The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the treatment effect of pharmacotherapy with methylphenidate and behavioral parent training. 30 elementary school boys with attention difficulties were recruited with the cooperation of their school teachers to participate in 6-week pharmacotherapy or 8-week behavioral parent training program. Each of the 30 boys (15 for each of the two treatment groups) who met the selection criteria for the study was assessed prior to and following the respective treatment using parent and teacher rating scales for behavioral symptoms, Continuous Performance Test (CPT) for their attention ability. The results indicated that both pharmacotherapy and behavioral parent training were effective in reducing behavioral symptoms of hyperactivity and teacher rated academic performance, but only pharmacotherapy was effective in improving CPT measured attention. The role of pharmacotherapy and clinical utility of behavioral parent training were discussed and it was suggested that the two treatments be used together as part of multimodal intervention program to optimize therapeutic impact.
The psychoeducation training program was delivered to families of patients with chronic schizophrenia and examined its effectiveness on treatment of patients. Fourteen experimental families participated in the program consisted of 5 sessions of education and 9 sessions of aftercare treatment in addition to traditional care, while as a control group, 15 families receiving traditional care only. The result showed that the relapse rate was reduced among schizophrenic patients receiving family education program, as well as a part of symptoms and a particular living skill improved. There is a trend suggesting that families' psychological, emotional burden was reduced. And so this psychoeducation program is considered to be useful in treatment of schizophrenic patients.
The purpose of the present study was 1) to measure body-dissatisfaction and 2) to investigate the influence of body dissatisfaction on self-esteem and depression in the binge eater group / normal control group. 934 female undergraduate students were administered Bulimia Test(BULIT), the revised Shilouette Body Image Test(SBIT), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale(RSE), Beck Depression Inventory(BDI), and Multidimensional Eating Disorder Inventory(EDI). Binge eaters chose significantly larger current body sizes and thinner ideal body sizes than those picked by normal controls regardless of actual body size. Consequently, they exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than their counterparts. Binge eaters were also found to be more depressed. But the effect of body dissatisfaction on self-esteem and on depression was not significant, and no difference was found between binge eaters and normal controls. The results were discussed in terms of the nature of body dissatisfaction and relations of body dissatisfaction with self-esteem and depression in binge eaters.
The present study investigated ; 1) if the quality of mother-child interaction of depressed mothers (n=13) and mondepressed mothers(n=13) differ and 2) if maternal depression, quality of mother-child interaction, children's IQ scores and social-cognitive capacity were related to preschool-age children's maladjustment and behavior problems. Depressed group and nondepressed group were selected on the basis of Beck Depression Index(BDI). BDI score of Depressed group was 16 or above. Then mother and child were evaluated seperately and mother-child interaction patterns were observed. The mother-child interaction patterns in the playroom were videotaped through one-way mirror for 10 minute free play and 20 minute task performance period, and the videotaped interactions were rated according to the Response Class Matrix developed by Mash, Terdal & Anderson(1973). Children's IQs were assessed by KEDI-WISC, and their social-cognitive capacity were evaluated by Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving Test(PIPS) and What Happens Next Game(WHNG). Children's behavior problems were rated by their mother and teacher using Child Behavior Check List(CBCL). The results indicated that depressed mothers responded less toward their children during the free paly period compared with controls. During the task performance period, depressed mothers exhibited less positive behavior than controls. In the analysis of variables related to children's behavior problems, maternal depression was associated with mother's CBCL rating, while quality of mother-child interaction and child's IQ were associated with teacher's CBCL rating. The results suggested that maternal depression was not directly related to children's behavior problems ; but rather to mothers' negative perceptions of their children, and contributed to the children's maladjustment through dysfunctional mother-child interactions.
This study was conducted to examine play development levels and interactional competence in children with Reactive Attachment, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, and Developmental Language Disorder. Also, this study compared play levels in the free play situation with it in the elicited play situation and interactional competence in child-mother dyad with it in child-play facilitator dyad in the three groups. Subjects of this research were in total 34, age range from 26 to 57 months. Free play, elicited play, and child-mother play situation were videotaped and the data was rated by two rators independently. Rating for play development level was based on simbolic play development levels proposed by Nicolich(1988) and one level, sensorimotor stage, was added. Rating for interactional competence was based on social interaction part in Early Social-Communication Scale developed by Seibert & Hogan(1982). The data was statistically processed through one-way ANOVA, χ<sup>2</sup> test, and Sign test. The result from this research read as follow : 1. Play development level in the free play situation was lined up DLD>RAD>PDD and children with RAD showed autosymbolic level which was explained by McCune-Nicolich(1988). 2. Play development levels in children with RAD and DLD were facilitated by play facilitator, however, children with PDD demonstrated the same play level in two different play situations. 3. Interactional competence in child-mother dyad was DLD〉PDD〉RAD. As we expected children with RAD showed the poorest child-mother interaction. 4. Children with RAD responsed to and initiated interaction with play facilitator more, compared with their mother. Reversely children with PDD responsed to and initiated interaction with their mother more, compared with the play facilitator. 5. For social matuarity, children with DLD were the most mature and children with PDD were the most immature in the three groups. There was very significant group difference in scores for CARS. Though the score for CARS in children with RAD was in between children's with PDD and with DLD, the score was close to the criteria for assessing autism.
An attempt has been made to develop a self-reported scale to measure the dispositional social anxiety. This study translated Leary's(1983) Interaction Anxiousness Scale(IAS) in Korean and explored the reliability and validity of the Korean-version IAS. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were psychometically approvable. The IAS was significantly correlated with STAI-Trait scale, BDI, and the Interpersonal Sensitivity(I-S) symptom dimension of SCL-90-R. As predicted, the IAS was more highly correlated with I-S of SCL-90-R than STAI-Trait or BDI. These results suggest that the Korean-version IAS can be used to measure the interaction anxiousness in college students.
This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Paranoia scale, which was developed for measuring paranoid tendency. It was composed of 20 self-report items from MMPI. The Paranoia scale was administered to 447 college students and 42 psychiatric patients. Among them 187 college students and psychiatric patients were asked to complete the MMPI-Pa scale and the SCL-90-R-PAR scale as well as the Paranoia scale. Results indicated that the Paranoia scale has sufficient reliability and validity. Item-total correlations, α-coefficients, test-retest reliability, inter-item correlations, and all correlations between the paranoid measures were respectably high and significant. And the results of factor analysis suggested single factor. The usefulness of the scale, limitations, and implications for future study were discussed.
The development and initial psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory (K-ASI) and the Agoraphobic Cognition Questionnaire and Body Sensation Questionnaire(K-ACQ & K-BSQ), a companion masure, were described in this study. The ASI and the ACQ and BSQ were translated into Korean and administered to 92 psychiatric outpatients, 60 normal controls, and 209 college students to evaluate their psychometric properties. The results showed that the K-ASI, K-ACQ and K-BSQ have high concurrent validity, internal consistency and temporal stability. But in the K-ASI and K-BSQ, the discriminant validities between clinical patient groups were insufficient. The K-ASI, K-ACQ and K-BSQ were found to have single factor structure. The factor was named "fear of body sensation" in K-ASI, "fear of loss of control" in K-ACQ, and "fear of abnormal cardiopulmonary function and body sensation" in K-BSQ. Finally, some limitations of this study and the implications for further study are discussed.
The validity of the two- and four-subset short forms of the Korean-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was investigated using a sample of 72 psychiatric patients. Both short forms correlated highly with the Full Scale IQ(.92 and .97). However, pairwise t-tests computed between FSIQ and each short form indicated that a two-subtest short form yielded a significantly higher IQ, whereas a four-subtest short form did not significantly differ from the FSIQ. Finally, the rate of agreement with the Full Scale IQ, in terms of Wechsler's seven-category classification, was relatively low(58% and 72%) for each short form. It is concluded that the two- and four-subtest short forms should be used with caution in situations where a precise IQ measurement is required.
The Purpose of this study is to construct Korean scales of MMPI and to analyze its reliability and validity. The subject were 690 psychiatric inpatients, 183 juvenile delinquents from confinement services, and 656 normal adults. MMPI was administered to all of the subjects and item analysis was conducted based on data obtained from the subjects. Test-retest reliability was calculated from 168 normal data and factor analysis was done on the data obtained from 4,295 normal data. In constructing Korean version MMPI, quite a number of items contained in the scales of NF(38 items), NSc(30 items), NHy(26 items) need to be corrected. 14(D) to 10(Pa) items were found to be inappropriate in ND, NPd, NMf-f, NPa, NPt, NMa Scales while less than 10 items were identified to be corrected in NL, NK, NHs, NMf-m, NSi Scales,. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of Korean version of MMPI were proved to be acceptable. However, for the NMf Scale the reliability was very low. It is speculated that the items of Mf scale of the original MMPI were constructed with data obtained from homosexual patients. Since the homosexuality is not considered as serious mental problem in Korean culture, NMf scale needs a further attention in cultural aspects. Korean version of MMPI was classified into 3 factors which could be named as psychopathology, depression/introversion, defensiveness-anxiety. Even though these factors were not fully consistent in their sequential order, they exist consistently across sex and age. The results of discriminant analysis on the existing MMPI revealed relatively high predictive power for diagnostic classification, while the Korean version of MMPI is much higher than the former in most patient groups. The predictive power of diagnostic classification was elevated approximately 7% for manic patient group. In particular the results suggest that Korean scales of MMPI considering cultural variables is superior to existing MMPI in construct validity as well as external validity.
A study of symptomatic and characteristic aspects of 17 psychiatric inpatients showing MMPI normal K+ profile was done and the results were suggested in comparison with the findings of other previous studies. There was significantly high propotion of symptom rate on impairment of reality-testing, judgement problems, idea of reference, concentration difficulty, and impairment of social/occupational adjustment in MMPI normal K+ profile group. In general they were emotionally inappropriate, unstable, irritable and impulsive. Schizophrenia in men and bipolar disorder in women were the most frequent diagnoses, and their symptom manifestations were differed somewhat according to diagnosis. In consistent with Gynther et. al.(1968) the results showed that the characteristics of MMPI normal K + profile group were different in each clinical settings. Limitations of this study and suggestions were discussed.
The purpose of present study was to establish the Korean developmental norms of BGT using the Koppitz scoring system for children in 177 normal children with age from 5 to 10(boy 88, girl 89), and examine the clinical utility of BGT as a tool for detecting brain damage in clinical group(27 attention deficit hyperactivity disordered, and 27 brain damaged) between the age of 7 and 9. To this end, BGT was administered to all subjects, and their total errors were scored by the Koppitz scoring system for children. To determine the cut-off score for detecting brain damage, the means and standard deviations of total error scores for normal group were used to calculate the cut-off scores for each age group, respectively. In normal group the means of total error scores were decreased according to the increase of age, and that was less than l at age of 9. These results suggest that normal children older than 9 perform very well on BGT without any error, which support the validity of BGT in assessing the maturity of visual-motor coordination ability. There were significant differences among the normal, the attention deficit hyperactivity disordered, and the brain damaged groups on the means of total error scores. The cut-off score of 5 classified 90% of the normals and 100% of the brain damaged correctly at age 7(percentage of overall correct classification=95%), and the cut-off score of 4 classified 100% of the normals and 85.7% of the brain damaged correctly at age 8(percentage of overall correct classification= 94%). These results put together support the validity of BGT as a tool for diagnosing brain damage. But when the cut-off score of 3 was used at age 9, the percentage of overall correct classification was decreased to 77.8%, suggesting that in order to detecting brain damage in older children, the norms of BGT must be strict and other neuropsychological tests as well as BGT be administered.
The present study investigated about the influence of intensive training, reinforcement and verbal expression on WCST performance of the 60' Schizophrenic patients. Subjects were diagnosed by psychiatrist and psychologist based on DSM-III-R criteria. All conditions including intensive training, reinforcement and verbal expressions increased number of category and reduced perseverative errors immediately and these training effects were maintained after a week. But intensive training and verbal expressions are more effctive than reinforcement in long-term perspective. The results indicate that deficit in performance on the WCST are improvable by intensive training and verbal expressions.
The purpose of this study was to develop a writing achievement battery and to evaluate its applicability. The study was divided in two phases. The primary focus of Study 1 was the development of the Writing Achievement Battery consisting of three subtests : Handwriting, Spelling, and Composition. The items of the three subtests were selected through consultation with elementary school teachers. The preliminary Handwriting and Spelling subtests were administered to 264 elementary school children in 2nd, 4th, and 6th grade. Through this procedure the response method of the Handwriting subtest was determined and the items of the spelling subtest were selected through item-analysis. Study 2 was conducted to examine the reliability and validity of the Writing Achievement Battery constructed in Study 1. The battery was administered to 256 elementary school children. To examine the reliability of the WAB, Cronbach's α coefficient, the consistency between evaluators in the Handwriting subtest, and the test-retest correlation coefficient were calculated. The consistency of the H : .83, S : .87, C : .90, suggested an internal consistency of the subtest. The .45 to .98 consistency between evaluators indicated that consistency was above average. The test-retest coefficients .47 to .65, .89, .57 to .80, for H, S, C, respectively indicated that the Spelling subtest was generally stable and the other two subtests were less stable. For the criterion-related validity, the scores from the WAB were compared with those of the teachers evaluations of the Handwriting Subtest and the Composition Subtest, the BGT, the Spelling Recognition subtest of the Basic Learning Functioning Battery, and the students' grade in the subject of Korean. There were significant correlations between the three subtests of the WAB and the criteria and constructs. The group differences according to gender and SES(Socio-Economic Status) were also analyzed. There were significant group differences across gender and there were no group differences in SES. This evidence supported the validity of the WAB.
This study was attempted to explore the relation between MMPI profile types by cluster analysis and defense mechanisms in University students. By the cluster analysis of MMPI subscales, 1) Normal Group I(T score ≤ 47) 2) Normal Group II(48 ≤ T score ≤ 55) 3) Neurotic Group 4) Psychotic Group were extracted. There were statistically significant differences between groups in using defense mechanisms. The results were as follows. Normal group I and II used more humor, sublimation, rationalization, anticipation than neurotic and psychotic group. Neurotic group used more projection, passive-aggressive behavior, dissociation, somatization than two normal groups. Psychotic group used more displacement, dissociation than the other three groups. Psychotic group used more passive-aggressive behavior, projection, somatization, acting out, regression than normal groups. In summary, while normal groups used mature defense mechanisms, neurotic and psychotic groups used immature mechanisms.
This study intented to testify Jung's theory of the relation of psychological types and psychological pathology, by studying the relation of psychological types of MBTI and scales of MMPI, 16PF in 115 university students. Above all, it examined the former articles on the related subjects, and the used statistical methods were simple correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, Anova. The scores of scales of 16PF were more significantly related to the scores of preferences of MBTI than the scales of MMPI. The scores of E preference of MBTI were significantly positively related to Pd scale of MMPI, and the scores of F preference were to Hy. The scores of Extroverted Sensing Type(ES) were significantly more high in A, E, F, N, EXT, TOU scales of 16PF than other groups. Extrovertesd Intuition Type(EN) in C, F, H, IND of 16PF, Extroverted Thinking Type(ET) A, C, E, F, H, N, Q1, EXT, TOU, IND in 16PF, Extroverted Feeling Type(EF) in F, H, EXT of 16PF, Inroverted Sensing Type(IS) Si of MMPI, O, ANX of 16PF, Introverted Intuition Type(IN) I, M, Q2, CRE of 16PF, Introverted Thinking Type(IT) Si of MMPI, G, SUP of 16PF, Introverted Feeling Type(IF) F, D, Si of MMPI, I, ANX of 16PF. So Jung's theories of psychological types and the pathology were somewhat supported by the results of this study. The limitations of this study are the number of subjects(n=115) so few for statistical process, and generalizing the results of this study to patients because the most subjects were normal university students.
This study was conducted to pursue the improvement for discriminant power of Benton Neuropsychological Assessment(BNA) by taking advantages of qualitative analysis of BNA performances. Subjects were 73 patients with unilateral brain injury, 122 controls(91 normal adults and 31 psychiatric patients) and 47 malingerers. With some qualitative variables applied in this study, the percent of grouped cases correctly classified was 88.75%. This figure was 7.5% higher than diagnostic hit ratio by using Benton's suggestion. This results verified the superiority of the qualitative approach in this study. The contents of the discriminant variables involved in discriminant functions, which discriminate patients with left or right hemisphere lesions from controls and malingerers, were also examined. Finally, the limitations of this study and suggestions for following studies were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the depth of a person's self-disclosure on his physiological arousal, emotional catharsis, and cognitive understanding, under the anger-arousing stressful situation. Also, it was investigated if there is an interaction effects between the depth of self-disclosure and anger-in tendency. Subjects of this experiment were 64 male college students, who had either a high or a low level of anger-in tendency. The results showed that students in the intimate self-disclosure condition had a lower level of negative emotion, and had more positive self-understanding than those in the superficial self-disclosure condition. Also, these effects were found to be more salient in subjects with a high level of anger-in tendency. Implications of the present findings of this study were discussed in relation to confrontation-inhibition model(Pennebaker, 1989).
This literature review was conducted to investigate the studies on the Event-Related Potentials(ERPs) which is one of the physiological measurements of the cognitive process. This review particularly focused on those studies which investigated the effect on the P300 amplitude and latency of the manipulation of the probability and emotional value of stimulus. Based on the results of those studies, it was attemptd to explain the functional significance of P300. In addition, the studies which examined the clinical utility of P300 as a screening test for dementia and schizophrenia were reviewed. The direction of future P300 study has been proposed.