This study was to examine the process by which maternal parenting attitude, children's problem behavior, and perceived competence contribute to relationship with peer in early school aged children. A total 401 first grade children(200 boys and 201 girls) in 3 elementary schools and their mothers were surveyed. Measurements included Maternal Behavior Research Instrument, K-CBCL, Perceived Competence Scale for Children, and Positive and Negative Nomination. Structural equation modeling using SPSS 12.0 and AMOS 4.0 was performed for data analysis. Results indicated that relationship with peer in early school aged children doesn't linked with maternal parenting attitude directly, but linked indirectly via children's problem behavior and perceived competence. These results imply that the interventions for good peer relationship in early school age need to contain the contents of reducing problem behavior and improve perceived competence.
This study examined the effect of sub-factors of parentification(instrumental, emotional, unfairness) on conflictual independence from parents, self-assertiveness, and ambivalence over emotional expressiveness. A survey was conducted with 203 college students on parentification, psychological separation from parents, self-assertiveness, and ambivalence over emotional expressiveness. The results revealed that the group perceiving high unfairness within family showed less conflictual independence from parents, lower self-assertiveness, and higher ambivalence over emotional expressiveness compared to the others perceiving relatively low unfairness. Highly instrumental parentification group also showed less self-assertiveness. However, there was no difference between highly emotional parentification group and its counterpart. The implication of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.
This investigation was designed to confirm ATI effects between learners' aptitude factor such as intellect, emotion, and volition and both individual and task-oriented characteristics of teachers. It was also investigated to find out which teachers' type is more appropriate to the learners' aptitude factor, and to clarify that what is the aptitude variable easy-to-encourage instructional intervention. I tried to introduce as many as possible of aptitude variables in the model, and I made to improve the predictive power to the school grades by treating aptitude variables wholly that had been treated partially up to now. The causal model was composed of 90 Korean junior high school boys in Seoul city. It was analyzed according to the types of teacher for each subjects how inner variables (i.e. intellect, emotion, and volition) and substitute teacher'corresponding method (i.e. the individual-oriented and the task-oriented) affect the learners' school achievements. As a result, the volition factor was most affected by teacher's types. Bur, it was found that the interaction effect was derived mathematically alone. That is, the interaction term entered model (.103) showed higher Sig. F Change than it's none entered model (.791). Moreover, Structural Equation Modeling showed that the weak task-oriented teacher more influenced on learners' volitional than the strong task-oriented teacher in the national language and English. On the other hand, in mathematics, both the strong task-oriented and individual-oriented teacher greatly affected them. This suggests the possibility of educational intervention of the teacher. Teachers should lead a class in consideration of the instructional intervention program and training to develop learners' volitional factors than intellectual factors. This is because volitional factor could be controlled by the responsibility of oneself and intellectual factor influenced by inheritance and was hardly controlled for oneself.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of gender-role identity and career decision self-efficacy on vocational interest. 1131 data of university students going through the important period of career decision were collected. After data screening process, 468 data(male: 215, female: 253) were used for analysis. Two-way ANOVA and multiple regression analysis were conducted. The results of two-way ANOVA showed that the main effect of masculinity of gender role identity on Realistic and Enterprise types of vocational interests was significant. The main effect of femininity of gender role identity on Artistic, Social, and Conventional types of vocational interests also appeared significant. However, the interaction of gender role identity and career decision making self efficacy was not statistically significant. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that the masculinity and career decision making self efficacy were the strongest predictors of Realistic type, and the femininity and career decision making self efficacy were the most powerful ones of Conventional type of vocational interests. The effects of the masculinity and the femininity on Enterprise type, and the femininity on Artistic and Social type were greatest. Based on the findings, the limitations of this study was discussed.