The purpose of this study was to investigate structural relationships of achievement goal orientation, achievement emotions, and academic engagement, especially focusing on the moderating effect of teachers' autonomy support in these relationships. With 306 elementary school students as subjects, this study found that the students who perceived teachers as highly autonomy supportive showed the higher mastery goal, performance-approach goal, and academic engagement, as well as higher enjoyment and lower boredom compared to the students who perceived their teachers as rarely autonomy supportive. In the high teachers' autonomy support group, mastery goal predicted high academic engagement through the higher enjoyment. In the low teachers' autonomy support group, mastery goal predicted high academic engagement through the higher enjoyment as well as lowered boredom. This group also showed that performance-avoidance goal predicted low engagement through the lowered enjoyment. The significant group differences in structural relationship were found in the effect of enjoyment on academic engagement, which was significant only in the low teachers' autonomy support group. Nevertheless students who perceived their teachers as rarely autonomy supportive were less likely to experience enjoyment, high enjoyment could compensate the negative effect of low autonomy support of teachers. This study showed that the students’ perception of their teachers' autonomy support could differentiate the effect of students' achievement goals on achievement emotion and academic engagement.
김남희, 김종백 (2011). 기본심리욕구와 수업참여를 매개로 한 학생-교사 애착관계와학업성취도의 관계: 교사지지와 학생-교사 애착관계의 의미와 역할의 차이를 중심으로. 교육심리연구, 25(4), 763-789.
김은진, 양명희 (2012). 우리나라 학생들이 경험하는 학업상황의 정서 연구. 교육심리연구, 25(3), 501-521.
김종렬, 이은주 (2012). 초, 중학교급별 교실목표구조, 기본심리욕구, 수업참여간의구조적 관계 분석. 교육심리연구, 26(3), 817-835.
김주환, 김민규, 홍세희 (2009). 구조방정식모형으로 논문쓰기. 서울: 커뮤니케이션북스.
김태은, 현 주 (2007). 학교급별 학업능력에대한 학습효능감, 학습동기화, 성취목표지향성의 효과. 교육심리연구, 21(1), 185-207.
손수경, 도승이 (2012). 중학생이 지각한 부모와 교사의 성취목표지향성과 자기조절학습전략과의 관계에서 성취정서의 매개효과 검증. 교육심리연구, 26(2), 479-504.
송주연 (2012). 성취목표와 학업성취의 상관관계에 대한 메타분석. 교육심리연구, 26(1), 225-250.
이현주 (2014). 교사의 창의성과 학생의 수업참여의 관계에서 기본심리욕구의 매개효과. 한국교원대학교 대학원 석사학위 청구논문.
정준욱, 이은주 (2015). 성취목표지향성과 성취결과의 상호 인과적 관계: 숙달접근목표와 수행접근목표를 중심으로. 교육심리연구, 29(1), 65-84.
조한익, 김수연 (2008). 초등학생의 성취목표지향성, 정서 및 정서지능의 관계 연구. 교육심리연구, 22(2), 443-460.
허예빈, 김아영 (2012). 학생이 지각한 교사의자율성 지지와 자기주도 학습능력 간의관계에서 기본심리욕구의 매개효과. 교육심리연구, 26(4), 1075-1096.
Ames C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Student' learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260-267.
Assor, A., Kaplan, H., & Roth, G. (2002). Choice is good, but relevance is excellent: Autonomy enhancing and suppressing teacher behaviors predicting students' engagement in schoolwork. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(2), 261-278.
Belsky, J. (1997). Theory testing, effect‐size evaluation, and differential susceptibility to rearing influence: The case of mothering and attachment. Child Development, 68(4), 598-600.
Benita, M., Roth, G., & Deci, E. L. (2014). When are mastery goals more adaptive? It depends on experiences of autonomy support and autonomy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(1), 258-267.
Black, A. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The effects of instructors' autonomy support and students'autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: A self-determination theory. Science Education, 84, 740-756.
Brophy, J. (2010). Motivating students to learn (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.
Church, M. A., Elliot, A. J., & Gable, S. L. (2001). Perceptions of classroom environment, achievement goals, and achievement outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 43-54.
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597-600.
Cobb, N. J. (1998). Adolescence: Continuity, change, and diversity. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
Daniels, L. M., Stupnisky, R. H., Pekrun, R., Haynes, T. L., & Perry, R. P. (2009). A longitudinal analysis of achievement goals:From affective antecedents to emotional effects and achievement outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 948-963.
Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34(3), 169-189.
Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(1), 218-232.
Gillet, N., Lafrenière, M. K., Vallerand, R., J., Huart, I., & Fouquereau, E., (2014). The effects of autonomous and controlled regulation of performance-approach goals on well-being: A process model. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 53, 154-174.
Gonida, E. N., Voulala, K., & Kiosseoglou, G. (2009). Students' achievement goal orientations and their behavioral and emotional engagement: Co-examining the role of perceived school goal structures and parent goals during adolescence. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(1), 53-60.
Grolnick, W. S., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1997). Internalization within the family: The self-determination theory perspective. In J. E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and children's internalization of values: A handbook of contemporary theory (pp.135-161). New York:Wiley.
Guay, F., Boggiano, A. K., & Vallerand, R. J. (2001). Autonomy support, intrinsic motivation, and perceived competence:Conceptual and empirical linkages. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 643-650.
Huang, C. (2011). Achievement goals and achievement emotions: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 23, 359-388.
Hulleman, C. S., Schrager, S. M., Bodmann, S. M., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2010). A meta-analytic review of achievement goal measures: Different labels for the same constructs or different constructs with similar labels? Psychological Bulletin, 136(3), 422-449.
Jang, H., Reeve, J., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Engaging students in learning activities: It is not autonomy support or structure but autonomy support and structure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 588-600.
Jang, H., Reeve, J., Ryan, R. M., & Kim, A. (2009). Can self-determination theory explain what underlies the productive, satisfying learning experiences of collectivistically oriented Korean students? Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 644-661.
Jang, L. Y., & Liu, W. C. (2012). 2×2Achievement goals and achievement emotions:A cluster analysis of students' motivation. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 27(1), 59-76.
Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling(3th Ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Lee, F. K., Sheldon, K. M., & Turban, D. B. (2003). Personality and the goal-striving process: The influence of achievement goal patterns, goal level, and mental focus on performance and enjoyment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 256-265.
Liem, A. D., Lau, S., & Nie, Y. (2008). The role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in predicting learning strategies, task disengagement, peer relationship, and achievement outcome. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 486-512.
Lichtenfeld, S., Pekrun, P., Stupnisky, R. H., Reiss, K., & Murayama, K. (2012). Measuring students' emotions in the early years: The achievement emotions questionnaire-elementary school. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 190-201.
MacCallum, R. C., Roznowski, M., & Reith, J. (1994). Alternative strategies for crossvalidation of covariance structure models. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 29, 1-32.
Mouratidis, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Sideridis, G., & Lens, W. (2011). Vitality and interestenjoyment as a function of class-to-class variation in need-supportive teaching and pupils’ autonomous motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 353-366.
Ntoumanis, N. (2005). A prospective study of participation in optional school physical education using a self-determination theory framework. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3), 444-453.
Patrick, H., Ryan, A. M., & Kaplan, A. (2007). Early adolescents' perceptions of the classroom social environment, motivational beliefs, and engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 83-98.
Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 18(4), 315-341.
Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2006). Achievement goals and discrete achievement emotions: A theoretical model and prospective test. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 583-597.
Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2009). Achievement goals and achievement emotions:Testing a model of their joint relations with academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(1), 115-135.
Pekrun R., Linnenbrink-Garcia L. (2012). Academic emotions and student engagement. In Christenson S. L., Reschly A. L., Wylie C. (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp.259-282). New York, NY:Springer.
Pekrun, R., & Stephens, E. J. (2009). Goals, emotions, and emotion regulation: Perspectives of the control-value theory. Human Development, 52, 357-365.
Puente-Diaz, R. (2011). The effect of achievement goals on enjoyment, effort, satisfaction and performance. International Journal of Psychology, 47, 102-110.
Putwain, D. W., & Symes, W. (2012). Achievement goals as mediators of the relationship between competence beliefs and test anxiety. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 207-224.
Reeve, J. (2009). Why teachers adopt a controlling motivating style toward students and how they can become more autonomy supportive. Educational Psychologist, 44(3), 159-175.
Senko, C., Hulleman, C. S., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2011). Achievement goal theory at the crossroads: Old controversies, current challenges, and new directions. Educational Psychologist, 46(1), 26-47.
Sideridis, G. D. (2005). Goal orientation, academic achievement, and depression: Evidence in favor of a revised goal theory framework. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 366-375.
Skinner, E., Furrer, C., Marchand, G., & Kindermann, T. (2008). Engagement and disaffection in the classroom: Part of a larger motivational dynamic? Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4), 765-781.
Skinner, E. A., Kindermann, T. A., Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (2009). Engagement and disaffection as organizational constructs in the dynamics of motivational development. In K. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation in school (pp.223-245). Malwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhardt (Ed.), Sociological Methodology (pp.290-312). Washington DC: American Sociological Association.
Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2005). Antecedents and outcomes of selfdetermination in 3 life domains: The role of parents' and teachers' autonomy support. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(6), 589-604.
Williams, G. C., Grow, V. M., Freedman, Z. R., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Motivational predictors of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 115-126.
Zimmerman, B., & Schunk, D. H. (2006). Competence and control beliefs:Distinguishing the means and ends. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp.349-367). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Zusho, A., Pintrich, P. R., & Cortina, K. S. (2005). Motives, goals, and adaptive patterns of performance in Asian American and Anglo American students. Learning and Individual Differences, 15, 141-158.