Binge eating, defined as the consumption of large quantities of food in a short period of time, is a behavior that manifests when a binge eater, who cannot regulate negative emotion-provoking situations and has increased attentional bias to high-caloric food. This study aimed to investigate the influence of anger regulation training (reappraisal and suppression) on attentional bias to food images and caloric intake. Forty-seven binge eaters and 44 healthy control subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two anger regulation training conditions (reappraisal, suppression) and given anger mood induction and instructions. Consequently, the binge eater group spent significantly less time dwelling on food images, and caloric intake was significantly lower under the suppression condition, than the reappraisal condition. The results of the present study suggest that when trained through reappraisal, binge eaters decrease the time they spending dwelling on food images and caloric intake.
This study was conducted to distinguish “daily depression,” a depression that most normal people tend to experience naturally, from “dysfunctional depression (including clinical depression),” and to verify the validity of a new structural model in which daily depression precedes the occurrence of clinical depression. To examine our hypothesis, a survey was conducted of 440 adult men and women throughout Korea, excluding Jeju Island. We verified a relationship model with stress perception, socio-economic status, and social support as predictors of normal depression, showing that 1) the overall fit measures of our model of the relationship of predictors with normal depression and dysfunctional depression and of the relationship between normal depression and dysfunctional depression were good, consistent with our hypothesis that causal factors such as stress, socioeconomic status, and social support also predict normal depression, and 2) these preceding variables affect dysfunctional depression directly and indirectly. This study confirmed the possibility that normal depression could be a new concept for predicting the occurrence of epidemiological depression, and the introduction of this concept could also help improve the perception of depression patients in our society. It is also meaningful as a rare attempt to understand mental disorder from a psychologist’s point of view.
When people judge how competent others are in society, the judgement highly depends on the social context. The objective of this study is to confirm whether the levels of social anxiety symptoms influence the contextual effect on people’s judgement toward others’ social competence. In the experiment, a total of 120 individuals (60 males, 60 females) completed self-report scales about social anxiety and depression. The participants made responses about their target’s social competence when they were shown the target’s neutral expression either with the target alone or with the presence of two additional observers’ staring at the target. The observers exposed facial expressions of either joyful, angry, neutral or disgust, either for 500 ms or until response. Results showed that the effect of the observer’s emotional expression was proportional to the duration. Especially, when the levels of social anxiety symptoms were high, male participants judged the target to be more competent with the presence of neutral or joyful observers, whereas female participants judged the target to be more incompetent with the presence of angry, disgust or neutral observers. The results indicate that the contextual effects on judgement of social competence depend on the duration of exposure, level of social anxiety, and especially, gender difference.
This article is an introduction to the Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology’s special section on evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) for treatment of mood disorder and suicide-related behavior: major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, suicidal behavior, and non-suicidal self-injury. Criteria for EBPs, current evidence on the efficacy of psychological treatments for mood disorder and suicide-related behavior, and comments on review articles in this special section were presented. Finally, future directions to bridge the big gap between research in and practice of EBPs for treating mood disorders and suicide-related behavior, and enhancing their implementation and dissemination in clinical practice were discussed.
Depression is of great individual and social importance because of its devastating course and risk for future suicide attempts. Researchers globally have recognized the seriousness of depressive disorder and thus have participated in the development and evaluation of treatments. In this study, we reviewed the basic assumptions, treatment factors, and efficacy trials of cognitive therapy, behavior activation therapy, interpersonal therapy, and problem-solving therapy. In addition, the results of psychological treatment of depression in Korea are summarized, based on which recommendations for evidence-based treatment for depression are suggested. In this study, based on the results of a domestic study, cognitive behavioral therapy, acceptance commitment therapy, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy are proposed as treatments that might be effective. Finally, this article highlights future directions for evidence-based depression treatment research in Korea.
The aim of this study was to review evidence-based psychological treatments of suicidal behavior. Specifically, the effectiveness of brief psychological crisis interventions and suicide-specific psychological treatments were examined based on metaanalytic studies and randomized controlled studies. The results of the current review indicate that brief intervention and contact developed by World Health Organization (WHO-BIC), safety planning intervention (SPI), and crisis response planning (CRP) are evidence-based brief psychological interventions. Among psychological treatments, cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, and collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) are evidence-based. In Korea, treatment outcome studies of suicidal behavior have targeted for reducing suicidal ideation only, but not for suicide attempt or suicide. Thus, it is premature to determine the evidence level of psychological treatments of suicidal behavior in Korea. Based on studies in other countries, evidence-based psychological treatments for suicidal behavior are recommended, and directions for domestic research and practical applications are suggested.
Over the past decade, there has been growing concern about nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), which refers to deliberate selfharming behaviors aimed at the destruction of one’s own body tissue without suicidal intent. A series of therapeutic interventions have been developed and have verified that NSSI has a higher prevalence than any other mental illness and is a significant obstacle to the biological and social development of individuals. However, from traditional psychotherapy to drug therapy, no specific treatment has been established to date for intervention of NSSI. These findings are consistent across different age groups, but especially for children and adolescents. Even an untrained therapist’s approach seems to contribute to aggravating NSSI. As a result, many researchers have a taken reserved attitude towards the level of effectiveness of certain types of NSSI treatment, but at present significant efforts are being made to establish a set of guidelines for clinicians to ensure the efficiency and compliance of therapeutic intervention of individuals who engage in NSSI.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental disorder characterized by bidirectional mood episodes and associated with diverse functional impairments and suicidal risk. Firstly, this narrative review emphasized the necessity and utility of adjunct psychosocial interventions for BD. Next, the author attempted to provide up-to-date guidelines on which particular psychosocial interventions could be recommended as evidence-based treatment (EBT) of BD by reviewing treatment studies conducted in Korea as well as other countries. As a result, four psychosocial interventions (psychoeducation, family-focused therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy) were identified as EBTs with strong levels of evidence, based on randomized controlled trials conducted overseas. In general, adjunct psychosocial treatments showed effectiveness in relapse prevention and acute treatment during depressive episodes. Additionally, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and dialectical behavioral therapy began to demonstrate promising outcomes. However, although several preliminary studies have been published, there was a shortage of empirical evidence for effective EBT of BD within Korea. Lastly, the author discussed how to promote and disseminate EBT of BD within Korea.