Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by diverse functional impairments as well as recurrent mood fluctuations. Based on the behavioral activation system (BAS) model of BD, we explored the possibility that heightened BAS sensitivity, vulnerability for BD within the model, can also be related to functional indices associated with BD. Among a large undergraduate sample (N=531), we screened a BD high-risk group (n=64) via the Hypomanic Personality Scale and examined the relationship between BAS sensitivity, problematic drinking, and academic maladaptation with impulsivity as a moderator. The results showed that high BAS sensitivity, when combined with high impulsivity, could impair academic achievement in the high-risk group. On the contrary, the main effect of impulsivity was only significant in predicting problematic drinking. The present study suggests that BAS sensitivity is related to not only symptomatic but also functional aspects of BD. Future research should continue to investigate if BAS sensitivity may account for both negative and positive features of adaptation associated with BD.
The purpose of this study is twofold: One, to investigate the effects of loneliness on the addiction to Social Network Sites (SNS), and two, to evaluate the moderating effect of interpersonal relations orientation on the relationship between loneliness and SNS addiction. We also examined whether the effect differed between female and male college students. The SNS addiction questionnaire, UCLA Loneliness scale, and Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B) scale were conducted on 295 college students (age M=23.05, SD=2.69; male=143, female=152) via an online survey. Based on this data, the effect of loneliness on SNS addiction and the moderating effect of interpersonal relations orientation were analyzed. The result showed that loneliness and interpersonal relations orientation had a significantly positive association with SNS addiction in both male and female students. However, the effect of loneliness on SNS addiction was stronger in males than in females, and the moderating effect of interpersonal relations orientation on the relationship between loneliness and SNS addiction was significant only in female students. The effect of loneliness on SNS addiction was stronger in female SNS users with higher interpersonal relations orientation. These results suggest that lonely people with higher interpersonal relations orientation might be more vulnerable to SNS addiction. Furthermore, the gender difference in this study suggests that different mechanisms may underlie SNS addiction in females and males. Therefore, the relationship between loneliness and interpersonal relations orientation, as well as gender difference, should be considered in efforts to minimize SNS addiction.
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptual priming effect using the analogue trauma paradigm. This study also aimed to determine whether anxiety responses in individuals experiencing analogue trauma were triggered by stimuli specific to trauma or general threats. A total of 103 university students with a score of 10 or lower on the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and a score of 23 or lower on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were included. Participants viewed a distressing film as an analogue for a traumatic event, after which they completed a perceptual identification task using words or pictures. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: First, the response rates were significantly faster to traumarelated stimuli than to general threat stimuli. Second, unlike the words-task, the response rates were significantly faster to trauma-related stimuli than to general threat stimuli in the pictures-task. To sum up, this study demonstrated that trauma survivors showed perceptual priming of traumatic stimuli when exposed to perceptual cues related to trauma. The present findings suggest that interventions for individuals who experience posttraumatic stress symptoms should be aimed at reconstructing perceptual information about trauma-related stimuli. Finally, the limitations of this study were discussed along with suggestions for further research.
The current study examined the longitudinal relationship between decentering and experiential avoidance as reference in ACT and MBCT. Furthermore, this study verified the longitudinal mediation to identify the effect of decentering and experiential avoidance on depression. A total of 195 participants (male=67, female=125, nonresponse=3) completed self-report questionnaires three times within an 8-week interval. To test the hypothesis, autoregressive cross-lagged models were applied to the data. According to the results, decentering and experiential avoidance showed recursive relationship. Although decentering does not have direct effect on depression, experiential avoidance showed significant mediating effects on the relationship between decentering and depression. The implications and limitations of this study were discussed along with suggestions for further research.
The purpose of this study was to examine the integrative effects of maladaptive perfectionism, negative affect, and negative urgency on bulimic symptoms in young women. Although negative affect and personality variables, such as maladaptive perfectionism and negative urgency have been studied as risk factors for bulimic symptoms, relatively little is known about underlying mechanisms by which these factors may conjointly lead to the development of bulimic symptoms. The current study therefore examined an integrative model of bulimic symptoms, including both personality and affect variables simultaneously. Specifically, maladaptive perfectionism was hypothesized as an antecedent of negative affect, and negative urgency was hypothesized as a mediator or a moderator between negative affect and bulimic symptoms. A total of 174 female college students completed a series of self-report inventories assessing maladaptive perfectionism, negative affect, negative urgency, and bulimic symptoms. The results indicated that negative affect and negative urgency sequentially mediated the effect of maladaptive perfectionism on bulimic symptoms. Additionally, negative urgency mediated the effect of maladaptive perfectionism on bulimic symptoms without its association with negative affect, and the direct effect of maladaptive perfectionism on bulimic symptoms was also significant. Based on these findings, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
This study examined the effects of Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT; Mennin & Fresco, 2009) in individuals with co-occurring generalized anxiety and depression symptoms. ERT is designed to treat emotion regulation difficulties as commonly seen in Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) by sequentially focusing on motivation, regulation, and contextual learning mechanisms. We used a group version of ERT that consisted of 9 sessions with three stages: emotional and motivational awareness training, emotional regulation skills training, and experiential exposure. A total of 33 undergraduates with co-occurring symptoms of GAD and MDD were assigned to either the ERT or control group. Selfreport questionnaires for outcome variables (worry, general distress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms) and program-related process variables (awareness and emotional regulation strategies) were assessed at pre-, post- and 4-week-after treatment. Results showed that the ERT group, as compared to the control group, showed a significant symptom reduction in all outcome variables, and this effect was maintained at the follow-up period. Moreover, the ERT group showed significant changes in the process variables that were maintained until the follow-up, when compared with the control group. These results suggest that an intervention that systematically addresses emotion dysregulation may be effective for those with comorbid anxiety and depression. Based on these findings, implications and limitations of this study are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of positive psychology intervention (PPI) on psychological health and post-traumatic growth in trauma-exposed university students. The PPI examined here was a structured 8-session group program aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, and positive cognitions. The PPI program consisted of 8 weekly sessions. Thirty participants in the PPI group completed the measures of resilience, posttraumatic growth, mental well-being, meaning in life, post-traumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic negative cognitions at pre-intervention, after the fourth session, at post-intervention, and 1 month after the intervention; conversely, 33 participants in the non-treatment control group completed the same assessment instruments three times (at pre-intervention, after the fourth session, and at post-intervention). Compared to the participants in the non-treatment control group, those in the PPI group showed significant improvements in resilience, posttraumatic growth, mental well-being and meaning in life, as well as reductions in depressive symptoms and post-traumatic negative cognitions. These effects of PPI were maintained at 1-month follow-up. However, a decrease in post-traumatic stress symptoms was not significantly different between the two groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that PPI may be efficacious in enhancing resilience, post-traumatic growth, and positive mental health, as well as ameliorating depressive symptoms in trauma-exposed university students. Finally, implications of this study and directions for future research based on its limitations were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Personality Rating Scale for Children-Sign Language version (KPRCSL), and to examine reliability and validity of the assessment tool. In order to examine reliability and validity on the KPRCSL, deaf who have 3–17 years child (n=115) performed KPRC-SL and test-retest was carried out for 23 deaf persons. Bilinguals in Korean and Korean sign language (n=18) filled out KPRC-SL and original KPRC to verify similarity between both assessment tools. In order to examine inter-rater agreement, children-report form of KPRC had been carried out on child of deaf participants (n=40) and compared with their parent’s report. The results showed that KPRC-SL had acceptable levels of internal consistency (α=.50-.85) and test-retest reliability (r=.47-.89). According to the correlation between subscale of KPRC-SL, the correlation were higher with the subscale measuring the similar construct rather than others. KPRC-SL and original KPRC had significant correlation between corresponding scales (r=.41-.97). Inter-rater agreement were similar with previous studies (M=.23). These results support that KPRC-SL is reliable and valid assessment and it can be useful for detecting mental health problems of CODA.
This study analyzed the previous empirical studies regarding the interventions that promote resilience after disasters based on a systematic review. A literature search, in both Korean and English languages, was conducted using internet-based electronic databases. The Cochrane acronym, PICOT, was used to ensure that all key components were determined prior to the review. PICOT was determined by the following: Participants, adults with prior disaster experience; intervention, any types of intervention, treatment, or therapy; comparison, intervention sectors, intervention steps, and intervention fields; outcomes, resilience; and type of studies, empirical research. Fourteen studies were selected, from a total of 2170 records. Analyses of general characteristics and methodological rigor of each study were conducted. Nine principles promoting resilience (collaboration, empowerment, professional values, social justice, local based, preparedness, development, service integration, and sustainable service) were discovered by using the narrative synthesis from the selected literature. The adaptation of the results to Korean post-disaster situations, as well as the limitations of this study and further research suggestions was discussed.
The present study aimed to investigate the clinical validity of the Korean version of Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL) which was developed to examine the diverse aspects of geriatric behavior problems. A total of 244 subjects, both patients who were older than 60 years and their caregivers, were included. The results of partial correlation between OABCL and Korean- Mini Mental State (K-MMSE), Seoul-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (S-IADL), K-Clinical Dementia Rating (KCDR), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Caregiver-Administered NPI (CGA-NPI) showed that most of the inventories significantly correlated when age and the number of education years attained were statistically controlled. In particular, functional impairment, anxious/depressed scales of empirically base problem scales, and dementia, depressive problems of DSMoriented scales were highly correlated with others. Additionally, ANCOVA revealed that worries, somatic complaints, functional impairment of empirically base problem scales, and somatic problems of DSM-oriented scales were significantly different between those with dementia (n=59) and those with depressive disorder (n=48). The implications for clinical application and directions for future research were also discussed.