경남 고성만과 강진만에 서식하는 굴과 피조개에 대한 체성분의 계절적 변화를 Station별로 조사 분석하였다. 굴의 경우 대체로 조사정점에서 모두 여름에 단백질의 함량이 높았으며, 겨울 동안 지질과 탄수화물의 함량이 높아 정점 간에는 뚜렷한 차이는 없었으나, Station 2에서 다소 양호한 상태를 나타내었다. 글리코겐의 함량은 여름에 현저히 감소하였으며, 에너지 함량은 11월부터 이듬해 3월까지 높은 값을 나타내었다. 한편 피조개의 경우 단백질은 여름 동안 낮았으나 탄수화물은 높게 나타났다. 지질은 2-5월 동안 높았으며, 글리코겐의 함량은 6-9월 동안 낮았고, 에너지 함량은 겨울 동안 낮게 나타나 어장간의 뚜렷한 차이는 없었다.
Seasonal changes in biochemical composition of Crassostrea giggas and Scapharca broughtonii in the Kosong bay and Kangjin bay, southern Korea were studied over 12 months in relation to their habitat. In Crassostrea giggas, protein was high during summer in all experimental station, but lipid and carbohydrate were high during winter, and no clear difference was between experimental station. Glycogen content was sharply decreased during summer, and energy content was low but carbohydrate was high during summer. In Scapharca broughtonii, protein was low, but carbohydrate was high during summer. Lipid was high from February to March, glycogen content was low from June to September. Energy content was low during winter and no clear difference biochemical composition was between experimental station of Scapharca broughtonii.
In order to estimate the genetic variability and differentiation in common squid, eleven isozymic loci, coded for nine enzymes detected by starch gel electrophoresis, were scored from nine spawning cohorts in four localities. The expected average heterozygosity ranged from 0.00019 (between II-S<TEX>$_2$</TEX> and Na-W) to 0.00814 (Between Bu-S and Na-W) in nine different spawning cohorts in four localities. A dendrogram, based on genetic distance mentioned, illustrated that nine different spawning cohorts were divided into three groups, similar to the result estimated by their ecological characterizations. From these results, we estimate that the common squid distributed throughout Korean waters will maintain this gene exchange. It is postulated that either the summer or the autumn spawning cohort has developed a local population that is isolated by hydrographic factors.
The kidney of bivalve mollusks often contains remarkably high concentrations of both essential and non-essential metals and perform regulating and detoxicating activities. The kidney has also been proposed as a biological indicator for radioactive as well as for stable metals in the sea. The present study of the Antarctic clam, Laternula elliptica, concerns the functional morphology of the kidney epithelium, which contains highly accumulated heavy metals. The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study was undertaken in order to find out the localization of metallothionein and heavy metals accumulated in the kidney of Laternula elliptica. In the immunohistochemical investigation, an intense metallothionein immunostaining reaction was found in the epithelial cells of the kidney of Laternula elliptica. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the epithelial cells contained numerous electron-dense inclusion bodies which were considered to be accumulated heavy metals.
경기도 가평군 외서면 호명리와 강원도 정선군 신동읍 조동리에서 채집된 깨알달팽이, Diplommatina (Sinica) paxillus) 와 큰깨알달팽이, Diplommatina (Sinica) changensis) 를 대상으로 공기건조법에 의한 염색체 관찰을 실시하였다. 실험결과 2종 모두 2n = 26의 염색체 수를 지니며 6쌍의 중부염색체와 7쌍의 차중부염색체로 구성된 동일한 핵형을 나타내었으나 각 염색체 쌍의 크기와 완장비, 상대적 길이 등에서 종간 차이를 발견할 수 있었다.
Comparative karyological analyses of the Korean land snail, Diplommatina (Sinica) paxillus and Diplommatina (Sinica) changensis, were performed by the Giemsa-staining and air-drying method. The karyotypes of both species were the same (2n = 26). However, the chromosome lengths and arm ratios, and relative chromosome lengths of the two species were distinctly different.
Beach death assemblages of bivalve mollusks were studied with respect to their species composition in six localities along the eastern coast of Korea (Gangneung, Jumunjin, Daejin, Gallam, Jukbyeon, Hupo and Chooksan). In all, thirty-nine species belonging to 30 genera and 19 families were recorded, and species diversity between the sampling sites varied from 5 to 21. Biogeographical analysis showed that studied fauna has warm-water character with the predominance of subtropical and subtropical-lowboreal species and the presence of tropical-subtropical species (in total, 77 %), and only 23 % of mollusks found are cold-water and temperate species. The most abundant species were Septifer virgatus (Wiegmann, 1837), Mytilus galloprovinciallis Lamarck, 1819, Gomphina melanaegis Romer, 1861, Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams et Reeve, 1850), Mactra chinensis Philippi, 1847 and Spisula sachalinensis (Schrenck, 1862).
2000년 6월부터 2001년 5월까지 제주남부연안 송악산주변지역 조간대 3개 지역 9개 지점에 대한 조간대 저서무척추동물의 공간적인 수직분포와 군집유형에 관하여 연구하였으며 그 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다.조사기간 중 조사구역 3개 지역 조간대에서 서식하는 저서무척추동물은 총 6 문, 12 강, 25 목, 50 과, 104 종이었다. 분류군별 출현종을 보면 연체동물이 3 강, 69 종 (66.3%), 절지동물 3 강, 17 종 (16.3%) 이었다. 조간대의 구역별 종다양성에서는 하부조간대구역으로 내려갈수록 높았으나, 조사지점별 다양성에서는 뚜렷한 차이가 없었다. 조간대 구역별 우점종의 수직분포는 상부조간대의 좁쌀무늬총알고둥 (N. exigua), 총알고둥 (L. brevicula), 거북손 (P. mitella mitella), 갈고둥 (N. japonica), 중부조간대는 각시고둥 (M. neritoides), 눈알고둥 (L. coronata corensis), 갈고둥 (N. japonica) 그리고 하부 조간대구역은 배무래기 (N. schrenckii), 애기밤고둥 (O. nigerrimusa), 대수리 (P. clavigera), 밤고둥 (C. argyrostoma lischkei) 의 순이었다. 9 개 지점간 유사도는 높았으며 2개 그룹으로 나눌 수 있었는데 St. 1, St. 2, St. 4, St. 8, St. 9가 한 그룹, St. 3, St. 5, St. 6, St. 7이 같은 그룹이었으나 두 그룹간 차이는 크지 않았다.감사의 말씀본 연구는 제주대학교 해양과학대학 BK 21 2000년 연구비 지원으로 수행되었음.
This study was performed to know the vertical distribution pattern and community structure of intertidal invertebrates at 9 sampling stations near Songacksan area located in Jeju Island from June 2000 to May, 2001. A total of 104 benthic invertebrate species was recorded during the survey period and it was composed of 50 families, 25 orders, 12 classes and 6 phyla. Among them, the most highest species richness was observed in the mollusks comprising 66.3% (69 species) and the next one in the arthropods showing 16.3% (17 species). Species diversity was largely different depending on their vertical distribution, revealing much higher in the lower intertidal zone than in the middle or upper zone, while there were no distinct differences between sampling stations. The dominant species were Nodilittorina exigua, Littorina brevicula, Pollicipes mitella mitella and Nerita japonica in the upper zone, Monodonta neritoides, Lunella coronata coreensis and Nerita japonica in the middle zone and Notoacmea schrenckii, Omphalius nigerimus, Purpura clavigera and Chlorostoma argyrostoma lishckei in the lower zone. The macrobenthic fauna surveyed could be divided into two groups based on their species similarities between sampling stations but their differences were not distinctive.
충남 연근해역의 키조개 개체군을 대상으로 자원생태학적 특성을 규명하기 위해 1999년 4월부터 6월까지 조사가능한 212개 조사정점에 대해 현장조사를 실시하였다. 본 조사를 통해 서식환경 및 분포밀도와 특성을 살펴보고, 자원량을 추정하였다.충남 연근해역은 3.9-75.9 m의 수심범위를 가지고, 평균수심이 28.5 m (SE = 0.97)이며, 저층의 환경특성은 평균수온 14.0℃, 투명도 4.8 m, 부유물질 48.0 mg/l이었다. 해역의 88.0%가 사질함량이 50% 이상인 니사질과 사질로 구성되었으며, 조사해역에서 키조개 자원의 분포밀도는 18.0-30.8 m의 수심범위와 사질 함유량이 50% 이상인 니사질 해역에서 높았다.조사해역에서 키조개는 단위면적 40 m2 내에서 5 개체 미만이 어획된 해역은 전 서식면적의 54.9%, 5 개체 이상 10 개체 미만의 개체가 어획된 해역은 9.9%, 10 개체 이상 20 개체 미만의 개체가 어획된 해역은 11.3%, 20 개체 이상 50 개체 미만의 개체가 어획된 해역은 16.9%, 50 개체 이상이 어획된 해역은 7.0%이었다.
The distribution and density of the pen shell, Atrina (Servatrina) pectinata japonica, were investigated to estimate population ecological parameters and biomass. Samples were collected during cruises from April to June 1999 in the coastal waters of Chungchung-namdo, Korea.The oceanographic conditions such as depth, temperature, transparency and suspended solids were measured from sampling stations. Seawater depth ranged from 3.9 m to 75.9 m and the mean was 28.5 m (SE = 0.97). The mean density of the pen shell was higher in the depth of 18.0-30.8 m. The water temperature of the bottom ranged from 7.0-21.5℃ and the mean was 14.0 ℃. The transparency ranged from 1.2-13.5 m and the mean was 4.8 m. The suspended solids ranged from 6.0-93.5 mg/l and the mean was 48.0 mg/l. The sand proportion of the sediment was > 50%. The mean densities of the pen shell by sediment type were 7.3 individuals/40 m2 (SE = 2.16) in the sand, 5.6 individuals/40 m2 (SE = 1.48) in the muddy sand, 3.0 individuals/40 m2 (SE = 1.89) in the sandy mud, and none in the mud. The sandy bottom, accounting for 29.8% of the overall habitat area, had a maximum density of 7.3 individuals/40 m2.
The chromosomes of two similar lymnaeid snail species, Austropeplea ollula from Korea and "Lymnaea"sp. introduced to Australia, were karyologically investigated by using an air-dry method. The diploid chromosome number found in A. ollula was 32, and that of "Lymnaea" sp. was 30. The mitotic chromosome complements of A. ollula were 5 metacentric, 9 submetacentric, and 2 subtelocentric pairs. "Lymnaea" sp. had 5 metacentric, 8 submetacentric, and 2 subtelocentric pairs. Austropeplea ollula is distinguishable from "Lymnaea" sp. by their chromosome numbers.