In this study, narcissistic students were divided into two subtypes, overt and covert, and investigated the self-evaluations and emotional characteristics of two subtypes. The Narcissistic Pesonality Disorder Scale(NPDS), the Covert Narcissism Scale(CNS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale(RSES), the Self-Concept Scale(SCS), the Real-Ideal Self Congruity Scale(RISCS), the Zung Depression Scale(SDS), the Aggression Questionnaire(AQ), and the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale(FNE) were administered to 324 college students. And then, thirty-three overt narcissistic students, fifty-four covert narcissistic students, and ninety-seven control group were selected by using the NPDS and CNS scores. The overt narcissists showed more positive self-evaluations and higher real-ideal self-congruity than the covert narcissists. The covert narcissists showed higher fear of negative evaluation than the overt narcissists and the normal controls. Finally, the covert narcissists showed more verbal aggression and hostility than the overt narcissists. These results support the differential characteristics of two narcissistic subtypes. These findings are tempered, however, by the use of self-report measures and the use of subclinical samples.
This study aimed to examine temporal changes in the internet game addiction of adolescents and related psychological variables using a prospective design. A total of 1279 middle high school students at five schools were assessed twice 6 month apart on measures of internet game addiction, self-escape tendency, real-ideal self discrepancy, negative affect, peer relationship, parent-child relationship, and parental supervision. Results indicated that the internet game addiction score of the first assessment was highly correlated with the score of the second assessment, r = .66, p < .001. In 30 % of students who demonstrated a severe level of internet game addiction at the first assessment, their score decreased more than 1 standard deviation at the second assessment. The ANCOVA analysis showed that the self-escape tendency was the only significant difference between the adolescents maintaining a severe level of internet game addiction and those with decreasing use of internet game. The multiple regression analysis showed that the internet game addiction, the self-escape tendency, negative affect at the first assessment predicted the internet game addiction of 6 months after. These results indicated that internet game addiction is a rather stable phenomenon although there was a room for change. The self-escape tendency seemed to be a stronger predictor of continued internet game use than parental supervision and other interpersonal relationships.
Based on the stress-vulnerability model, we hypothesized that life stress, perceived anxiety control, and coping style would significantly affect anxiety symptoms in college students, and that perceived anxiety control and coping style would play a moderating role in the relationship between life stress and anxiety symptoms. To examine these hypotheses, cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal studies were conducted with 335 and 280 college students, respectively. The results of the cross-sectional study revealed that life stress and perceived anxiety control independently affected anxiety symptoms. In addition, perceived anxiety control was found to play a moderating role in the relationship between life stress and anxiety symptoms, whereas coping style was not. Next, the results of the short-term longitudinal study revealed that after controlling for anxiety symptoms at Time 1, life stress significantly affected anxiety symptoms at Time 2. Coping style was shown to play a moderating role in the relationship between life stress and anxiety symptoms at Time 2, whereas perceived anxiety control was not. These findings provide general support for the proper theoretical application of the stress-vulnerability model to anxiety symptoms of non-clinical college students. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
Using a sentence-completion task, this study attempted to determine whether schizophrenic patient‘s failure to process language is caused by their deficits in representing or maintaining/using contextual information. Three groups (a control group of 22 normal people, a group of 23 positive symptom patients, and a group of 20 negative symptom patients) of participants were shown a set of 20 incomplete sentences and asked to complete them. Each incomplete sentence started with a phrase (the contextual information) followed by a homonymic word, the target, with which the sentence ended. The contextual information varied with respect to the extent to which it constrains the meaning of the target. The performance level was measured in terms of the number of sentences correctly completed. The completion was considered to be correct when the meaning of target word was in accordance with that of contextual information. The performance levels of both patient groups was significantly lower than that of the control group regardless of the strength of contextual constraints. Both patient groups' performance was significantly lower in low-constraint condition than in high-constraint condition. There was no difference found in performance level between two patient groups in any condition. The results suggest that schizophrenic patients' failure in processing linguistic information is caused rather by their deficits in maintaining/using contextual information and that schizophrenics understand contextual information rather well. It is suggested that the focus of rehabilitation treatment would be better on improving maintaining and/or using skills of contextual information regardless of the symptoms of schizophrenia.
Motivational subgroups in a voluntary inpatient sample of alcohol dependent individuals were identified to facilitate future development of treatment interventions aimed at enhancing compliance and outcome. The Korean version of Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale(SOCRATES-K) from 90 subjects were subject to cluster analyses and resulted in 4 groups. The Cluster membership was distributed as follows: Precontemplation, 14%(n=13), Contemplation, 42%(n=38), Discouragement, 12%(n=11), Action, 31%(n=28). There were no differences on demographic or alcohol drinking history or Personality Assessment Inventory(PAI) profiles. The Action group appeared to be very aware of their dependence and be changing their drinking behavior, and scored high on measures of Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale(AASE). The Discouragement group appeared to be very aware of their dependence, but appeared to be a low level of action and scored low on measures of AASE. The Contemplation group appeared to be a moderate recognition and action, but still a high level of ambivalence. The Precontemplation group appeared to be a lower recognition and action and scored low on measures of AASE, but a high level of ambivalence. The results suggest that the SOCRATES-K can be used to identify clinically meaningful subtypes of voluntary inpatient alcohol dependent individuals, and have implications for treatment matching and enhancing treatment motivation.
Seo and Kwon(2005) have divided automatic thoughts occurring in angry situations into two types, i.e., primary and secondary anger-thoughts. The present study investigates roles of the two types of automatic thoughts in the relation between irrational beliefs and anger. The dual cognitive mediation model assumes that primary anger-thoughts and secondary anger-thoughts may mediate sequentially between irrational beliefs and anger: irrational beliefs → primary anger-thoughts → secondary anger-thoughts → anger. The results showed that the dual cognitive mediation model was superior to two alternative models. The path coefficients going directly from primary anger-thoughts to anger without passing secondary anger-thoughts in the two alternative models were not significant.
The present study explored the effects of the observer perspective and self-presentational motivation(SPM) on social anxiety. It was hypothesized that the observer perspective produced higher social anxiety and this effect was larger in high SPM individuals than in low SPM individuals. College students who scored high or low on a measure of SPM took turns asking questions and answering in the observer perspective condition and the field perspective condition. The observer perspective taking increased self-focused attention and high SPM group experienced more self-focused attention than low SPM group. The results indicated that high SPM subjects reported higher state anxiety in the observer perspective condition than in the field perspective condition, but low SPM subjects didn't. However these effects were absent on the ratings of social performance. The findings of this study implicate the roles of the observer perspective and self-presentational motivation in contributing to high social anxiety.
This study examined violent computer game effects on aggressive delinquency, non aggressive delinquency, internet delinquency, and internet game addiction. The specific aim of this study was to examine that long-term exposure to violent games would increase in aggressive delinquency, non aggressive delinquency, internet delinquency, and intenet game addiction. Participants consisted of 330 high school students. Correlational analysis indicated that long-term exposure to violent games was positively related to aggressive delinquency, non aggressive delinquency, internet delinquency, and internet game addiction. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that long-term exposure to violent games, aggressive personality, interaction of long-term exposure to violent games and aggressive personality significantly predicted aggressive delinquency. On the other hand, sex, long-term exposure to violent computer games, aggressive personality significantly predicted non aggressive delinquency, internet delinquency, and internet game addiction. These results suggest that exposure to violent games will increase off-line and on-line aggressive-related behaviors and internet game addiction in the long term.
In this study, a short form of the Korean-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale developed by Ward (K-WAIS/7 SF; 1990) was used to generate Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ scores (VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ, respectively) in 157 samples of mixed psychiatric patients. The relation between Ward's seven short-form VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ scores and corresponding K-WAIS IQ scores were highly correlated with K-WAIS scores in Pearson correlation coefficient of .98, .93, and .98, respectively. Moreover, the mean error size associated with WAIS-R/7 SF FSIQ scores was significantly lower than the mean error size corresponding to predicted FSIQ scores based on Doppelt's(1956) short form. The short-form VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ scores did not differed significantly from corresponding K-WAIS scores. K-WAIS/7 SF VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ scores fell within 7, 10, and 7 absolute error points, respectively, of corresponding K-WAIS IQ scores in 95% of cases. Classification of IQ scores into ranges (e.g., average, high average, etc.) based on the scheme outlined by Wechsler (1981) was consistent between K-WAIS/7 SF and K-WAIS scores in 81% (for VIQ), 75% (for PIQ), and 82% (for FSIQ) of cases. this study demonstrated that the K-WAIS/7 SF exhibited superior accuracy and vality in th prediction of K-WAIS FIQ scores compared to Doppelt's four-subtest short forms. These findings are discussed within the context of using the K-WAIS/7 SF in the assessment of mixed psychiatric patients.
This article describes three studies examining the psychometric characteristics of a Korean version of the Taijin Kyofusho Scale (K-TKS) - an instrument recently developed to measure social phobia symptoms with concern for offending others. In Study 1, factor analysis of the K-TKS revealed a one-factor solution. In addition, the results revealed high internal consistency. In Study 2, the results revealed satisfactory test-retest reliability over two-week period, as well as good convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 3, the scale demonstrated sensitivity to change following a group cognitive-behavioral therapy. These findings suggest that the K-TKS is a highly reliable, valid measure to assess social phobia symptoms with concern for offending others. Lastly, the utilization of the K-TKS in the research and clinical practice of social phobia with concern for offending others as well as the limitation of the present studies were discussed.
We examined whether is invariant across the factor structure the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(K-WISC-III) and the KEDI-WISC and explored that the factor loadings are equal across the two scales with clinical samples. In study 1, four models about factor structure of the WISC reported in previous studies were evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis(CFA) on the data of 228 clinical samples. A hierarchical three-factor model was considered to be most appropriate as well as parsimonious in describing the data of the K-WISC-III. This result is suggested that there would be configurally invariant between the two scales. In study 2, metric invariance across clinical samples of the K-WISC-III in study 1 and clinical samples of the KEDI-WISC in our recent study was tested. Partial metric invariance across samples was confirmed after one second-order estimates(digit symbol) proving to be nonequivalent were not constrained. The results indicated that both factor structure and most factor loadings of the two version of Wechsler Intelligence scale are invariant across the two clinical samples. Moreover it is possible that various interpretations in KEDI-WISC is applied to the K-WISC-III.
This study investigated the factor structure of RCMAS(Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale) using Mplus software that supplies estimation method(WLSMV) for categorical data. The participants consisted of 1614 children and adolescents aged 10-17. The results showed that children's anxiety accessed by RCMAS has four factors: worry, oversensitivity, physical․sleep problems, negative affect/attention problem. The strengths of this study include the application of more rigorous quantitative methodology than has been used in previous studies. Also, this result that children's anxiety assessed by RCMAS has four factors is possible to used in clinical settings as well as future researches.
This study investigated the distinct and overlapping features of anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety. The Expanded Anxiety Sensitivity Index, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory, Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire were administered to 324 university students and community samples. As a result, the proposed prediction model shows that trait anxiety is directly linked to positive affect and negative affect, but indirectly linked to physiological hyperarousal mediated by anxiety sensitivity. Also, anxiety sensitivity is a proximal determinant of negative affect and physiological hyperarousal. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.
Self-focused attention refers to one's own thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and appearance. It has been considered to be related to the adaptive index as well as the maladaptive one. The purpose of this study is to develop the Scale for Dispositional Self-focused Attention in Social situation(SDSAS) which distinguishes two types of self-focused attention and to examine its reliability and validity. The SDSAS aims to measure the dispositional self-focused attention in social situation and consists of two subscales: “General Self-focused Attention”, which measures the degree of attention that an individual pays to the self and “Self-Absorption”, which measures the tendency of giving excessive attention to one's specific aspects constantly and having difficulty turning his attention to other aspects or external environment the tendency of self-absorption. Among high scorers on the general self-focused attention scale, those who also show high score on the self-absorption scale constitute defensive self-focused attention group and those who show low score on the self-absorption scale constitute nondefensive self-focused attention group. A pool of preliminary items were administered to 311 undergraduates, and the SDSAS with 30 items was constructed using factor analyses on the data. To examine its reliability and validity, the SDSAS was administered to 525 undergraduates. The SDSAS appeared to have adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the scale was supported by the pattern of correlations between the SDSAS and measures of related characteristics. Two types of dispositional self-focused attention that differed qualitatively could be differentiated by means of SDSAS. Additionally, the implications of this study were discussed.
In this study, explicit and indirect attributional styles of overt and covert narcissists were investigated. The Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale(NPDS) and the Covert Narcissism Scale(CNS) were administered to 278 college students. And then, twenty-eight overt narcissistic students, thirty-three covert narcissistic students, and thirty-two control group were selected by using the NPDS and CNS scores. Then, the Attributional Style Questionnaire(ASQ) and the Pragmatic Inference Task(PIT) were administered to these three groups. In the explicit attributions, the overt and covert narcissists made more internal attributions for positive events than for negative events. However, there were no group differences on the levels of self-enhancing bias. The covert narcissists showed defensive bias for negative events in ASQ. However, in indirect attributions, the defensive attributions of the covert narcissists were disappeared.