The main purpose of this study was to develop a program of social problem-solving training and examine its effectiveness for alcoholic inpatients. A differential program of social problem-solving training was developed for each of three types of alcoholic inpatients, based on problem-solving therapy of D'Zurilla and Nezu(1999). In study of Yi Soon Choi & Kwon Saeng Park(2004), three subgroups emerged, which included one group with global deficits(called group 1), another group with mild deficits(group 2), and the other group of focal deficits(group 3). A total of 53 alcoholic inpatients participated in 100 minutes-long programs, twice a week, over 12 sessions. 8 subjects were assigned to group 1 program, 9 to group 2, and 10 to group 3. Each of alcohol educational program and control group consisted of 13 patients. Posttest outcome measures were the same as ones used at the pretest, which includes SPSI-R, AASES (alcohol abstinence self-efficacy scale) and TTDS(temptation to drink scale). The findings revealed that each of groups produced improvement specifically on the deficient parts of its own from the pretest to the posttest. The results also showed that pretest-posttest differences in the three treatment groups were greater than one obtained in either of the alcoholism educational program or control group, which occurred in various areas of abstinence-confidence and drinking temptation. The current findings obtained in this study suggest that the use of social problem-solving training yield better outcomes compared to either of alcohol educational program or nontreatment control group and that benefits from social problem solving training are increased to the substantial amount when the program is customized specifically to patient characteristics by subgroups having different types of problem solving process deficits.
Seo and Kwon(2005b) have proposed the dual cognitive mediation model of anger in which primary anger-thought and secondary anger-thought mediate sequentially between irrational belief and dysfuntional anger: irrational belief → primary anger-thought → secondary anger-thought → dysfunctional anger. Based on this model, the cognitive-behavior program for anger management which is focused on reducing these cognitive factors was developed. This study examines contingencies between cognitive factors and anger symptoms as well as the effects of the program. The program was conducted to five groups of university students. Data of 37 participants were analyzed. The main results were: 1) Irrational beliefs and primary/secondary anger-thoughts were reduced significantly after the participation in the program. 2) Anger symptoms were reduced significantly after the participation in the program. 3) The changes of cognitive factors were correlated significantly with the changes of anger symptoms. 4) The changes of primary anger-thought and secondary anger-thought mediated sequentially between changes of irrational belief and of dysfunctional anger. These empirical evidences support the validity of the dual cognitive mediation model.
The present study was conducted to examine the differences of visuoconstructive functioning between dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) and vascular dementia (VaD) according to the severity of dementia. The Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) was administered to 98 DAT, 63 VaD, and 102 healthy elderly (NC). Three groups did not differ in age and education. There was no difference between DAT and VaD in the severity of dementia assessed by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) and Korean-Mini Mental State Examination. Copy trial of the RCFT was scored based on Taylor's classical 18-units scoring system and the Bernstein- Waber's Developmental Scoring System (DSS). DAT and VaD did not differ on the total copy score and all the measures of DSS (organization, style, and error), whereas these two groups showed significant deficits compared with NC. Each dementia group was divided into 3 subgroups based on the CDR score; very mild (0.5), mild (1.0), and moderately (2.0) demented groups. Progressive impairments of visuoconstructive functioning were found in DAT, as the severity of dementia increased. More distortions or omissions of the configurational structures and left-side part were found in “mild” than “very mild” DAT, whereas more deficits in internal details and right-side part were found in “moderate” than “mild” DAT. A significant deterioration in visuoconstructive functioning in VaD was also found, as the severity of dementia increased. Unlike the DAT, however, there was no difference between “very mild” and “mild” VaD, whereas moderately demented VaD showed more deficits in configurational structures than “mild” VaD. These results were also confirmed by the analyses based on the DSS. This study suggests that there would be significant differences in the deterioration process of visuoconstructive functioning between the DAT and the VaD.
This study examined the role of panic appraisal dimensions (anticipated panic, perceived consequences of panic, and perceived panic coping efficacy) in predicting panic-related symptoms in a sample of college students who met DSM-Ⅳ criteria for panic attack. 64 nonclinical panickers were administered the measures of panic appraisals, anxiety sensitivity, life stress, panic-related symptom dimensions, anxiety, and depression. After controlling for life stress and anxiety sensitivity, of the three panic appraisal dimensions studied, anticipated panic was the only significant predictor of agoraphobic avoidance, and only perceived consequences of panic significantly predicted the number of panic symptoms. In contrast, both anticipated panic and perceived panic coping efficacy significantly predicted interference with life due to panic. However, any of the panic appraisal dimensions did not significantly add to the variances of panic frequency, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. There was no evidence to suggest moderating relationships between panic appraisal dimensions and life stress. The results provide good support for differential contributions of the three panic appraisal dimensions in predicting panic-related symptoms except panic frequency. Finally, clinical implications as well as future research directions were presented.
This study examined the psychopathology and personality characteristics in homosexuality and gender identity disorder(GID) using MMPI, Rorschach, DAP. The subjects were 15 homosexuals and 30 GID males who came to a university hospital for military use-related medical certificate. In MMPI, other than a significant elevation on Mf scale, GID group did not demonstrate any significant elevations on the other scales. Homosexuality group showed significant elevations on Mf and D scales. There were no significant differences between GID and homosexuality on clinical scales. Interestingly, when T scores of the desired sex(female) were used for GID, Mf score fell within the normal range. In addition, Hs, D, Mf scores of GID were lower significantly than those of homosexuality. In Rorachach, both GID and homosexuality groups were not found to be pathological obviously on perceptual accuracy and self-image. But both groups showed a slight impairment on the empathic capacity and the accuracy of social perception. In DAP, while the majority of homosexuality group drew same sex first, two thirds of GID drew opposite sex first, and significant difference existed between two groups. Overall, although both homosexuality and GID groups showed a moderate level of psychopathology in some areas, the findings of this study did not demonstrate severe psychopathology in both groups. The results were discussed and directions for future research were suggested.
The present study is for the measurement of the automatic thoughts scale before drinking of problem drinkers and investigation of the effect of automatic thoughts to drinking behavior. A battery of scales was administered to 420 university student. Internal consistency(.94) and Guttman Split-half Reliability Coefficients(r=.87) was high. The result of the factor analysis show that automatic thoughts scale had four factors. Factor analysis yielded four factors are recall of negative event, negative self-evaluation, alcohol of positive expectancy and anger. The positive expectancy to alcohol effects had most effect on drinking behaviors such as drinking speed, frequency and quantity. But automatic thoughts before drinking including recall of negative event, negative self-evaluation and anger had a little direct effect on drinking behaviors.
In order to test the validity of memory & aging theory-Capacity Decline Theory, Selective Decline Theory, Compensatory Interaction Theory- the author examined memory function between age grade groups by Korean version of Memory Assessment Scales(K-MAS). The total number of subjects were 428, 20's 70, 30's 68. 40's 94, 50's 92. 60's 50, 70's 40, 80's 14. On the cross-sectional study, as the age increased, Memory Quotient(MQ) decreased consistently. In comparison with the performance of 20's, 15 MQ was decreased in 40's, 10 MQ was decreased in 60's again, and finally, 10 MQ was decreased in 80's again. And those differences appeared in some sub tests, not in all sub tests. But in that case of matching education level, another result showed. That is, [10 years and more education] elderly group did not show significant differences than the same education level of 40's and 50' group, and also, showed better performance than [9 years and less education] 40's group. Especially, [13 years and more education] elderly group even did not show significant differences than [9 years and less] 20-30' group, and moreover, did not show differences than [12 years education] 20-30's group in verbal memory scale. Although all three theories were proved validatory, this result lays emphasis on that Compensatory-interaction theory was validated empirically, thus it is anticipated that ‘high reserve’ old adult would not show memory dysfunction as regarded generally. Finally, explanations for various memory dysfunctioncauses in old adults, that can not counterbalanced by mental faculties, were presented, and the importance of consistent intellectual stimulation was stressed.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of parental rearing behaviors on social avoidance and distress, and also find out whether there is gender differences on the effects of parental rearing behaviors on social avoidance and distress, and examine whether there is gender and group(normals and social phobics group) differences on the effects of parental rearing behaviors on social avoidance and distress. The participants of this study were 34 clinical participants with social phobia(18 male, 16 female) who were identified structured interview, M.I.N.I.-Plus, and 91 non-clinical participants(45 male, 46 female). Questionnaires included the perceived parental rearing behaviors(PBI, parent rearing behavior scale), social avoidance and distress(SADS III). The results indicated that even though there was no signigicant gender×group interaction on the effects of parental rearing behaviors on social anxiety symptoms, but paternal neglect, parental(paternal/maternal) over-protection and care were significant predictors of social anxiety symptoms. It was not only reproved the effects of parental(paternal/maternal) over-protection and care on social anxiety symptoms, but also suggested paternal rearing behaviors, paternal neglect, seem to be important as much as maternal behaviors in the etiological perspective in social phobia.
This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the pain-acceptance, the health locus of control, the pain-coping, and the adaptation. One hundred and eleven pain patients carried out the several questionnaires which measure the pain-acceptance, the health locus of control, the pain-coping, and the adaptation. And the covariance structure modelling was applied to the present study. This results showed that the external health locus of control can influence the adaptation through the intermediation of the pain-acceptance and the pain-coping. Additionally, the clinical implications and several limitations of the present study were discussed.
This study was designed to describe the psychometric propreties of the ATQ-N and the ATQ-P in adolescents. The ATQ-N and the ATQ-P are self-report measures widely used for assessment of the negative and positive automatic thougts. 440 middle and high school students from the 7th to the 11th grade completed CDI, RCMAS, NASSQ and K-CATS. 154 adolescent psychiatric patients(74 of depressive disorders, 19 of anxiety disorders, and 64 of attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders) did the same scales. The internal consistency of both the ATQ-N and the ATQ-P was high and test-retest reliability was acceptable. The result of factor analysis showed that the ATQ-N and the ATQ-P respectively consisted of three factors similar to previous studies. The ATQ-N was positively correlated with RCMAS, CDI and the other scales about negative automatic thoughts, but the ATQ-P was quite the opposite. The result of analysis of variance showed that the ATQ-N effectively discriminated depressive and anxiety disorders from attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders and normal control group. Similarly ATQ-P effectively discriminated depressive disorders from attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders and normal control group. However there was no significant difference between anxiety disorders and the other groups. Finally the implication of the result, the limitation of this study and future research directions were discussed.
This study was performed to develop a Self-Presentational Expectancy Scale for Peer Interaction(SPES-PI) with 4th through 9th grades and to confirm its reliability and validity. SPES-PI was comprised of expectancy of self-presentational ability and expectancy of self- presentational outcome. The data of preliminary 20 items assessing expectancy of self-presentational ability and preliminary 15 items assessing expectancy of self-presentational outcome were collected from previous researches. Participants were 397 students in 4th through 6th grades and 402 students in 7th through 9th grades. The results of factor analysis indicated that SPES-PI was composed of 3 factors: Expectancy of self-presentational outcome, Expectancy of self-presentational ability-opposite sex situations, Expectancy of self-presentational ability-same sex/group situations. The internal consistency of SPES-PI was found to be reliable and convergent validity was established through correlational analysis with related scales. Implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
This study used confirmatory factor analysis to assess two competing models of schizotypal personality in the general population: two-factor model (cognitive-perceptual and interpersonal factors) vs. three-factor model (cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal and disorganized factors). The computer program AMOS was used to analyze Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire(SPQ) subscale scores that reflect the nine traits of schizotypal personality. The scores were obtained from 547 undergraduate students drawn from Seoul and mid-area in Korea. Results indicated replicable support for the three-factor model as the previous studies did. The high risk group who obtained upper 10 percentile score of SPQ showed more worse quality of life and general mental health than the rest of group. This study provided one more validating data of SPQ and the three-factor model of schizotypal personality.
Behavioral inhibition(BI) is suggested for the possible precursor for anxiety disorder, especially for social phobia. This study aimed to validate the Korean version of the retrospective self-report of inhibition(RSRI), that is self-report questionnaire to assess behavioral inhibition of childhood. In study 1, results of factor analysis in the sample of undergraduates indicated that K-RSRI had 2 factor structure-“social fears”, “general fears”-, which was replicated in the sample of persons with social phobia. Good test-retest reliability and agreement between subjects and their parents were revealed by the results of study 2. In study 3, the K-RSRI of persons with social phobia significantly correlated only with the measure of social avoidance and distress, not with state and trait anxiety, or depression. Finally in study 4, the scores of K-RSRI in persons with social phobia were significantly higher than those of normal control. These findings suggest that the K-RSRI is a highly reliable and valid measure to assess behavioral inhibition of childhood.
The purpose of this study was to test for age-related the CDI total score and item-level differences and to examine factor structure of the CDI using exploratory factor analysis in community sample of 233 children and 369 adolescents. Next, five models about factor structure of the CDI reported in previous studies and result of exploratory factor analysis was evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis in clinic-referred samples of 182 children and 278 adolescents. The following results could be obtained. First, adolescents were significantly higher in total score than children. Second, adolescents were significantly higher in item of negative self-images, sad mood and school related problems than children, on the other hand children significantly higher in item of appetite and sleep than adolescents. Third, result of exploratory factor analysis was obtained three correlated model in children and four correlated model in adolescents. Fourth, result of confirmatory factor analysis in clinic-referred sample was identified three correlated model in children and four correlated model in adolescents which were equal result of exploratory factor analysis. The clinical implication and limitations of this study were discussed. The results indicate that factor structure of CDI using confirmatory factor analysis was performed at first to consider developmental difference of depressive symptoms in Korean clinical samples.
The purpose of this study was to examine the attributional differences between functional perfectionists and dysfunctional perfectionists according to the situations of success or failure. The subjects were 521 college students, who were classified into the functional perfectionism group, the dysfunctional perfectionism group, and non-perfectionism group using perfectionism scores. 30 subjects were selected per each group and they were randomly assigned to the success or failure treatment conditions. As a result, the functional perfectionism group attributed their success to more internal causes than the dysfunctional perfectionism group and non-perfectionism group under the success situations. The dysfunctional perfectionism group attributed their failure to more stable causes than the functional perfectionism group, and more global causes than non-perfectionism group. Finally, the meanings of these results and limitations of this study were discussed.