The purpose of this study is to develop the inventory for measuring Korean college students' career development status considering their developmental characteristics and examine its reliability and validity. The inventory was based on Social career cognitive theory which suggests the integrated model for various variables affecting career development process. We developed the career development inventory which consists of eight sub-scales(self-knowledge, occupation-knowledge, career decision-making self-efficacy, career exploring self-efficacy, social networking utilizing self-efficacy, career transition self-efficacy, perception on the necessity of career readiness, and major and career suitability) and examined its reliabilities, concurrent validity and convergent validity. Proper reliabilities were confirmed. Evidences for validities were found in result of correlation analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Implication and limitation of the results and suggestions for utilizing the career development inventory were pointed out.
This study aims to investigate the relationship between perceived parental psychological control and self- esteem, as well as to examine the mediating role of maladaptive self-oriented perfectionism, in elementary school children. The participants were 423 fifth- and sixth-grade children in the Daegu and Kyungpook areas of Korea. Children evaluated their mother's and father's psychological control; maladaptive self- oriented perfectionism; and self-esteem in four areas-general, social, family and school. Children tended to display lower self-esteem and higher maladaptive self-oriented perfectionism when they perceived parental psychological control to be high. Those exhibiting high maladaptive self-oriented perfectionism also tended to display lower self-esteem. Maladaptive self-oriented perfectionism partially mediated the relationship between perceived parental psychological control and school self-esteem. These results suggested that high parental psychological control is a poor parenting style for furthering children's healthy psychological development.
This study examined the mediating effects of self-esteem and fear of negative evaluation on the relationship between social comparison orientation and career indecision. A total of 200 university students (men=80, women=120) responded to the survey packet including measures of social comparison orientation, self-esteem, fear of negative evaluation and career indecision scales. The data was analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. The results of this study were as follows: First, correlation analysis revealed that social comparison orientation, self-esteem, fear of negative evaluation, and career indecision have correlations. Second, The measurement model yielded evidence of good fit. Third, the analyses of the structural equation modeling supported the indirect pathways of self-esteem and fear of negative evaluation, which plays the mediating role of self-esteem and fear of negative evaluation regarding the relationship between social comparison orientation and career indecision. High social comparison orientation and low self-esteem then led to greater career indecision. High social comparison orientation and high fear of negative evaluation also led to greater career indecision. Also, Low self-esteem led to high fear of negative evaluation. However, the analyses of the structural model did not support the direct pathways from social comparison orientation to career indecision. Implication and limitation of the study were discussed along with some suggestions for future researches and psychotherapy practice.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between professional help-seeking behavior and social support network among adolescents. Participants with showing professional help-seeking behavior were one hundred twenty-eight middle school students who visited counseling center for counseling. Participants with not showing professional help-seeking behavior were one hundred ten middle school students who ranked high 20% in the questionnaire of problem behavior. Thus, two hundred thirty-eight middle school students completed questionnaires about social support network variables. The results indicated that the students with professional help-seeking behavior showed more positive network orientation than the students who did not show professional help-seeking behavior. The students with professional help-seeking behavior perceived more information support, material support, and emotional support, and also perceived more support from friends and family than those of not showing professional help-seeking behavior. With relation to the differences in the social support network by problem areas, students with problems of mental health perceived lower support than students with no problems for the group of professional help-seeking behavior. The implication of these findings were discussed.
This study is aimed to develope Validation Needs From Others Scale for Adolescents, based on a approval motivation definition. Theoretical system on validation from others, considering definitions by based on Revised Martin-Larsen Approval Motivation Scale(RMLAM; Martin, 1984) and new items for this study are developed. 390 high school students in Seoul, Gyeonggi, Incheon were surveyed and validity was verified by preliminary testing and present testing. Validation Needs From Others Scale, which are of composed 2 factor with 11 items, is developed by analyzing data results from the surveys. The 11 items show high correlation between items. Reliability from inter-item consistency reliability is also high. Correlation analysis is applied to evaluate between conformity of scale and related propriety. From the analysis suggest that validation Needs from others has the positive relationship with evaluation concerns perfectionism, anxidty and depression. Finally, the limits and further discussion of the study are suggested.
The present study aimed to examine the effects of a linguistic-social-skill-improvement program and a merit-improvement-focused program and a merit-improvement-focused program on the psychological wellbeing and interpersonal relations of adolescents from broken family. For this purpose were two quantitative studies and one qualitative case study conducted. Five adolescents (three boys and two girls with mean age of 13 years) from broken family participated across all three studies. In Study 1, a linguistic-social-skill-improvement program was exercised six times over 35 days. In order to test the effects of the program on the participants, their self-esteem, social support, and interpersonal relations were measured three times: before, right after, and one month after practice of the program. In Study 2, a merit-improvement-focused program was exercised six times over 25 days. In order to test the effects of the program on the participants, their happiness, experienced positive and negative emotion, and sociability were measured three times in a way similar to Study 1. Results indicated that both of the programs were useful in improving those adolescents' psychological wellbeing and interpersonal relations. These findings were discussed in relation to social and developmental contexts of the adolescent participants.
This study is aimed to construct the model that enables the Career & Guidance Counseling Teacher in high school to counsel effectively in the process of counseling. Based on the study of the previous studies and the results of the survey using Delphi Method conducted three times by career counsel and career education professionals and Guidance Counseling Teacher, high school Counseling Model was constructed through the analysis of importance and practice of category that should be included in high school career education and Guidance Counseling Teacher counsel model. Constructed high school ‘Career & Guidance counseling model’ contains the elements that should be dealt in counseling and is composed to apply to clients’ circumstances. After constituting the group of the professionals and extracting of items which showed the high importance through the three surveys, the process model is suggested to used at the scene of counseling. Constructed high school ‘Career & Guidance counseling model’ is separated in five categories - Consultation Request and Acceptance, Career Counseling, Counseling the Possibility of college entrance, Counseling the Strategies of Learning, Follow-up Counseling. To increase the effect and satisfaction of ‘Career & Guidance counseling model’, the most important thing is to recognize the gap between the stages of Consultation Request and Acceptance, Career Counseling, Counseling the Strategies of Learning, Follow–up Counseling and to understand and utilize the procedure of ‘Career & Guidance counseling model’. Finally, the study’s limits and further discussion are suggested.
This study evaluated the operating characteristics and the efficiencies of PAI-A positive distortion indicators developed on adults(PIM, DEF, CDF) and KDF constructed on Korean high schoolers. High school students administrated PAI-A under two conditions: positive impression instruction and standard instruction. The profile of positive dissimulation had high score on PIM, RXR, DOM, WRM, MAN and almost all clinical scales were lower than average. Through analysis of effect size and ROC curves to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the measures using different cutoff scores, the order of the efficiency of positive distortion indicators are KDF, PIM, DEF and CDF. Review of the identification rate estimates for each cutoff score indicates that the sum of sensitivity and specificity on specific cutoff score of KDF, PIM, DEF are high but that of CDF is relatively low. These results suggest that KDF is effective on detecting the positive impression management as much as PIM and DEF developed on adults. Also, adapting more than one indicator are more effective to monitor the response distortion accurately.
This is a longitudinal study which analyzed suppression effects of active/passive coping strategies on academic burnout, using a structural equation modeling. A total of 357 middle school students participated in this study for two waves. In order to measure the levels of students' coping strategies and academic burnout, the Ways of Coping Checklist and the Korean version of Maslach Burnout Inventory- Student Survey(MBI-SS) were used. Latent variables were constructed with standardized residuals computed from a simple linear regression in order to capture the intra-individual changes between two time points. The results of this study are like below. First, the relationship between the change of active coping strategy and the change of passive coping strategy is positively and significantly related with each other. This result indicates that students under stress use various coping strategies simultaneously. Second, significant suppression effects were revealed between the change of active coping strategy and the change of passive coping strategy. That is, when controlling passive coping strategy, the negative relationship between the change of active coping strategy and the change of academic burnout increased. On the other hand, when controlling active coping strategy, the positive relationship between the change of passive coping strategy and the change of academic burnout increased. Based on these results, the value of this study and implications for counseling were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine Korean high school students' internet addiction in relation to the three needs variables-autonomy, competence, and relatedness-on the basis of the self-determination theory. According to the model, the influences of autonomy and relatedness on internet addiction are mediated by competence. The study samples were composed of 722 students(men 248, women 474). The KS-Scale, autonomy, competence, and relatedness scale were used. The alternative models suggest relatedness, autonomy and competence have an influence on internet addiction without any mediation effect. Multi-group analysis was carried out for difference investigations about internet addiction models between men and women. There was no statistically significant difference between men and women. The effect of only the autonomy variable on the internet addiction was statistically significant.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of mother attachment on the school adjustment of child. It was established the study modeling which shows the direct effect of attachment and the indirect effect of the mediate emotion regulation variables which can mediate mother attachment and school adjustment. The questionnaire has carried out for 528 elementary school students. The research findings were follow: There are significant differences in school adjustment to gender. but there are non significant differences in school adjustment to grade and major fosterer. Mother attachment has significant influenced on the school adjustment. Specifically trust of attachment subvariables provided significant explanation for relation of friend, relation of teacher, adjustment of study and school life. Mother attachment has influenced on the school adjustment of child. in the indirect way. Looking on the side of indirect effect, mother attachment has a positive effect on emotion regulation and emotional regulation has a positive effect on school adjustment of child. The more they had secure attachment with mother, the more they were good school adjustment.
This study was conducted to test multiple mediated effects of adolescents’ depression and dysfunctional impulsivity in the relation between perceived parental control and adolescent aggression. Nine-hundred fifty-seven high school students in Grade 10 participated in this study. The perceived parenting behavior scale, the K-CES-D scale, the impulsivity scale, and the reactive proactive aggression questionnaire were administered to students in their classrooms. The structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the goodness of fit of the mediation models in which the relation between parental control and adolescents’ aggression is mediated by their depression and dysfunctional impulsivity. Bootstrapping procedure was applied to test the multiple mediated effects of depression and dysfunctional impulsivity. The results showed that parental control affects adolescents’ aggression through either the mediation of depression or that of dysfunctional impulsivity. More importantly, parental control affected adolescents’ depression, which in turn influenced dysfunctional impulsivity, which eventually affected aggression. Furthermore, even when depression and dysfunctional impulsivity were taken into account as mediators, the direct effect of parental control on adolescents’ aggression was significant. These results support an integrative framework delineating the role of depression and dysfunctional impulsivity as multiple mediators in the process through which parental control affects adolescents’ aggression. The results also imply the necessity of implementing both direct and indirect services in school psychological intervention and prevention for aggressive adolescents. Finally, the limitations of this study and suggestions for future research were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to develop the norms and test the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Teacher's Report Form (TRF). The selection of a normative sample for the TRF (476 boys and 462 girls) was based on data from the 2005 Korean Population and Housing Census. A confirmatory factor analysis supported that the factor structure of the original TRF can be plausibly applied to the Korean version of the TRF. Reliability was assessed in terms of internal consistency (.59-.97; other problems: .39) and test-retest reliability (.53-.96). The subscales of the TRF showed high correlations with its higher-order-factors such as internalizing and externalizing problems, and this provided good evidence of convergent validity. When the TRF was administered to a clinical sample (n=101) and normative sample (n=506), discriminant validity was confirmed by the mean differences on the subscales between the two samples. When differences in mean subscale scores for different age and sex groups were explored, it would be reasonable to use independent norms for two age groups (the first year ~ the sixth year of elementary school / middle school freshman ~ high school senior) and gender (boys / girls) for the Korean version of the TRF. The implications of using the TRF in Korea both as a clinical tool and a research instrument are discussed.
This study examined how personal characteristics such as emotion regulation and social self-efficacy mediate the relations between paternal/maternal attachment and defending or outsider behaviors. A total of 579 middle school students participated in this study. Data were analyzed by gender, using Structural Equation Modeling. The results indicated that a complete mediation model without the direct effect of attachment was better than a partial mediation model, regardless of gender. A mediating effect of emotion regulation was significant between maternal attachment and defending behaviors in all gender. However, emotion regulation mediated the relation between paternal attachment and defending behaviors only among boys. A mediating effect of emotion regulation was significant between maternal attachment and outsider behaviors only among girls. In addition, emotion regulation and social efficacy both served as mediators on the relations between maternal attachment and defending behaviors only among girls. Based on these findings, effective prevention/intervention strategies were discussed. The importance of gender-specific approach was also emphasized.
The purpose of this study is to examine the differences in the career barriers, and the natural grouping in terms of the career decision level and the career preparation behavior level in order to provide a indicator for differential diagnosis of college students. The presence of four clusters is revealed by the result from a cluster analysis with a sample of college students (N = 826) from K university, Seoul, South Korea. Cluster 1 ‘Behavior oriented group’ shows by the low career decision level and the high career preparation behavior level. Cluster 2 ‘Confused group’ shows the low career decision level and the low career preparation behavior level. Cluster 3 ‘Ideal group’ shows the high career decision level and the high career preparation behavior level. Cluster 4 ‘Behavior delayed group’ shows the high career decision level and the low career behavior preparation level. Through MANOVA there are meaningful differences confirmed by the career barriers in each cluster. In grade, the ratio of ‘Ideal group’ and ‘Behavior oriented group’ are increased in accordance with the increment of the grade. In gender, female students indicate the higher ratio in ‘Confused group’ and male students demonstrate the higher ratio in ‘Ideal group’. Multiple regression analysis has been conducted to examine the capability of the explanation and the effect of the subtypes of the career decision barrier in each cluster. Cluster 1 and 2 show the ‘lack of career information’ and the ‘lack of self-identity.’ Cluster 3 and 4 show the relatively distributed effects of the subtypes of the career barriers. Based on this study, the ways of the post-research in the career counseling for college students have been discussed.