This study have attempted to investigate the efficiency of the attention rehabilitation program on the improvement of the cognitive functions in the schizophrenic patients. The Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation Treatment Program (COMCOG), which was developed for the rehabilitation of attention, was administered to 12 schizophrenic patients (treatment group). 12 schizophrenic patients were also served as controls (control group). The rehabilitation program was administered to the treatment group for 16 sessions, that is, 2 days a week for 2 months. For the evaluation of the cognitive functions, a number of neuropsychological tests were administered before and after the introduction of rehabilitation program. The results showed that the treatment group showed significant improvements on the d2 test, Stroop test, the immediate recall of RCFT, and the perseverated responses of WCST compared to the control group. These results indicate that the rehabilitation program is effective for the cognitive enhancement, in particular for the improvement of attention and executive function, for the chronic schizophrenic patients. In addition, the negative symptoms and general pathology of schizophrenia were significantly reduced after the rehabilitation treatment.
Recovery has become an important concept in the mental health and rehabilitation recently. However, there have been only a few empirical and objective studies until now. This study intended not only to define the recovery conceptually and empirically, but also investigated what variables were related to the recovery of chronic schizophrenics among varicables such as general cognitive function, symptoms, social cognition, and social support.. The subjects were 124 chronic schizophrenics, who were enrolled and participated in community mental health center for more than 2 years. Independent variables, which was supposed to influence the recovery of the chronic schizophrenics, was Dependent variable was the recovery, composed of recovery scale and rehabilitation outcome. Stepwise regression analysis showed social support was the strongest predictor of both recovery and social function. Social cognition was important determinate of recovery. These data suggested that a promising way of recovery from chronical mental illness might be giving them appropriate social support and helping them to perceive social support. It was also proposed clinicians should consider social cognition as important target when developing rehabilitation plans.
The influence of parent-child relationship on juvenile delinquency and the mediational effects of emotional and behavioral autonomy on parent-child relationship were examined with adolescents ages 13 to 15. Emotional Autonomy Scale, Behavioral Autonomy Scale, Maternal Representation Questionnaire, Paternal Representation Questionnaire, and Adolescent Delinquency Scale were administered to 331 boys and 313 girls in the 7th, 8th, 9th grade. The results of the study showed that paternal representation significantly predicted delinquent behaviors in boys whereas in girls both paternal and maternal representation were significant in predicting delinquent behaviors. The emotional autonomy mediated the influence of paternal representation on delinquent behaviors in boys, and the influence of both paternal and maternal representation was significantly mediated by emotional autonomy in girls. The mediational effect of behavioral autonomy the mediational effects was not supported by data from boys and girls. The implications and limitations of the results, as well as issues for future research, were discussed.
The cognitive model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) proposes that obsessions are caused by misappraisals and ineffective neutralizing responses on one's intrusive thoughts. The purpose of this study is to compare the cognitive appraisals and control strategies on sexual intrusive thoughts with non-sexual intrusive thoughts. Study 1 was carried out to investigate the frequency and discomfort of the various sexual thoughts in the undergraduate student samples. Guilt feeling, sexual beliefs, and sexual experiences were found to influence the frequency and discomfort of the sexual thoughts. Study 2 was designed to examine the differences between sexual, aggressive, and other intrusive thoughts in the cognitive appraisals and control strategies. The results showed that the sexual intrusive thoughts elicit higher moral thought-action fusion, control over thought, and avoidant and self-blaming control strategies than aggressive and other thoughts do. These results will contribute to the understanding of the OCD symptom's development from the sexual intrusive thoughts.
This research is purposed to survey the characteristics of depressive persons by Multiphasic Persona Inventory. The Persona scores of the high(n=54) and the low(n=224) depressive students among 366 students were compared in Study 1. The Persona scores of the 42(male 21, female 21) depressives and 44(male 22, female 22) normals were compared in Study 2. The common results both of Study 1 and 2 were that the scores of the Critic and the Vulnerable Child Persona were significantly higher, and the score of the Playful Child was significantly lower in depressive groups than control groups. Among the subfactors, the scores of 'vulnerable-sensitiveness', 'striving for the strength', 'disgusting the mistakes', and 'defensing the face' were significantly higher and the score of 'the liveliness' was significantly lower in depressives. The results of correlation analysis and the step-wise regression analysis in study 1 were that the Critic had the strongest association with depression and the highest variance for explaining the depression.
This study investigated the alcohol outcome expectancies of different drinking groups and analyzed the relationship between alcohol outcome expectancy and drinking behavior. Alcohol outcome expectancy is the underlying cognitive factor of drinking. The explicit and implicit alcohol outcome expectancies in the following groups, including nondrinkers, social drinkers, and alcohol dependent patients, were compared. The explicit positive alcohol expectancies of the social drinker and the alcohol dependent group were higher than the nondrinker group. The explicit negative alcohol expectancy of the social drinker group was lower than the nondrinker group and the alcohol dependent group. The implicit positive alcohol expectancies of the social drinker and the alcohol dependent group were higher than the nondrinker group. Correlation between the alcohol outcome expectancy and drinking behavior were analyzed and the stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted in the next section. The analysis showed that the explicit, implicit positive alcohol expectancy had strong correlations with drinking behaviors. Result of multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated drinking behaviors can be accounted by various kinds of explicit and implicit alcohol expectancies. These results suggest that each drinking group expects different effect of alcohol and implicit alcohol expectancies can add the predictability with explicit alcohol expectancies.
This study examined memory disturbance and executive dysfunction controlled by general intelligence in patients with traumatic brain injury(TBI). TBI patients were divided into two group according to duration of LOC in trauma and neuroimaging finding: mild traumatic brain injury(MTBI), moderate to severe traumatic brain injury(MSTBI). Rey-Kim memory test, Kims executive function test, & trail making test were administered. And then the following results could be obtained. First, there were significant difference between MSTBI and normal control in general intelligence, verbal learning, verbal long term memory, visual spatial memory, inhibition, shifting, & verbal fluency. There were significant difference between MSTBI and MTBI in general intelligence, verbal learning, long term memory. Second, there were significant difference between MTBI and control in verbal learning, visual spatial memory, shifting, and cognitive inhibition. Third, Multiple discriminated analysis between MSTBI and control demonstrated 92% of diagnosis precision rate in MQ, EIQ and IQ. Multiple discriminated analysis between MTBI and MSTBI demonstrated 96% of diagnosis precision rate, between MTBI and control demonstrated 78% of diagnosis precision rate. Finally, clinical implication and limitation of this study were discussed.
This study was intended to find the characteristics relating to alcohol addictive process of female alcoholics. Ten female alcoholics were interviewed in semi-structured way and Consensual Qualitative Research method was used to analyse interview data. The results are as followings : First, most female alcoholics had one or more family members who died from problem drinking or were problem drinkers. Most of their siblings were problem drinkers or social drinkers as well. Second, It was revealed that most female alcoholics experienced alcohol drinking for the first time in their adulthood. Third, as for drinking pattern, female alcoholics inclined to drink alone without their family knowing their drinking life from the first phase to the middle phase of alcohol addictive process. Eventually, their drinking problem was known to their family in the last phase of alcohol addictive process. Forth, It was revealed that main drinking motivation of female alcoholics was to alleviate negative affection from the first phase to middle phase of alcohol addictive process. Life problems causing negative affect to female alcoholics were summarized as relationship problems, stressful life events, intrapsychic problems. Psychological motivation for drinking alcohol were found out as distraction, self-soothing, self-grandiose. In last phase of alcohol addictive process, psychological and physical dependence were found to be drinking motivation in all female alcoholics and accordingly, female alcoholics were self-criticizing and self-abandonment due to drinking alcohol with losing self-control over drinking. As a result, suicidal attempts were reported in 3 cases. Implication and Limitations of this study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of self-discrepancy on social anxiety. A model proposed, included the mediator of the self-consciousness and the moderator of the self-presentation-motivation between self-discrepancy and social anxiety. Data from 853 undergraduate students were collected. For assessing self-discrepancy, multi-dimensional self discrepancy scale(MDSDS) was developed. Other scales were: self-consciousness, public self-consciousness sub-scale of Fenigstein's SCS scale, rumination sub -scale of maladaptive self-focued attention scale(MSFAS), social interaction anxiety scale(SIAS), social phobia scale(SPS), and self-presentation-motivation scale(SPMS). Data were analyzed through structural equational modeling. The model hypothesizing partial mediation effect of self-consciousness showed superior fit indices to other alternative models. And the path coefficient from self-discrepancy to self-consciousness indicated significant difference between high and low SPMS' which shows the moderating effect of self presentation motivation. Implications and limitations about theses results were discussed.
This study was performed to investigate the mediating effects of the self-esteem on the relationship between ADHD symptoms and the depression. We measured the self-esteem with the nine self-concept domains in order to find the most vulnerable self-concept domain at the adolescent with ADHD symptoms. 641 middle and high school students participated in this project. In result, the depression was positively related with ADHD symptoms when it was to the simple models without mediating factors. However, with the self-esteem included in the models as mediating factor, the direct effect of ADHD symptoms on the depression was not significant. In the mediating model, ADHD symptoms influenced on the low self-esteem, and this influenced on the depression. That is to say, the mediating effects of the self-esteem on the relationship between ADHD symptoms and the depression were confirmed. And the social acceptance and the global self-esteem were identified as the most vulnerable domains of the self-esteem among the nine measured at the adolescent with ADHD symptoms.
This study was to develop and validate a Scale to distinguished between functional and dysfunctional perfectionism also, to investigate various characteristics of functional perfectionist and dysfunctional perfectionists. The aim of Study Ⅰ was to develop a Scale to distinguished between functional and dysfunctional perfectionism. This Scale was consisted of achievement striving factor and failure avoidant factor. The aim of Study Ⅱ was to validate a Two-dimensional Perfectionism Scale(TPS) by Study Ⅰ, to classify groups through the cluster analysis and to investigate various characterisitics of groups. Failure avoidance factor of TPS correlated positively with depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, social anxiety, negative affect, somatic symptom, and negative consequence of PQ. It was not related with positive affect. On the other hand, achievement striving factor of TPS correlated positively with positive affect. It was not related with depression and social anxiety. Subjects were classified with achievement striving perfectionist, failure avoidant perfectionist, mixed-perfectionist, non-perfectionist by the cluster analysis. Failure avoidant perfectionism group and mixed group were reported higly to depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, social anxiety, negative affect, somatic symptom, and negative consequence of PQ. They were reported lowly to self-esteem. Achievement striving perfectionism group and non-perfectionism group were reported lowly to depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, social anxiety, negative affect, and negative consequence of PQ. In summary, the result indicated that perfectionism has multi-aspect than divided to functional and dysfunctional aspects. Implications and Limitations of the Study and suggestions for future study were discussed.
The psychological evaluation of children needs a comprehensive consideration of children's self-reports and ratings of the parents and teacher. This study aims to develop the Korean Personality Rating Scale for Children-Teacher Form(KPRC-TF) and test the fundamental reliability and validity. Class teachers who had more than 3 years elementary school services career (N=186) rated the teacher rating form items for 1,399 fourth-sixth grade elementary schoolers. The split-half reliability and internal consistency of the scales, except ICN scale, ranged .78～.94, the medians of split-half reliability and internal consistency were .85, .86, respectively. Compared with the coefficients of children report form and parents rating form, the coefficients of split-half reliability and internal consistency of the teacher rating form were high overall, except SOM scale. 17 teachers rated 113 students twice at 4-week intervals to test the test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability, except ICN scale, were ranged .75～.91. The median (.81) was high. The test-retest reliability of VDL, DLQ, HPR scale score were higher than other scales' reliability which showed nearly similar score, compared with rating form for children. To test the reliability and convergent and discriminant validity of 12 scales of KPRC-TF, sample were divided into 11 small samples. According to the correlation between KPRC-TF scales and various validity indices, the correlation were positively high with the indices measuring the original constructs which each scales proposed to measure. Contrary, there were negatively high correlation between the scales and indices which measure the contrast concepts. Finally, the results were compared with parents rating form and children report form and the implications and limitations of the study were discussed.
This study was performed to develop a Peer Relational Skills Scale for 4th-9th grades students(PRSS) and to confirm its reliability and validity. The data of preliminary 46 items assessing peer relational skills was collected from the existing social skills scales items. Participants were 643 students(342 in 4th through 6th grades and 301 in 7th through 9th grades). The results of factor analysis indicated that the Peer Relational Skills Scale was composed of 2 factors (total of 19 items): Initiative, Cooperation/Empathy. Internal consistencies for its subscales ranged from .74 to .81. Validity was established through correlational analysis with related scales. Implications and limitations of the present study were discussed.
The purpose of this study, RPS(Rational Problem Solving Skill) was validated to demonstrate it's discriminant validity. That is, alcoholics and normals investigated difference in RPS component. MAST and RPS were administered to 60 normal persons and 70 alcoholic patients. Alcoholic patients were selected according to the MAST score. The results were validated to demonstrate it's discriminant validity. That is, five subscale scores of RPS were found to successfully separate alcoholics from normals. Specifically, alcoholics and normals significantly differed in GAS(Generational of Alternative Solutions), DM(Decision Making) of RPS. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.