It was known that self-concept has close relationship with psychological problems, but there was no study which compared social anxiety with depression in self-concepts. This study explored the similarities and differences between social anxiety and depression in multifacetedness and multidimensionality of self-concept. The Social Avoidance and Distress Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Multiphasic Self-Concept Inventory were administered to 302 university students, and these data were analyzed with correlation and multiple regression analyses, and analysis of variance. Social anxiety and depression had some differences as well as common characteristics in sub-categories and evaluative dimensions of self-concept. Social anxiety and depression were in part different from each other in the factors which predicted them significantly. The group high in both social anxiety and depression (i.e., mixed) was more negative than all the other groups in most of sub-categories and evaluative dimensions of self-concept, and the socially anxious or depressive groups were more negative than the normal comparison group in most of factors. Finally, suggestions for future research as well as implications and limitations of the present study were discussed.
The present studies tested the validity of a linear mediation model in explaining somatization. The linear mediation model is a comprehensive model that includes the personality variables, such as negative affectivity and alexithymia, and cognitive processes, such as somato-sensory amplification and somatic attribution. The assumption was that negative affectivity and alexithymia as vulnerability variables might predict somatic symptoms mainly through the mediation of cognitive variables such as somato-sensory amplification and somatic attribution. The linear mediation model and two alternative models were tested in 124 psychiatric patients and 200 undergraduates. The results of structural equation analyses showed that the linear mediation model fitted the data very well in both groups, while the simple effect model didn't. The full model didn't fitted the data of psychiatric patients, but fitted that of undergraduates. In conclusion, the linear mediation model of somatization was supported in two groups, but the full model also may be applied to undergraduates. Finally, these results with those of sex difference suggest that follow up studies are needed.
This study examined the characterisitcs of social self-processing in social phobics. The hypothesis was that social phobics use the interoceptive information produced by self-focus to construct an impression of themselves that they assume reflects what other people actually observe. 15 social phobics and 15 non-social phobics were asked to present a brief, impromptu speech while being videotaped. After the speech, they rated how anxious they felt, how anxious they thought they appeared, and observers rated how anxious they appeared via video. The results showed that social phobics' ratings of how anxious they felt and how anxious they thought they appeared did not differ while these two ratings were higher than observers' ratings. On the other hand, non-social phobics' ratings and observers' ratings did not differ significantly. These results suggest that social phobics construct social impression of themselves using the interoceptive information, thereby their social impressions are distorted and different from what other people observe. Finally, the limitations of this study and suggestoins for the future study were discussed.
The present study was conducted to investigate characteristics of thought disorder in inpatients with schizophrenia and manic disorder. Thought disorder shown in Rorschach in 25 inpatients with manic disorder and 26 inpatients with schizophrenia was examined using the Thought Disorder Index(TDI) and Schizophrenia Index(SCZI). Thought disorder was analized both qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, TD-R score of 20 was proposed as cutoff score for inpatients with schizophrenia. Results indicated inpatients with schizophrenia produced greater TD-R scores than inpatients with manic disorder. However, there is a limit in making diagnosis on the basis of quantitative analysis alone as indicated by the low accuracy rate. Thus, qualitative differences of two groups on thought disorder were investigated through categorical analysis. Inpatients with schizophrenia produced significantly more responses in 'disorganization' and 'unconventioanl verbalization' categorie, while inpatients with manic disorder produced more responses in 'loosening of association' category, although not statistically significant. These findings were discussed in terms of the contribution and limitation of thought disorder in making diagnosis of mania and schizophrenia.
The purpose of the present study was to explore the psychological characteristics of psychiatric inpatients with battered experience from family under the age of 16. Subjects were 24 inpatients(13 males, 11 females) at the Neuropsychiatric Department of Hanyang University Hospital who were examined with psychological test battery consisting of Wechsler Intelligence Scale, MMPI(Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory), and Rorschach test. Results demonstrated that there was no difference in the subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale and the MMPI between subjects with battered experience and subjects without it. Of the specific MMPI content scales, subjects with battered experience showed higher scores on the antisocial personality disorder, bizarre thoughts, family conflicts, and alcoholic problems and lower scores on the ego strength. They also showed lower score on Egocentricity Index on the Rorschach test. Furthermore, subjects with battered experience exhibited higher frequency in Anatomy content(An) and Anatomy+Xray content(An+Xy) and lower frequency in Landscape content(Ls) and Form Dimension response(FD). It could be concluded that patients with battered experience from family under the age of 16 have low self-esteem, feelings of inadequacy and deficit in interpersonal skills.
The writing test of the basic achievement test to screen learning disorder was developed in this study. The test was composed to hearing a word and a sentence which contained that word and writing that word. 65 items of 120 preliminary items were selected considered item discriminant and item difficulty. The 2 clinical psychologists selected 40 items of 65 items considering face validity and similar words. The coefficient of internal consistency and reliability were .94 and .88. Also, the item discriminant and item difficulty of the test were adequate, and concurrent validity were high. Finally, clinical implication and limitation of the test were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to standardize the Standard Progressive Matrices Test for deaf and hard of hearing people in Korea. The booklet form of the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) was administered to 219 high school students (114 men, 105 women) with the hearing impaired. Among them, 52 volunteers were also tested with the Performance Scale of the KWIS. The mean of the SPM scores was 47.78 (SD=7.78). The estimate of the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was .89. The construct validity of the SPM was investigated by factor-analyzing the 5 set scores. A single factor that explained 62.08% of the variance was extracted from the 5 sets. A significant correlation was found between the SPM and the Performance Scale IQ, suggesting that the SPM is a valid measure of nonverbal intelligence. According to the item analysis based on the item response theory, it was found that the "item discrimination" parameter of the SPM was in the moderate range and the average "guessing" parameter was in the low range, although the "item difficulty" was very low. In sum, the present results indicate that the SPM is a reliable and valid measure of nonverbal intelligence for deaf and hard of hearing people in Korea.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of subject-examiner seating and sex difference on the Rorschach responses. The subjects were undergraduate students. There were six examiners(3 males and 3 females) and each examiner administered Rorschach to two male and two female subjects under the side by side seating condition and face-to-face seating condition. Thus each examiner tested 8 subjects. The results were as follows. First of all, the main effect of the seating position was shown on only AG variable among the structural summary variables of the Rorschach. When compared with the face-to-face seating position, the side-by-side seating position produced the smaller number of AG response. Second, the frequency of pure human related response(H+Hd) on Card I was smaller in the side-by-side seating than in the face-to-face seating. Furthermore, in the case of face-to-face seating, reporting of pure human related response(H+Hd) on Card I increased the probability of delivering pure human related responses(H+Hd) on the other following cards. Consequently, it is suggested that there was a probability of the subjects being affected by cues from the examiner in the face-to-face seating unlike in the side-by-side seating. Also, the face-to-face seating position seems to make subjects have a responseset different from that of the side-by-side seating.
This study was conducted to examine the characteristics of depression in dementia patients. First, the severity of depression in dementia patients was compared with that in normal elderly. Second, the characteristics of depression were compared between Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type(DAT) and Vascular Dementia(VaD). The subjects were 67 dementia patients (36 DAT and 31 VaD) and 60 normal elderly whose age, sex, and education level were matched with the dementia patients. The Geriatric Depression Scale(GDS) was used as a depression measure. The results showed that dementia patients were more depressive than normal elderly(t(125) = 7.32, p<.01). They were more depressed in all four factors (i.e., "general depressive mood", "concern and anxiety", "unhappiness" and "decline in cognitive functions and social activities") that were extracted from the factor analysis of the GDS. Among dementia patients, VaD were more depressive than DAT(t(65) = -2.07, p<.05). VaD showed more depressive tendency in "general depressive mood" and "concern and anxiety" factors of GDS than DAT.
The purpose of the present study was 1) to evaluate the neuropsychological function of mild Alzheimer`s disease (mild AD) group and major depressive disorder(DEP) group compared with normal control(NC) group and 2) to investigate the accuracy of neuropsychological tests in differentiation of each group. The neuropsychological tests were administered to 3 groups(mild AD; 14, DEP: 14, NC: 14), all matched for age, sex, education level. Mild AD group performed significantly worse than NC in most indices of Korean Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (K-HVLT), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test(Rey CFT), Korean version-Boston Naming Test(K-BNT) and Word Fluency Test. They showed more deficits in K-HVLT, K-BNT and Rey CFT false positive errors than DEP group. DEP group performed worse than NC in most testing variables but not significant except for Rey CFT immediate recall score. Discriminant analysis indicated that overall percentage correct classification was 85.71%. K-BNT, K-HVLT(trial 1, 2) and Rey CFT copy scores were highly correlated with Function 1 which discriminate mild AD group from other groups. Rey CFT immediate recall, K-HVLT delayed recall and Digit Span Test scores were effective discriminants for the DEP group.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between clinical characteristics and KEDI-WISC response in children with traumatic brain injury. Subjects were 67(boy; 44, girl 23) patients with Mental Disorder Due to Head Trauma(ages 5 to 15). In clinical characteristics, site, duration of loss of consciousness, duration of post-traumatic amnesia, post-traumatic epilepsy, hemiparesis, chief problem, sensory alterations were included. The results were as followed. First, factor analysis on KEDI-WISC 12 subscales produced two factors: 'attention and perceputal organization', 'verbal comprehension'. Second, cluster analysis using factor scores showed demented level of cognitive function in cluster I and low level of judgement and average level of cognitive function in cluster 2. Finally, logistic regression analysis indicated that duration of loss of consciousness among clinical characteristics predicted the risk of cluster 1. The limitations of this study and the suggestions for future research were discussed.
Over the past two decades, many indices for evaluating the fit of structural equation models have been developed. The existence of many indices, however, causes confusion among researchers about which indices to use to evaluate their models and about which indices to report. In the present study, two criteria for selecting appropriate indices were proposed and several popular indices were evaluated in terms of the criteria. Based on the evaluation, NNFI, CFI, and RMSEA were recommended. Finally, the advantages and disadvatages of RMSEA were discussed in detail because this index has only recently been recognized as one of the most informative indices and thus it is not widely known and used.