The aims of this study were to develop a group cognitive therapy (GCT) including cognitive restructuring training for dysfunctional beliefs as well as negative automatic thoughts and to investigate the treatment effect and mechanism of the GCT for social phobia. 39 undergraduates diagnosed as social phobia were randomly assigned o one of the three conditions, namely GCT, group behavior therapy (GBT), and waiting-list (WL) control, 13 sociall phobics per condition. The numbers of clients who completed the assessment at termination period were 10 in GCT, 9 in GBT, and 13 in WL. The results are as follows: 1) GCT reduced both negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional beliefs prominently, and 2) particularly, change in negative automatic thoughts in the middle phase and change in all types of dysfunctional beliefs in the terminal phase were significant in GCT condition, whereas both of them were not in GBT condition. 3) GCT alleviated social phobic symptoms effectively, and the treatment effect was maintained at 3-month follow-up. Therefore, these findings support the importance of cognitive restructuring for dysfunctional beliefs as well as negative automatic thoughts in clients' efforts to overcome their social fears. Finally, implications of the results for cognitive theory and cognitive-behavioral therapy for social phobia were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative marital counseling group program for premarital and newly-wed couple and to evaluate the effectiveness of this program. The main components of the program were helping couples accept the spouse as he/she is, develop communication and problem solving skills, understand sex life better and cope with anger. Participants were thirteen premarital and early-wed couples recruited from the community through the church. They attended eight weekly 120-min-sessions of cognitive-behavioral premarital counseling program. Non-participant group consisted of thirteen couples whose demographic characteristics were very similar to participant group. Both group were asked to fill out the questionnaires which included measures of couple satisfaction(the Modified Korean Marital Satisfaction Inventory K-MSI by Kwon & Chae, 1998, the Korean version of DAS by Spanier, 1976), intimacy(the adapted Korean version of Relationship Issue Questionnaire by Christensen & Sullway, 1984), depression(the Korean version of CES-D by Roth & Locke, 1973) before and after the program. Follow-up assessment was performed 6 months after the program was completed. Results indicated that there were no significant differences for the counseling group between pre-counseling and post-counseling assessment. Husbands of non-participant group demonstrated significantly better marital adjustment and intimacy and less dissatisfaction of affective communication and depression just after marriage. Wives of non-participant group showed significantly less dissatisfaction of problem-solving communication. However, these effects were washed out after six months.
This study is to investigate the outcome of the cognitive-behavioral rehabilitation programs for chronic schizophrenics, and supply basic data for the cognitive-behavioral rehabilitation program. The subjects were 16 patients (4 male and 12 female patients), at the Rehabilitation Center in Yongin Mental Hospital. Their diagnoses were chronic schizophrenia according to DSM-IV. The cognitive-behavioral rehabilitation program 1 was administered to 10 patients (male: 2, female: 8) from 1998. 9. 14. to 1999. 1. 20; the cognitive-behavioral rehabilitation program 2 was administered to 6 patients(male: 2, female: 4) from 1999. 3. 17 to 7. 21. Statistical analysis of the results revealed that there was no significant change in the scores on the 5 subscales of KWIS (arithmetic, similarity, digit span, digit symbol, and block design), before and after the cognitive behavioral rehabilitation program 1, while there was a significant change in the scores on the 4 WCST subscales. Specifically, the total number of errors, error % non-perseverative error % were significantly reduced. And following the cognitive-behavioral rehabilitation program 2, only the communication process scores were significantly improved. The attention and perceptual accuracy and communication ability of chronic scizophrenics were slightly improved following the program. In the future, more internally and externally valid and reliable cognitive-behavioral rebilitation program should be developed and the selection and research of outcome measures are needed.
The purpose of this study is to investigate what influences on the performance anxiety, assuming perfectionism as an individual vulnerability factor and manipulating the direction of attention as a triggering factor. Perfectionists showed a higher degree of anxiety than non-perfectionists, and the group with self-focused attention showed a higher anxiety than the group with external-focused attention. But when the pre-treatment performance anxiety was controlled, the performance anxiety did not show a statistically significant difference between the perfectionists and non-perfectionists groups. The perfectionists showed a statistically different performance anxiety according to the direction of attention, while the non-perfectionists did not. And the group with both perfectionism and self-focused attention showed the highest degree of performance anxiety than any other groups. Perfectionists were much more interfered cognitively during task performances than non-perfectionists. The direction of attention showed a statistically marginal significance. That is, the group with self-focused attention were much more interfered cognitively during task performances than the group with external-focused attention. In addition, the group with self-focused attention made a worse task performance on the digit symbol test, than the group with external-focused attention. In conclusion, these results suggest that both perfectionism and self-focused attention are important factors in performance anxiety.
This study examined the personality-event congruency hypotheses or depression. According to the hypotheses, the sociotropy and autonomy serve as vulnerability factors to dysphoria in the presence of life stress that matches the theme of the vulnerability. Four hundred ninety nine college students responded to the Korean version of PSI-II, Life Event Questionnaire, and HDS. The results of hierarchial multiple regression analyses partially supported the congruency hypotheses. That is, strong support for the predicted interaction was obtained in autonomy dimension. But sociotropy vulnerability yielded no significant interactions with the stress of interpersonal events. The results are discussed in the context of limitations, clinical implications and recommendations for further research.
This study was investigated Intelligence impairment and executive functioning impairment in patients with schizophrenia using the K-WAIS and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. 46 patients with schizophrenia was divided into positive type(N=12), negative type(N=18) and mixed type(N=16) on the basis of PANSS scale. The results showed that the three groups differed significantly in premorbid IQ estimated from demographic variables, but not in premorbid IQ estimated from vocabulary. In the subcategories of WCST, total number of errors, number of categories completed and perseverative errors except for total number correct showed significant group differences. In the K-WAIS, comprehensive and digit symbols showed significant differences between the negative type and the mixed type. In conclusion, the negative type schizophrenics showed the more intelligence and executive functioning impairments than the mixed type schizophrenics.
The affective primacy hypothesis had been replicated in experiment 1. The transference of priming effect caused by emotional face pictures had been found in rating tasks unrelated to priming stimuli. Experiment 2 investigated how different the conscious priming effects of schizophrenics are from those of normal subjects. The results showed that the assimilation effect had been found at the condition of supraliminal priming only in case of schizophrenics. Finally, the implication of these results onto emotional processing had been discussed.
This study was to investigate how much the executive function, measured by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, symptoms, measured by Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale(BASIS-32), and intelligence, equivalent to general adaptation ability, could predict the work performance. The subject were 40 chronic schizophrenics(male: 18, female:22). To identify the variables predicting work function, multiple regression analysis was used, and dependent variable was work function, and independent variables were Wisconsin Card Sorting Test(WCST) score, symptom score, and intelligence. As the result of the multiple regression analysis, 'trials to complete 1st category' of WCST predicted significantly 'work motivation', 'task orientation' of work function. The 'Psychosis' of symptom scale predicted 'task orientation', 'Work Conformance', 'impulsive & Addictive Behavior' of symptom scale predicted the 'social skill' of work function, and 'daily living and role functioning skill' predicted 'personal presentation' work function. So executive function and symptom reduction can influence positively the work function of the patients. Therefore, cognitive rehabilitatory approach, enhancing the executive function, is needed for improving the work motivation and task orientation of work function. In addition, symptom reductions are thought to enhance the compliance, social skill, expression skill of workplace, and finally entire work function level.
Aiming at identifying the characteristics of the Rorschach responses demonstrated by a group of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD) patients, this study compared them with the Rorschach responses shown by a group of schizophrenia to shed lights on the degree and characteristics of cognitive impairment. The group of PTSD consisted of 23 female patients diagnosed with PTSD from the violence of their spouses while the group of schizophrenia consisted of corresponding 28 females. Rorschach protocols were administered, scored and analysed under adherence to the Exner Comprehensive System(1993). The result of the analysis shows that, in case of the PTSD group, X+% is recorded 56%, and F+% is 47%, which falls short of the result from the schizophrenic groups. Those figures indicate that the PTSD group exhibits impaired reality-tasting abilities. It also turned out that they failed to effectively and economically utilize the resources such as low Lamda, more W response then D, and low Zd. Also high es and Adj es are recorded along with higher-than-normal DEPI and S-Con. The result from t-test compared with the schizophrenic group showed the differences in several variables such as W, Lamda, es, Adj es, Fm, C', X+%, AG, Sum6SC. Having impaired reality-tasting ability, the PTSD groups are related to the failure to control emotional experiences and to keep proper distance from stimulus, while the schizophrenic groups suffer from the distortion in reality perception and problems of cognitive processing. And finally, the limitations and suggestions of future research have been discussed.
The purpose of the present study was to empirically examine the reliability and factor structure of the Korean version of the PSI-II which was developed to assess an individual's vulnerability to depression. This study investigated further the relationship between the factors of the scale and depression. Five hundred forty six college students responded to the PSI, SDS, and HDS. The Korean version of PSI-II was found to have relatively high internal consistency and the test-retest reliability. Factor analyses on the items of the sociotropy and autonomy constructs revealed that both constructs have two factors. The results of multiple regression analyses indicated that the two independent variables created on the basis of the composite scores on the sociotropy and autonomy constructs accounted for a significant amount of variance in predicting depression. The results are discussed in the context of vulnerability to depression, clinical implication and recommendations for further research.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between self-consciousness and psychological distress in clinical samples. Sixty-eight outpatients with neurotic symptoms completed Self-consciousness Scale and MMPI. The Private self-consciousness subscale showed no significant correlations with MMPI subscales except Hy, which correlated positively. On the other hand, Public self-consciousness subscale showed strong negative correlations with L, K, and positive correlation with F, D, Pa, Sc, Si. This result suggested that those who were high in public self-consciousness experienced more psychological distress, such as depression and alienation, and complained their distress to others more. The present study also replicated previous findings of the two-factor structure of private self-consciousness. In this study, the first factor was interpreted to represent general reflectiveness of self, and had negative correlation tendency with MMPI clinical subscale. The second factor was interpreted as the awareness of self-image and had minor correlation with Hs, Hy. But this factor was different from previous findings in the content. On the basis of these findings, clinical implications and cultural differences of self-consciousness were discussed.
The purpose of present study was to explore the characteristics of DAP performance between chronic patients with schizophrenia and patients with traumatic brain injury. The subjects were 52 chronic patients with schizophrenia and 41 patients with traumatic brain injury who were hospitalized in or visited as outpatients the Yonsei Univ. Hospital during the period from the March, 1998 to October, 1999. The index of assessing the drawing were the size, pressure of line, sexual elaboration, sexual differentiation, placement, posture, continuity of line, sequence, transparency, omission(22 subvariables ; ear, mouth, body, shoulder, arm, leg, hand, finger, foot, button, pocket, necktie, etc.). And the data were analized using the method of t-test and frequency analysis. The results were as follows. 1) Siginificant difference was found between the two groups in size, pressure, sexual elaboration, sexual differentiation. 2) Significant difference was found between the two groups in the continuity of line, transparency, omission. And the availablity of DAP, implication and limitations of this study were discussed.
This study was to investigate the intelligence and memory disturbances of patients with traumatic brain injury. The subject groups consisted of following: the patients with traumatic brain injury with focal lesion in brain imaging study(n=20); the patients with traumatic brain injury without focal lesion(n=20); and the patients with neurotic disorders(n=20). The K-WAIS and the WMS was administered and scored by manual and estimated premorbid intelligence based on Barona Index and vocabulary subscale of K-WAIS. The following results could be obtained. First, there were significant differences between the premorbid IQ by Barona Index and the current IQ in traumatic brain injured groups. Second, there were significant differences between the premorbid IQ by vocabulary subscale and the current IQ in non-focal lesion group and neurotic group. Third, there was no significant difference in VIQ-PIQ between groups. Fourth, there were significant differences in the all subscales except for orientation and MQ of the WMS between brain injured groups and neurotic group. Fifth, there were significant differences in FSIQ-MQ between brain injured groups and neurotic group. Finally, the clinical implication and limitation of this study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was identify cognitive characteristics of traumatic brain injured group(n=20) and schizophrenic group(n=20) in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test(WCST). Their performances of the WCST were compared with normal control group(n=20). Administered WCST was revised and expanded in 16 subcategories by Heaton et al. (1993). The results of the study were as follows. First, there were significant differences between traumatic brain injured group and normal control group in performances of percent errors, percent perseverative errors, percent conceptual level responses, number of categories completed, and learning to learn. Second, there were significant differences between schizophrenic group and normal control group in performances of percent errors, percent perseverative errors, percent nonperseverative errors, percent conceptual level responses, and number of categories completed. Third, there were significant differences between traumatic brain injured group and schizophrenic group in performances of percent nonperseverative errors, percent conceptual level responses, and learning to learn. Finally, meanings, limitations and suggestions of the present study were discussed.
The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised(WMS-R) is used routinely as a presurgical assessment of memory for patients considering elective resection of the temporal lobe and /or hippocampus for the relief of intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. This research investigated the psychometric properties of the WMS-R in a population of patients with intractable epilepsy. The sample consisted of 162 patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy who underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination as a routine part of their investigation. To identify the psychometric properties of WMS-R was conducted the factor analyses. At first, the factor analysis was conducted on the 8 immediate recall subtests to avoid the effect of the correlation between immediate and delayed recall trials of the same material. Second, the factor analysis was conducted on 8 immediate and 4 delayed subtests. Additional analyses included VIQ and PIQ from KWIS to examine the relation between memory and intelligence. And then the factor analysis conducted to 80 patients with a clear temporal lobe epilepsy to examine if the WMS-R lateralizes the visual memory and verbal memory. Initial analyses of immediate recall subtests indicated two-factor solution -general memory factor, attention/concentration factor- similar with previous results. Inclusion in the analysis of delayed recall subtests revealed three-factor solution with factors interpreted as cuedrecall and learning, attention/concentration, verbal memory. The result of factor analysis conducted to temporal lobe epilepsy supported the interpretation of three factors-visual memory, attention/concentration, verbal memory. However, the subtests consisting of visual memory factor are not pure measure of visual memory. Therefore, it is problematic to be interpreted as visual memory factor like previous research. It is concluded that the WMS-R provides a useful estimate of overall memory functioning, but is not effective to describe the nature of the pattern of memory deficits.
The hypervigilance model states chronic pain patients are hypervigilant to somatic distress signals, in particular pain sensations. So chronic pain patients would have lower pain threshold to aversive stimuli and increased bias to level stimulation as painful. The opposite prediction could be made from an adaptation level model, which emphasizes the context in which a stimulus is judged. It can be logically extended to predict that chronic pain patients would demonstrate higher pain threshold and would be less likely to label a pain stimulus as painful because of their greater experiences with painful sensations. So this study tested the hypothesis that the pressure pain threshold(PPT) differ between patients with chronic pain and healthy normal controls. Results showed that chronic pain patients(n=42) had higher PPT in middle phalanx and tibia than controls(n=37). And gender difference was found in both groups. The result of this study suggests the adaptation model of pain perceptions in bone area in case of chronic pain patients. And the implication of these findings are discussed.
The Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) is a generative naming test that consists of the category (semantic) fluency test and letter (phonemic) fluency test. It has been reported that the COWAT is very sensitive to the frontal lobe damage (Vilkki & Holst, 1994). Recently, the COWAT has been widely used in the elderly population for differentiating the demented elderly from healthy ones in Korea as well as in western countries. The purpose of this study is to get a normative data of the Korean version of COWAT in the elderly. The Korean version of COWAT including the categories of "animal" and "supermarket list" and the letters of "ㄱ, ㅇ, ㅅ," was administered to 451 healthy elderly ranging in age from 55 to 80. The effects of age, educational level, and sex were found in the performance of the category fluency test, whereas age and education level, but not sex, were found to be significant factors affecting the performance of the letter fluency test. The subjects committed very few perseveration and intrusion errors in both tests. The norms broken down by age, education level, and sex for each test were presented.