The purpose of this study was to examine the similarities and distinctiveness among Postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Major depressive disorder (MDD), and co-occuring PTSD and Depressive disorder (DD) with MMPI-2-RF. Data of 190 patients (61 with PTSD, 69 with MDD, 60 with PTSD + DD) were collected from the Department of Psychiatry of three university hospitals. Using Minnesota Multiple Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), clinical characteristics were compared to determine which scale has utility in differentiating among the groups. Significant differences in all of the Higher-Order (H-O) Scales, almost of the Restructured Clinical Scales, and a few of the Specific Problems Scales were observed among three groups. Multinominal logistic regression analyses showed that Emotion/ Internalizing Dysfunction (EID) and Thought Dysfunction (THD) in H-O Scales were useful in differentiating between PTSD and MDD. Aggression (AGG) in Externalizing Scales and Disconstraint-Revised (DISC-r) in PSY-5 Scales were significant predictors in distinguishing Comorbid group from PTSD. The results suggest that there are distinct clinical characteristics among the three groups, although PTSD, MDD, and comorbid group share many symptoms.
The purpose of this study was to standardize the Korean version of the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Sixth edition (Beery VMI-6) and to examine its reliability and validity. The subjects comprised 1,882 Koreans ranging in age from 2 to 90 years. In addition, 144 children and adults with intellectual disability were included for the construct validity study as a clinical sample. The VMI-6 demonstrated good to excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and inter-rater reliability. For the criterion-related validity, the correlations with the BGT-II and the K-DTVP-2 ranged from low to reasonably high. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with the K-WAIS-IV, the K-WISC-IV, the K-Vineland-II, and the K-WFA. Specifically, those tests and the VMI-6 subtests yielded high correlations within intellectual disability groups. In addition, scores from the clinical sample were significantly low, which provides important validity evidence for the VMI-6 as a screening test. This study confirmed that the VMI-6 has adequate reliability and validity for estimating visual-motor integration ability.
This study was conducted to examine possible sex differences in memory ability among Korean children. A Korean version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) was administered to 314 Korean boys and 243 Korean girls between the ages of 7 and 15 years. Results indicated that Korean girls performed better than Korean boys on both memory tests. Five out of 9 memory measures (7 RAVLT, 2 RCFT) indicated a significant sex difference favoring girls. Of the remaining 4 measures, 3 indicated a higher mean performance for girls compared to boys. Effect sizes for the sex differences were relatively small in magnitude and mean d was .17 for RAVLT and .18 for RCFT. Many previous studies involving children as well as adults and older adults have shown significant differences in verbal memory performance favoring women over men. However, sex differences in visuospatial memory performance were less consistent across studies. Thus, it may be tentatively concluded that girls are superior to boys in verbal memory function. However, further studies are needed to draw a firm conclusion regarding sex differences in visuospatial memory function. Both biological and environmental factors likely contribute to sex differences in memory ability. However, given that sex differences in memory favoring women are found across different cultures and appear at a relatively early age, biological factors may play more important roles than environmental ones.
There has been considerable academic interest in research on different subtypes or static manifestations of paranoia, as exemplified by the suggestion of Trower and Chadwick(1995). Although the perceived deservedness of persecution has been regarded as the distinguishing feature of punishment paranoia, none of the existing scales included a measure of deservedness. The main purpose of the present study is to translate and examine reliability and validity of the Persecution and Deservedness Scale(PaDS) originally developed by Melo, Corcoran, Shryane and Bentall(2009) in order to assess both the persecutory thinking and the perceived deservedness of persecution. In an undergraduate sample (N=290), the K-PaDS showed acceptable internal consistency and the modified two-factor model (Persecution(P) factor, Deservedness(D) factor) fitted the data best in confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the K-PaDS demonstrated convergent validity with other measures of paranoid symptoms. Both P and D factors showed significant correlation with concurrent measures of self-concept, self-esteem and negative emotion (depression, anxiety, and anger), thereby proving preliminary construct validity of the K-PaDS. However, the D factor failed to demonstrate its unique relationship with “Bad Me” characteristics of punishment paranoia in terms of self-concept or depression. Lastly, other limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity and clinical utility of the VMI-6. For this purpose, 91 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and ADHD and 91 general children from 6 to 16 years-of-age were tested using VMI-6 and K-WISC-IV. The results are as follows: First, between Visual-Motor Integration Test, Visual Perception Supplementary Test, Motor Coordination Supplementary Test of VMI-6 and 10 subtests of K-WISC-IV, the results proved to be statistically significant in the group of intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and ADHD. In particular, three subtests of VMI-6 scores showed a high correlation with Full Scale IQ, Perceptual Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, and Digit Span of K-WISC-IV. Second, each disorder group and general children were classified as per performance Visual-Motor Integration Test, Visual Perception Supplementary Test, and Motor Coordination Supplementary Test. These results showed that construct validity of VMI-6 is useful for examining constructs and for children with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and ADHD, VMI-6 was useful in classifying neurological deficits. Finally, the meaning and limitation of this study and suggestions for further study are discussed.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on social anxiety, rejection sensitivity, and acceptance of social anxiety disorder-prone college students. A total of 400 students of four-year colleges who lived in Chonbuk province completed the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS). The 16 participants who were selected by the scale were randomly assigned to 8 in the acceptance and commitment therapy group and 8 in the control group. The ACT program was administered for 8 sessions. All participants completed the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS), Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire(RSQ), and Acceptance Action Questionnaire-Ⅱ(AAQ) at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 5-week follow-up period. The results of this study were as follows: Social anxiety, and rejection sensitivity were significantly decreased in the therapy group compare with the control group, while acceptance was significantly increased compared with the control group. The effect of social anxiety, rejection sensitivity and, experiential avoidance were maintained up to follow-up. Finally, the implications and the limitations of this study, and the suggestions for future study were also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBT) on employment stress, dysfunctional attitude, and depression of college students. Three hundred ninety six four-year-course college students completed the Job-seeking Stress Scale and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale-Korean Version(DAS-K). Sixteen patients were selected for those scales using the Beck Depression Inventory-Korean version(K-BDI) and randomly assigned to a CBT group and a waiting list control group (eight each). The CBT program was administered for eight sessions. All participants completed the Job-seeking Stress Scale, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale-Korean Version (DAS-K), and Beck Depression Inventory-Korean version (K-BDI) at pre-test, post-test, and at 4 weeks follow-up periods. The results of this study were as follows: Job-seeking stress, dysfunctional attitude, and depression of the therapy group decreased more than those of the control group at pre-post, pre-follow up test. Last, the implications and limitations of this study, and suggestions for future study were also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of the strengths-based intervention based on character strengths and temperament in the clinical population of adolescents with externalizing maladjustment behaviors. Changes of the dependent variables from the clinical population of adolescents were measured and compared at three different time points to examine the efficacy of the strength-based writing intervention using the corresponding strengths and the balancing strengths of Novelty Seeking (NS). The results of 43 clinical participants showed that the writing intervention using the strengths (creativity, curiosity, humor) corresponding to NS increased the subjective happiness scores and the writing intervention using the strengths (modesty, prudence, self-regulation) balancing NS decreased the externalizing problem scores. Based on the overall findings, the author discussed the implications on the understanding of adolescent externalizing maladjustment behaviors in theoretical and clinical manners. Finally, the limitations of this study were discussed along with suggestions for future research.
This study examined the effect of mindfulness on anxiety and post event-processing, as compared to distraction in socially anxious undergraduate students. Undergraduate students received the first speech task to induce anxiety, and were randomly assigned to three different treatment conditions; mindfulness condition(n=18), distraction condition(n=18), and control condition(n=18). They completed measures of subjective anxiety response before and after speeches. After receiving brief training, they underwent the second speech task and post-event rumination was assessed over the 24 hours period. Results indicated that the mindfulness group showed a greater decrease in subjective anxiety response before the speech than the other two groups, but there was no difference in subjective anxiety response after the speech between the mindfulness group and the distraction group. Next day, the mindfulness group reported less post-event rumination compared to the other two conditions. These results suggest that mindfulness can be an effective way to reduce anticipatory anxiety and post-event rumination in socially anxious individuals.
The aim of this study was to examine the role of a restrained eater’s neuroticism level in self-enhancement and eating behavior following exposure to thin-ideal images. Eighty-five female participants were classified according to four groups based on their dietary restraint and neuroticism level. They completed self-reports on a visual analogue scale before and after exposure to thin-ideal images. Then, their approach-avoidance tendency toward food was measured using a stimulus-response compatibility task and chocolate consumption was measured to examine their eating behavior. Results indicated that after exposure to thin-ideal images, positive affect was more decreased in restrained eaters with high neuroticism compared to other groups and negative affect was increased in all groups except unrestrained eaters with low neuroticism. In addition, compared to other groups, unrestrained eaters with low neuroticism showed significantly lower avoidance tendency toward food, while there were no significant differences in approach tendency toward food between groups. Furthermore, individuals with high neuroticism consumed more chocolate than those with low neuroticism. These findings suggest that restrained eaters with high neuroticism are most likely to be disturbed by thin-ideal images and showed the relationship between neuroticism level and disordered eating behavior.
This study seeks to empirically identify the emotional characteristics of narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability using a measure that assesses a wide range of narcissism. In study I, Pathological Narcissism Inventory(PNI), which measures pathological narcissism, was translated into Korean and was validated. Study II was conducted to examine the emotional characteristics of people with narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability. Grandiosity subscales showed positive correlation with positive affect, but showed no significant correlation with depression and negative affect. On the other hand, vulnerability subscales showed positive correlation with depression and negative affect but negative correlation with positive affect. Both narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability showed positive correlation with trait anger. For further analysis, narcissists were divided into grandiose group and vulnerable group based on their relative levels of PNI’s grandiosity score and vulnerability score. The grandiose group showed more positive affect than the vulnerable group. The vulnerable group showed higher level of depression and negative affect. However, no significant difference in the trait anger score was observed between the vulnerable group and the grandiose group. The finding of this research suggests that emotional characteristics vary according to two factors of narcissism. The implications, limitations and suggestions for future study are discussed.
The current study examined the developmental trajectories of depression and anxiety in late adolescent males and the impact of social support from parents, teachers, and peers on the trajectories. Participants included 507 10th grade Korean male high school students. Levels of depression and anxiety were measured using a sub-scale of the Korean version of the Youth Self Report (K-YSR) every six months for 3years; perceived social support from parents, teachers, and peers was measured once during baseline. The results of latent growth mixture modeling indicated that there are four latent trajectories of anxiety and depression: low(46.8%), moderate(33.1%), high(13.6%), and fluctuating(6.5%). The fluctuating group showed moderate levels of depression and anxiety at the baseline but showed a subclinical level of the problems by the 3rd and the 4th measurement sessions, after which the levels gradually decreased. Social support from parents and peers predicted low, moderate, and high trajectories of the internalized problems; students with lower levels of support were more likely to belong to higher risk trajectories. It was also found that the higher level of parent support in the fluctuating trajectory was the only factor that distinguished it from the high trajectory. These findings suggest that social support from both parents and peers could be useful in predicting the development of internalized problems and that parent support may be a protective factor in high-risk late adolescent males.
The purpose of this study is to examined the mediating effects of emotional regulation ability between parent attachment and internet addiction tendency. Inventory of parent attachment, internet addiction scale, and emotional regulation ability scale were administered to 500 students in middle and high school in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do and data from 422 students were analyzed. The results of this study are summarized as follows : parent attachment showed a positive correlation with emotional regulation ability, whereas parent attachment showed a negative correlation with internet addiction tendency. Emotional regulation ability showed a negative correlation with internet addiction tendency. Finding in structural equation modeling indicated that emotional regulation ability fully mediates the relation of parent attachment and internet addiction tendency. This study suggests that emotional regulation ability is an important factor in relation of parent attachment and internet addiction tendency. The results implicate that it is necessary to evaluate and intervene in emotional regulation ability in prevention and treatment of internet addiction.
The aim of this study was to examine the perception of duration according to depression levels and how arousal and valence would affect time perception. The participants were classified according to a high-depressive group (n = 20) and a low-depressive group (n = 20), based on their depressive scores. We investigated the differences in the subjective perception of duration when the participants watched arousal-emotional pictures (positive-high arousal, positive-low arousal, negative-high arousal, and negative-low arousal). The results showed that overall, the high-depressive group perceived duration as slow compared to the low-depressive group. In addition, while experiencing negative emotions, the high-depressive group showed a slower distortion of time than the low-depressive group. These results suggested that application of distorted time perception to clinically depressive groups may be helpful in escaping the vicious cycle of depression.
The purpose of the study was to examine the role of self-conscious negative emotions in suicidal behaviors among adults with alcohol disorders. Participants were recruited from residental alcohol treatment centers and hospitals. All participants completed self-report questionnaires including the Differential Emotions Scale-IV (DES-IV), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and responded to the questions of lifetime history of suicidal ideation and attempt. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that depressive symptoms were significantly associated with lifetime history of suicidal ideation while alcohol-related problems were significantly associated with lifetime history of suicide attempt in a multivariate model including sociodemographic risk factors, psychiatric symptoms, and eleven distinct emotion factors. Among emotion factors, only ‘hostility-inward’ was significantly associated with lifetime history of suicidal attempt. These findings highlight the critical role of self-hate or hostile affect toward the self in suicide attempt in adults with alcohol disorders.