). All of them were diagnosed by DSM-IV. Psychopathology scales of HABGT were scored and clinical characteristics were investigated. In ANOVA, IQ, collision, closure difficulty, crossing difficulty, curvature difficulty, change angulation, perceptual rotation, simplification, fragmentation, overlapping difficulty, total score, reaction time showed significant difference among four groups. Discriminant analysis indicated that overall percentage of correct classification was 78%. Full scale IQ, verbal IQ, performance IQ, angulation, collision, traumatic site, hemiparesis were highly correlated with Function 1 which discriminate MNCD, PCD from DD. Limitations of the present study were discussed.
Based on the view that assessment of automatic thoughts is integral to cognitive theory and practice of psychopathology, the present studies were undertaken to develop the Speech Anxiety Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (SAATQ) and to examine its reliability and validity. In study 1, a total of 83 negative automatic thoughts were drawn from thought listings resported by social phobic clients and pilot subjects while experiencing speech anxiety, and then 32 items (SAATQ-32) were finally selected on the basis of factor analyses in twice on 415 undergraduate students' responses to the 83-item SAATQ. The SAATQ-32 had three factors labeled Guess of Audience Slight and Ridicule, Self-Reproach and Lowered Self-Efficacy, and Perfection Seeking and Question of Audience Responses', and the three-factor model was thought to be the best model in terms of goodness-of-fit and model interpretation. In study 2, all three factors had high values for the coefficient of congruence which assesses the similarity of factor pattern coefficients across two independent samples. Therefore, the three-factor model was cross-validated. On the contrary, the four-factor model wasn't cross-validated since two of four factors hadn't high congruence values. The SAATQ-32 was highly reliable in terms of internal consistency, split-half reliability, and test-retest reliability. And it had good concurrent, construct, and discriminant validities. In conclusion, the SAATQ-32 appears to be a highly reliable, valid measure to assess negative automatic thoughts associated with speech anxiety. Lastly, both the implications of the present studies and the utilization of the SAATQ-32 in the cognitive study and treatment of speech anxiety were discussed.
This study investigated Rorschach responses of associated with conduct disorder and conduct disorder combined with depression. Subjects were adolescent inpatients who visited Keyo Psychiatric Hospital because of conduct behaviors. In Rorschach responses of total conduct disorders, average frequencies of P, D, Mo, FM, m, FC, CF, H, AG & MOR responses were lower average frequencies than Exner's normative data. X-% & Lambda had lower mean values but Zd had higher mean values. Also Dd, CF, FC', C'F, AG, 3r(2)/R in the conduct disorder combined with depression group had significantly higher average frequencies than the conduct disorder group.
The purpose of this study was to provide initial information about cross-cultural performance on the Korean translation of the MMPI-A. A sample of Korean adolescents (105 boys and 142 girls) was compared with the American normative adolescent sample (805 boys and 815 girls) on scale scores and item endorsement frequencies. Mean Korean adolescent T-scores on the MMPI-A validity, clinical, and content scales all fell within one SD of the U.S. adolescent means. These T scores were much less elevated than those obtained by Korean college students using U.S. adult norms. Item endorsement differences between Korean adolescents and American adolescents were also much smaller than those between Korean college students and American college students. Gender-related item differences for Koreans were strikingly similar to those for Americans. Examination of the best discriminating items between the two cultures suggested both some degree of item inequivalence and bonafide cultural difference.
The purpose of this study is to examine that WCST is sensitive to the disturbances outside the frontal lobe. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was examined by factor analyses on the six indices of WCST in three patient groups with schizophrenia, complex partial seizures of left or right temporal lobe origin. On the schizophrenia patients group, two factors were derived from the analysis. These consisted of concept formation and perseveration, and concept maintenance and nonperseverative errors. On the left temporal lobe patients group, one factor that was named concept formation and perseveration was derived from the analysis. On the right temporal lobe patients group, two factors were derived from the analysis, which were concept formation and perseveration, and concept maintenance. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed with 5 indices of WCST as the dependent variables. Attention, IQ and visual immediate memory were influential variables of 5 indices of WCST in three patient groups. The results of this study are consistent with Hermann's neural noise hypothesis concerning poorer performance in patients with epileptic foci in the temporal lobe. The results also suggest that WCST is multifactorial and complex tests.
A sample of 182 first onset schizophrenics were studied by means of the PANSS(Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale). A review of the previous factor analysis suggest that schizophrenic symptoms cannot be appropriately classified into positive and negative syndromes. Using confirmatory factor analyses, we then statistically compared four theoretically derived models(1, 2, 3, 4 factor model) of the structure of schizophrenic symptoms. Our results fit better with Liddle's model of three syndrome(psycho-motor poverty, disorganization, reality distortion). It is argued that the positive-negative dichotomy appears to be an oversimplification and suggested that either more factors or different symptoms are required to account well for the latent structure using exploratory factor analyses included general psychopathology scale.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of Maternal Behavior Rating Scale(MBRS) and Child Behavior Rating Scale(CBRS) by Mahoney(1999). The subjects of this study consisted of 30 parent-child dyad(17 normal children and 13 developmental disordered). Data were collected by videotapeing the mother and child while playing together at home. Two raters scored independently mother and child interaction by each of the items of MBRS & CBRS on a 5-point Likert scale. The results were as follows. First, MBRS and CBRS had sufficient internal reliability. Second, factor analytic study of MBRS and CBRS indicated that two factor model accounted best for the data. Third, while interacting with children, mother of normal children were more responsive than mother of developmental disordered children. And normal children were more active than developmental disordered children. This results supported reliability, validity and clinical utility of MBRS and CBRS.