The Korean School Engagement Scale for Middle School Students (K-SES-M) is a 48-item self-report scale, which measures middle school students’ affective, behavioral, social, and academic engagement in school. Although the K-SES-M well reflects how Korean middle school students engage in school and is reliable and valid, there still remain psychometric issues to be resolved in the procedure of item development and quite a number of items restrict its use for both practical and research purposes. This study was conducted to develop a brief, psychometrically sound version of the K-SES-M using Rasch measurement model and to test its reliability and validity. Seven-hundred thirty-four students in Grades 7～9 completed the K-SES-M and criterion tests. The Rasch rating scale model was applied to each of the four school engagement factors. Results showed that a 4-point rating scale was more appropriate for the K-SES-M short form (K-SES-MS) than was the 5-point rating scale of the original K-SES-M. Based on item fit and item difficulty estimates for each of the four factors as well as differential item functioning analyses by gender for each item, 24 items were initially selected. The results from confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the fit of the first-order three-factor model consisting of affective engagement (7 items), behavioral engagement (8 items), and academic engagement (7 items) was reasonable. Thus, a 22-item short form of the K-SES-M was presented to meet the need for a measure that could be used for periodic monitoring of Korean middle school students’ engagement in school. The three factors of school engagement were found to have adequate construct reliability and internal consistency, and the K-SES-MS was found to have strong concurrent evidence. Finally, the use of the K-SES-MS, limitations of this study and suggestions for further research were discussed.
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