본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

Korean Journal of School Psychology


Search for meaning in life and academic satisfaction: A mediating role of hope and a moderating role of social support


The purpose of this study was to shed light on a role of hope in understanding the relationship between the search for meaning in life and academic satisfaction and to suggest ways to increase hope among Korean students. We hypothesized that the relationship between search for meaning in life and academic satisfaction would be mediated by hope and the positive relationship between search for meaning and hope would be strengthened by family support and friend support. We conducted two surveys to examine the hypotheses. Based on Study 1 using a sample of 190 undergraduate students, we found that the relationship between search for meaning in life and academic satisfaction was fully mediated by hope. In Study 2, we examined the four types of hope that include internal hope and three types of external hope (i.e., family, friends, and supernatural being) to extend knowledge on what features of hope mediate the relationships between search for meaning and academic satisfaction. Study 2 based on a sample of 313 high school students showed that the link from the search for meaning in life and academic satisfaction was fully mediated by internal hope and external-peers hope. The mediating effects of external-family hope and external-spiritual hope were not significant in Study 2. Also, we found that family support strengthened the positive links from the search for meaning in life to hope (Study 1) and to internal hope (Study 2) while the interactive effects of friend support and the search for meaning on hope were not significant in both studies. Based on the results, we discussed several implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research.

Search for meaning in life Academic satisfaction Internal hope External hope Family support Friend support 삶의 의미추구 학업만족 희망 내적 희망 외적 희망 가족지원 친구지원



김기정, 김해란 (2016). 자기성찰과 안녕감의 관계에서 의미추구 및 의미발견의 매개효과. 청소년학연구, 23(12), 159-185.


김상희, 박성현 (2017). 연령대별 삶의 의미와 안녕감의 관계. 한국심리학회지: 사회 및 성격, 31(1), 61-78.


김아영, & 이명희 (2008). 청소년의 심리적 욕구만족, 우울경향, 학교생활적응 간의 관계구조와 학교급간 차이. 교육심리연구, 22(2), 423-441.


문은식, 김충회 (2003). 부모의 학습지원행동과 초․중학생의 학업동기 및 학업성취도의 관계. 교육심리연구, 17(2), 271-288.


박아청 (2004). 청년기 자아정체감의 발달단계의 특성분석. 한국교육심리학회: 교육심리연구, 18(1), 301-312.


박영신, 김의철 (2009). 한국 청소년의 행복: 심리적, 관계적, 경제적 자원과 학업성취의 영향. 한국심리학회지: 문화 및 사회문제, 15(3), 399-429.


박지영, 손영우 (2018). 주관적 사회적 지위가 일의 의미에 미치는 영향. 감성과학, 21(2), 43-60.


이재창, 최인화, 박미진 (2003). 역기능적 진로사고와 성격특성과의 관계 연구. 진로교육연구, 16(2), 63-80.


송현심, 성승연 (2017). 대학생과 중년성인의 의미추구가 주관적 안녕감에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 상담 및 심리치료, 29(3), 843-870.


신미, 전성희, 유미숙 (2010). 청소년의 삶의 만족과 안녕에 관한 요인 연구. 청소년학연구, 17(9), 131-150.


신준섭, 이영분 (1999). 사회적 지지가 실직자의 심리사회적 안녕감에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구. 한국사회복지학, 37(4), 241- 269.


원두리 (2011). 사회적지지, 희망 및 문제해결 대처가 청소년의 심리적 안녕감에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 건강, 16(2), 297- 311.


원두리, 김교헌, 권선중 (2005). 한국판 삶의 의미척도의 타당화 연구. 한국심리학회지: 건강, 10(2), 211-225.


윤혜경, 이지연 (2014). 한국고등학생의 사회인지요인과 학업만족의 관계: Lent의 학업만족 모형을 중심으로. 상담학연구, 15(5), 1957-1977.


이희경 (2007). 중학생의 희망과 공감 하위집단에 따른 심리적 안녕감의 차이. 한국심리학회지: 상담 및 심리치료, 19(3), 751- 766.


장은주, 이종연 (2014). 희망의 주도사고 및 경로사고와 고등학생의 학업성취 및 주관적 안녕 변인들 간의 구조적 관계. 상담학연구, 15(1), 371-393.


정주리, 이기학 (2007). 의미발견을 통한 의미추구와 주관적 안녕감의 모형검증: 문제해결 책임감과 긍정적 재해석을 매개로. 상담학연구, 8(4), 1311-1323.


정미나, 이창식 (2011). 청소년의 희망에 관한 연구동향. 청소년학연구, 18(3), 273-299.


최아라, 이 숙 (2016). 중학생의 기질, 사회적 지지 및 정서조절능력이 긍정심리자본에 미치는 영향. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 37(2), 57-77.


한덕웅, 최훈석 (2006). 한국 사회문제의 변화. 한국심리학회지: 문화 및 사회문제, 12(1), 103-128.


황여정, 김경근 (2006). 일반계 고등학생의 학교만족도 결정요인. 교육사회학연구(2), 16, 181-203.


Alter, A. L., & Hershfield, H. E. (2014). People search for meaning when they approach a new decade in chronological age. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(48), 17066-17070.


Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469- 480.


Astin A. W. (1991). Assessment for excellence: The philosophy and practice of assessment and evaluation in higher education. New York, NY: Macmillan.


Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Meanings of life. New York, NY: Guilford.


Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497-529.


Bernardo, A. B. (2010). Extending hope theory: Internal and external locus of trait hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(8), 944-949.


Bernardo, A. B. (2013). Hope grounded in belief: Influences of reward for application and social cynicism on dispositional hope. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(6), 522-528.


Bernardo, A. B., Wang, T. Y., Pesigan, I. J. A., & Yeung, S. S. (2017). Pathways from collectivist coping to life satisfaction among Chinese: The roles of locus-of-hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 106(1), 253-256.


Bernardo, A. B., Yeung, S. S., Resurreccion, K. F., Resurreccion, R. R., & Khan, A. (2018). External locus‐of‐hope, well‐being, and coping of students: A cross‐cultural examination within Asia. Psychology in the Schools, 55(8), 908-923.


Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 185-216.


Buss, D. M. (2008). Human nature and individual differences. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 29-60). New York, NY: Guilford Press.


Chen, G., Gully, S. M., Whiteman, J. A., & Kilcullen, R. N. (2000). Examination of relationships among trait-like individual differences, state-like individual differences, and learning performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(6), 835-847.


Datu, J. A. D., & Jose Mateo, N. (2017). How to combat the negative impact of discrimination in a collectivist context? The safeguarding function of peer-oriented hope. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 22(3), 345-351.


Demaray, M. K., Malecki, C. K., Davidson, L. M., Hodgson, K. K., & Rebus, P. J. (2005). The relationship between social support and student adjustment: A longitudinal analysis. Psychology in the Schools, 42(7), 691-706.


Du, H., Bernardo, A. B., & Yeung, S. S. (2015). Locus-of-hope and life satisfaction: The mediating roles of personal self-esteem and relational self-esteem. Personality and Individual Differences, 83, 228-233.


Du, H., & King, R. B. (2013). Placing hope in self and others: Exploring the relationships among self-construals, locus of hope, and adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(3), 332-337.


Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York, NY: Norton.


Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students' academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13(1), 1-22.


Frankl, V. E. (1963). Man’s search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy. New York: Washington Square Press.


Grolnick, W. S., & Slowiaczek, M. L. (1994). Parents’ involvement in children’s schooling: A multidimensional conceptualization and motivational model. Child Development, 65(1), 237-252.


Hartup, W. (1996). The company they keep: Friendships and their developmental signifiance. Child Development, 67(1), 1-13.


Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76(4), 408-420.


Hayes, A. F., & Matthes, J. (2009). Computational procedures for probing interactions in OLS and logistic regression: SPSS and SAS implementations. Behavior Research Methods, 41(3), 924-936.


Helsen, M., Vollebergh, W., & Meeus, W. (1999). Psychosociale problemen in de adolescentie: De samenhang met hechting aan ouders en vrienden en identiteit [Psychosocial problems in adolescence: The relation with attachment to parents and friends and identity]. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie en haar Grensgebieden, 54(6), 256-275.


Hirschi, A. (2014). Hope as a resource for self-directed career management: Investigating mediating effects on proactive career behaviors and life and job satisfaction. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(6), 1495-1512.


Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6(4), 307.


King, L. A., & Napa, C. K. (1998). What makes a life good?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 156-165.


Lent, R. W., Singley, D., Sheu, H., Gainor, K., Brenner, B. R., Treistman, D, & Ades, L. (2005). Social cognitive predictors of domain and life satisfaction: Exploring the theoretical precursors of subjective well-being. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 429-442.


Lent, R. W., Singley, D., Sheu, H. B., Schmidt, J. A., & Schmidt, L. C. (2007). Relation of social-cognitive factors to academic satisfaction in engineering students. Journal of Career Assessment, 15(1), 87-97.


Luthans, F., & Jensen, S. M. (2002). Hope: A new positive strength for human resource development. Human Resource Development Review, 1(3), 304-322.


Luthans, B. C., Luthans, K. W., & Jensen, S. M. (2012). The impact of business school students’ psychological capital on academic performance. Journal of Education for Business, 87(5), 253-259.


Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Strengths of character and well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 603-619.


Oishi, S., & Diener, E. (2003). Culture and well-being: The cycle of action, evaluation, and decision. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(8), 939-949.


Raja, S. N., McGee, R., & Stanton, W. R. (1992). Perceived attachments to parents and peers and psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21(4), 471-48.


Shin, J. Y., & Steger, M. F. (2016). Supportive college environment for meaning searching and meaning in life among American college students. Journal of College Student Development, 57(1), 18-31.


Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: new procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422-445.


Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249-275.


Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570-585.


Snyder, C. R., Sympson, S. C., Ybasco, F. C., Borders, T. F., Babyak, M. A., & Higgins, R. L. (1996). Development and validation of the state hope scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 321-335.


Spencer-Rodgers, J., Boucher, H. C., Mori, S. C., Wang, L., & Peng, K. (2009). The dialectical self-concept: Contradiction, change, and holism in East Asian cultures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(1), 29-44.


Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The meaning in life questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(1), 80-93.


Steger, M. F., Kawabata, Y., Shimai, S., & Otake, K. (2008). The meaningful life in Japan and the United States: Levels and correlates of meaning in life. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(3), 660-678.


Steger, M. F., Oishi, S., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Meaning in life across the life span: Levels and correlates of meaning in life from emerging adulthood to older adulthood. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(1), 43-52.


Updegraff, J. A., Silver, R. C., & Holman, E. A. (2008). Searching for and finding meaning in collective trauma: Results from a national longitudinal study of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(3), 709-722.


van Tilburg, W. A., & Igou, E. R. (2019). Dreaming of a brighter future: anticipating happiness instills meaning in life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20(2), 541-559.


Ward, S. J., & King, L. A. (2016). Poor but happy? Income, happiness, and experienced and expected meaning in life. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(5), 463-470.


Yarcheski, A., & Mahon, N. E. (2016). Meta-analyses of predictors of hope in adolescents. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 38(3), 345-368.


Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1), 30-41.

Korean Journal of School Psychology