Although robbery displays a higher prevalence of involving groups of two or more offenders than other types of violent crimes, there has been little research on differentiating co-offending robberies from lone robberies. To investigate differences among robberies based on the number of offenders involved, we examined 1353 robbery offenses committed in South Korea. Significant differences among robbery offenders across group size were observed with respect to their age, criminal record, occupation, and living status. Additionally, we found notable differences in victim characteristics, including gender, age, victim-offender relationship, and the nature of the victimization. Moreover, differences were noted in offending behaviors, including planning, offense type, method of approach, type of violence, and weapon possession. Furthermore, a number of factors that significantly contributed to predicting the size of the robbery group were identified, including planning, offense type, offender living status, type of violence, and type of victimization. Our study has policy implications for developing early intervention programmes targeting co-offenders and treatment programmes for victims as well as research implications as to how co-offending affects the behaviors of robbery offenders.
박지선, 최낙범 (2010). 범죄행동을 통한 대인강도 범죄자의 유형별 분류에 관한 연구. 한국공안행정학회보, 19, 207-235.
심영희 (1991). 강도범죄의 실태에 관한 연구. 형사정책연구, 6, 149-219.
이상호, 곽정식 (2007). 강도범죄의 실태 및 대구 지역 침입 강도 실태 분석. 대한수사과학지, 2, 5-20.
황지태 (2004). 강․절도의 범행대상 선택에 관한 연구. 서울: 한국형사정책연구원.
Alarid, L. F., Burton, V. S., & Hochstetler, A. L. (2009). Group and solo robberies: Do accomplices shape criminal form? Journal of Criminal Justice, 37, 1-9.
Amir, M. (1971). Patterns in forcible rape. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Andersen, M. A., & Felson, M. (2012). Co-offending and the diversification of crime types. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 56, 811-829.
Burrell, A., Bull, R., Bond, J., & Herrington, G. (2015). Testing the impact of group offending on behavioural similarity in serial robbery. Psychology, Crime & Law, 21, 551-569.
Carrington, P. J. (2002). Group crime in Canada. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 44, 277-315.
Cohen. J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum.
Conway, K. P., & McCord, J. (2002). A longitudinal examination of the relation between cooffending with violent accomplices and violent crime. Aggressive Behavior, 28, 97-108.
da Silva, T., Woodhams, J., & Harkins, L. (2013). Heterogeneity within multiple perpetrator rapes: A national comparison of lone, duo, and 3+ perpetrator rapes. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment.
Erikson, M. L. (1971). The group context of delinquent behavior. Social Problems, 19, 114-129.
Erikson, M. L. (1971). Group Violations and Official Delinquency: The Group Hazard Hypothesis. Criminology, 11, 127-160.
Erikson, M. L., & Jensen, G. F. (1977). Delinquency is still group behaviour: Toward revitalizing the group premise in the sociology of deviance. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 70, 102-116.
Felson, R. B., Baumer, E. P., & Messner, S. F. (2000). Acquaintance robbery. Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency, 37, 284-305.
Festinger, L., Pepitone, A., & Newcomb, T. (1952). Some consequences of deindividuation in a group. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 47, 382-389.
Gagnon, R., & LeBlanc, M. (1983). Police responses in armed robbery cases. Canadian Police College Journal, 7, 297-310.
Gidcyz, C. A., & Koss, M. P. (1990). A comparison of group and individual sexual assault victims. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 14, 325-342.
Harrell, E. (2005). Violence by gang members, 1993-2003. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Hindelang, M. J. (1971). The social versus solitary nature of delinquent involvement. British Journal of Criminology, 11, 167-175.
Matthews, R. (2002). Armed robbery. Cullompton, Devon: Willan Publishing.
McCord, J.& Conway, K. P. (2005). Co-offending and patterns of juvenile crime. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
McCluskey, J. D. (2013). A comparison of robbers'use of physical coercion in commercial and street robberies. Crime & Delinquency, 59, 419-442.
McGloin, J. M., & Piquero, A. R. (2009). ‘I Wasn’t Alone’: collective behaviour and violent delinquency. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 42, 339-353.
Reiss, A. J., & Farrington, D. P. (1991). Advancing knowledge about co-offending:Results from a prospective longitudinal survey of London males. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82, 360-395.
Roberts, A. (2008). The influences of incident and contextual characteristics on crime clearance of nonlethal violence: A multilevel event history analysis. Journal of Criminal Justice, 36, 61-71.
Supreme Prosecutors’ Office (2015). 2014 Analytic reports on crimes. Seoul: Supreme Prosecutors’Office.
Tillyer, M. S., & Tillyer R. (2015). Maybe I Should Do This Alone: A comparison of solo and co-offending robbery outcomes. Justice Quarterly, 32, 1064-1088.
Ullman, S. E. (2007). Comparing gang and individual rapes in a community sample of urban women. Violence and Victims, 22, 43-51.
U.S. Department of Justice(2011). Criminal Victimization in the United States, 2008 -Statistical Tables. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
van Mastrigt, S. B., & Farrington, D. P. (2009). Co-offending, age, gender and crime type:Implications for criminal justice policy. The British Journal of Criminology, 49, 552-573.
Warr, M. (2002). Companions in crime: The social aspects of criminal conduct. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Weerman, F. M. (2003). Co-offending as social exchange: Explaining characteristics of cooffending. The British Journal of Criminology, 43, 398-416.
Wright, R. T., & Decker, S. H. (1997). Armed robbers in action. Boston: Northeastern University Press.