The purpose of this study was to find out teacher's preference on peer status as a significant factor. It investigated the moderating effects of teacher's preference especially in regard to how children's social behaviors affect peer status. The subjects were 371 children and 12 homeroom teachers of the classes. The children's social behaviors and peer preferences were measured by using peer nomination while teacher's preferences with a self-reported method. The questionnaire by Lease(2002) was adapted to measure peer status, which was divided into peer preference and peer popularity. Children's social behaviors are adapted to measure separately in prosocial behavior(Chang, 2004), overt aggression(Rose, 2004), relational aggression and withdrawal(Chang, 2007). Teacher's preferences were adapted to be measurable by using the Mercer & DeRosier's scale(2008). The results showed the moderating effect of teacher's preferences were found among overt aggression, withdrawal and peer preference. Teacher's preference acted as a dangerous factor for the overtly aggressive students, while protective ones for the withdrawn. Secondly, the teacher's preference moderated the association among prosocial behavior, overt aggression, withdrawal and peer popularity. Peer preference acted as a protective factor to strengthen peer popularity for the prosocial and withdrawn. But teacher's preference acted as a dangerous factor for the overtly aggressive students. It seem that teacher's dislike for the aggressive students with higher grades increases their popularity, acting as a dangerous factor.
The purpose of this study was to develop a Resilience Scale for North Korean Youth in South Korea. A preliminary resilience scale of 34 items were constructed based on the literature review of resilience theories and interviews with North Korean Youth and 4 practitioners working with NK youth. A pilot survey was conducted with 107 NK youth in Hanawon, and factorial analysis of the data from the pilot survey reduced the 34 item scale to 18 items. The main survey was administered to 196 North Korean Youth who were made up of 39 youth at Hanawon and 157 youth residing in the community. The factor structure of the resilience instrument was tested with the Principal Component Analysis(PCA). A PCA yielded a model with 13 items with three 3 factors: ‘hardiness’, ‘ability to form intimacy’, ‘specificity of goals’. The internal consistency of the instrument indicates a high degree of homegeniety among items. The internal consistency of the instrument was .88 and the odd-even reliability was r = .86. The result of the confirmatory factor analysis showed the same construct as that of the exploratory factor analysis. The construct validity was tested by conducting Pearson's correlations between the resilience scale scores and Reynolds(1983)'s social desirability, Rosenberg(1965)'s self-esteem, HSCL-37, Kim et al(2009)'s cultural adaptation stress scores. A significant negative correlations with HSCL-anxiety(r = -.26, p ＜ .05), HSCL-depression(r = -.33, p ＜ .05), HSCL-crisis(r = -.17, p ＜ .05), cultural adaptation stress(r = -.18, p ＜ .05), and a positive correlation with Self-esteem(r = .57, p < .05) supported the validity of the instrument. As another way of verifying the construct validity, the data was divided into three groups according to the level of resilience scores(high resilient group, middle resilient group, low resilient group) and differences between groups in the levels of cultural adaptation stress and HSCL scores were verified by performing MANOVA. There were significant differences between the groups, which support the construct validity of the resilience scale. In conclusion, this instrument demonstrates good reliability and validity, and proves that it is an appropriate tool to measure resilience in North Korean youth. Implications for future research are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Youth Academic Resilience Scale(YARS) and to validate it. This study was involved took third steps. First, 80 preliminary items were developed based on theoretical literature, open-ended questions, interviews. To verify the content validity, 7 counseling experts rated those items. Second, the scale consisting of 54 items was administered to sample of 160 adolescents. Third, the scale consisting of 100 items was administered to sample of 233 adolescents. Data were collected from 650 samples, and 100 samples of them were eliminated based on response dishonesty. Finally, items of the scale were reduced to 47 items. Factor analysis showed evidence of construct validity of the scale. Five factor were extracted from the factor analysis: factor 1(11 items) implies ‘family support’, factor 2(9 items) implies ‘peer relation’, factor 3(10 items) implies ‘problem solving’, factor 4(10 items) implies ‘aspiration’, factor 5(7 items) implies ‘academic environment’. Internal consistency(Cronbach's α) of total score showed .93 and Cronbach's α of 5 subfactors demonstrated .84∼.89. To verify the convergent validity and discriminant validity of the developed scales, the self-esteem scale and hopelessness scale were administered. The result of the study indicated that YARS scores positively and significantly correlated with the self-esteem scale, negatively and significantly correlated with the hopelessness scale. Thus, YARS demonstrated satisfactory convergent validity and discriminant validity. In addition, the limitation of study and the practical use of the YARS was discussed.
This study examined whether distinct student profiles emerged from achievement goal orientations in Korean samples of the gifted and non-gifted 7th graders. Additionally, profile differences in terms of self-efficacy and academic burnout were scrutinized, as well as differences in student profiles by gender and giftedness. Four groups of students with unique achievement goal orientation profiles were identified by a cluster analysis: (a) success-oriented(31.3%), (b) mastery-oriented(22.3%), (c) typical(35.1%), and (d) disengaged(11.3%) profiles. The profile difference between gender groups was not a statistically significant, but between the giftedenss groups. Observed differences in self-efficacy and academic burnout indicated that goals related to self-improvement and active engagement with learning were positively related to self- efficacy, whereas avoidance tendencies and disengaged types were negatively associated with psychological well-being. Findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of leaners' self-efficacy and psychological well-being, when evaluating the role of achievement goal orientations in learning and achievement. Finally, the usefulness of a person-centered approach in understanding groups of learners with different types of needs and problems was discussed.
The purposes of this study were to develop and conduct a motivation regulation program for middle school students with high academic amotivation beliefs and to examine the effectiveness of the program in reducing academic amotivation beliefs and enhancing both motivation regulation and academic achievement of the students. For these purposes, the objectives of the motivation regulation program were driven from the analysis of both academic amotivation beliefs theories and previous studies on motivation regulation, and based on the objectives, the contents of the program were constructed by reflecting the results of a survey asking the needs of students, parents, and teachers. The preliminary program of 12 sessions was organized after revising the contents by utilizing the results of consultations from experienced professionals in school counseling. The final program was developed by improving the preliminary program after the preliminary program was conducted with a freshman class of a middle school in 2010. The final program of 12 sessions was conducted to 11 freshmen students who had high academic amotivation beliefs in a middle school in 2011. The results of data analysis using ANCOVA showed that academic amotivation beliefs in the experiment group was reduced significantly and motivation regulation was improved significantly compared to the control group, and the effects was still remained in the delay-test administered in two months after the program. It was shown that the academic achievement was also improved significantly after the program. The analyses of the participants' program session evaluation reports and the interview contents of the program experiences of the participants supported these positive effects of the program.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between social problem solving ability, job stress and happiness by teachers' multidimensional perfectionism. Three hundred teachers working at elementary, middle and high schools in Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongsangnam-do were given questionnaires assessing multidimensional perfectionism, social problem solving, job stress and happiness. Of the 300 questionnaires distributed, 276 were returned and analyzed. We used a Structural Equation Modeling analysis to test the research model. In conclusion, this study investigated the influence of teachers' multidimensional perfectionism on their happiness. In addition, it is implied that depending on the level of teachers' perfectionism, the mediating effect of social problem solving ability and job stress can be different through the path from multidimensional perfectionism to happiness. Further suggestions can be made for future studies.