In this study, after investigating frequently experienced anger-inducing situations and inventing anger-inducing situation questionnaire, we postulated specific situations changing irrational belief into rational one. Based on these situations, we accounted for how to cope with anger inducing factors and change irrational belief into rational one, introducing several strategies needed to control anger, invented cognitive behavioral anger control program and tried to clarify the relationship between anger inducing experience and anger regulation ability. In order to derive usual anger-inducing situations, we made 180 students with fifth and sixth grade to record the reason why he/she got angry, mood, thought, behavior and result. Through this process, we could derive 47 situations bringing about anger and prepared anger-inducing situation questionnaire. It can be divided into 3 anger inducing situations by using factor analysis into 500 elementary students of fifth and sixth grade. Cognitive behavioral anger control program used in this study consists of 13 sessions. From first to fifth session, it is composed of 1() anger control methods to make students be aware of and control their anger. From sixth through thirteenth session, the relationship between irrational belief and anger inducing is introduced is focused on how irrational belief is changed into rational one. To examine the effects of the program, high anger students and the students lacking anger control are selected. Thirty students through pre-test using anger-inducing questionnaire and anger control ability questionnaire are taught the goals and procedures. Volunteer students and students with parents' consent allocated to experimental group (12 students) and the rest of the students are control group (12 students). Cognitive Behavioral Anger Control Program are applied every 50 minutes twice a week for 7 weeks and 4 weeks before and after this program, anger-inducing situation questionnaire and anger control ability questionnaire are practiced. Data collected in this study analyzed by SPSS and Kwakstat. In the middle of this program, quarterly reports and satisfaction measures were evaluated to examine whether there is verbal and non-verbal behavior change and students feel satisfied with the program. The results of this study are as follows: First, Cognitive-behavioral anger control program used in this study effectively reduced anger experience and lasted for 4 weeks. Second, cognitive behavioral anger control program, increased students 1 ability to control anger inducing situations and also effective for 4 weeks. And its effect on verbal and non-verbal behaviour was very impressive Students come to realize that irrational belief is the cause of their anger and actively apply cognitive-behavioral anger control technique to themselves as well. Students became improved in their peer relations and felt confident in everyday life. The overall evaluation of this program can be listed as follows; "very satisfactory (91.67%)", "satisfactory (8.33%)", "very helpful (91.67%)", "helpful (8.33%)". In this study we first investigated several anger-inducing situations and invented anger-inducing situation questionnaire and then applied cognitive behavioral anger control program in order to control their anger and not to experience it. By creating workbooks and manuals this method can easily be used in school education settings.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of activity-based career education program on career attitude, career understanding, and school adjustment of elementary school students. The effects of activity-based career education program (n=32) were compared to chose of lecture-based career education program (n=30) and no-treatment control group (n=30). Fifth-grade students in three classrooms at one elementary school participated in this study. Data were collected by administering pre- and post-tests of the Career Awareness Maturity Test and the School Adjustment Questionnaire. The analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) with groups as between-subjects variable and career attitude, career understanding and school adjustment as dependent variables, and planned comparisons were conducted to analyze the data. The results of this study were summarized as follows. First, both the activity-based and the lecture-based career education programs did not enhance participants' career attitude. Second, differences between two career education programs and no-treatment control group in the level of understanding about work, self, and decision-making were significant; however, differences between the two career education programs were nor significant. Also, the activity-based career education program was found to be more effective in increasing the level of understanding about career choice than the lecture-based career education program. Third, differences between two career education programs and no-treatment control group in the level of relations with teachers, rule compliance, and school activity participation were significant. Again, the activity-based career education program was more effective in improving relations with teachers, rule compliance, and school activity participation than the lecture-based career education program. In conclusion, the activity-based career education program was effective in increasing career understanding and improving school adjustment. The results of this study imply that career education programs targeting elementary school students need to be based toward activities and experiential learning rather than toward teacher-led lectures. Also, more intensive and longer-term career education interventions should be implemented to develop career attitude. Finally, the practical implications of this study for planning and implementing career education programs for elementary school students and the limitations of this study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of After-school Program for middle school students residing in low SES regions. The program was designed to improve protective factors such as school adaptation, academic achievement, self-esteem and other related factors. The characteristics of program participants and non-participants in a middle school were compared. At the pre-treatment evaluation, participants showed significantly lower scores on protective factors compared to non-participants. The comparison of pre- and post-treatment within participants showed that all the protective factors were mildly improved except academic adaptation. Based on these findings, the limitations of the study were discussed.
The purpose of the present study was to test whether Ryff(1989)s' psychological well-being model and Keyes(1998)' social well-being model fit our data on Korean adolescents respectively. The relationships among Korean adolescents' psychological well-being, social well-being, and subjective well-being were examined along with gender differences in those three areas. Factor analyses of our data confirmed that Ryff's six-factor model of psychological well-being is indeed applicable to Korean adolescents. On the other hand, Keyes' original five-factor model of social well-being had to modified into a four-factor one to be a good fit to our data on Korean adolescents. The result of regression analysis in subjective well-being showed that self-acceptance as a sub-scale of psychological well-being and social integration as a sub-scale of social well-being were significant predictors of three dimensions of subjective well-being. The result of regression analysis on gender differences in subjective well-being showed that personal growth, a sub-scale of psychological well-being was a significant predictor of satisfaction with life and negative affect in both girls and boys. Social coherence as a sub-scale of social well-being was a significant predictor of negative affect in the boys' group; autonomy, one of the sub-scales of psychological well-being and social actualization, one of the sub-scales of social well-being were significant predictors of satisfaction with life and negative affect in the girls' group.
The purpose of this study was to examine the internal validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Parent Rating Scale-Child form of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2(BASC-2, PRS-C). The 139-items in the PRS-C, BASC-2 were translated into Korean and were back-transited before tested in a pilot study. Based on the results from the pilot study and the suggestions from a team of clinicians, teachers, psychology and curriculum professors, and graduate students, the final Korean version was completed and was administered to a total of 1180 mothers with children aged from 6 to 11 years old. Results from the Covariance Structure Analysis, Principal-Axis Facor Analysis and the Cronbach' α's indicated that the Korean version of the BASC-2, PRS-C had good overall internal validity and reliability with both the clinical and adjustment scales as well as the composite scales measuring the constructs intended. These findings warrant follow up studies with clinical sample. A close investigation into possible cultural differences in assessing child internalized behavior problems was proposed. Suggestions for future studies in developing the Korean version of the BASC-2, PRS-C followed.