The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between the narcissistic personality peculiarity(character) and the multidimensional perfectionism targeted in korean university students. First the factor structure of Narcissistic Personality Inventory(NPI) and Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale(NPDS) were examined. Four factors were founded in NPI: Superiority, Exhibitionism/Vanity, Need for Power/Entitlement, arrogance/Exploitativeness. Three factors were founded in NPDS: Hypersensitiveness, Need for Admiration/Attention. In relationship of NPI, NPDS and Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale(MPS), Superiority of NPI and Need for Admiration/Attention of NPDS influenced to self-oriented perfectionism. Need for Power/ Entitlement and Superiority of NPI influenced to other-oriented perfectionism. And Hypersensitiveness of NPDS influenced to socially-prescribed perfectionism.
This study examined the relationship between the quality of parents' attachment to their own parents and the quality of expressed emotion(EE) to patients. In addition to direct path of the effect of parents' attachment on EE, we investigated mediating effects of parents' attributional style and ego-resiliency as cognitive and personality variables. Korean-Level of Expressed Emotion(K-LEE), Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment(IPPA), Attributional Style Questionnaire(ASQ) and Ego-Resiliency Scale(ER) were administered to 91 patients and their family. Results indicated that parents' attachment to their own parents was able to predict EE significantly, and the mediating effect of attributional style is not significant statistically. However, the stable attribution about negative events of three subscales in attributional styles was negatively correlated with attachment and positively correlated with EE. Also, parents' ego-resiliency mediated between attachment and EE. These results suggested that parents' internal working models of attachment with their own parents early in life are a risk factor transmitting EE to their offspring later. Thus, for patients' better recovery, we should need effective family interventions focusing not only on medication and individual therapy, but also on parents' attachment, attributional style and ego-resiliency.
146 adolescents from low income families on public assistance(Low Income Group) were compared to the Comparison Group of 327 adolescents in the psychosocial adjustment, and risk and protective factors associated with their adjustment were examined. The Low Income Group did not differ significantly from the Comparison Group in self-reported depression and externalizing behavior problems. Family risk factor, association with delinquent peers and avoidant coping style significantly increased risk for depression and externalizing problems, while positive coping style of adolescents and social support from parents, peers and teachers emerged as important protective factors. Family-related risk factor appeared to be more important for psychosocial adjustment of girls compared to boys, while protective function of parental support appeared to be considerably weakened in the Low-income Group, suggesting that specific influence of risk and protective factors might differ depending upon the psychological characteristics and environmental context of the group.
This study was designed to examine factor structures of the Schizophrenia Quality of life Scale(SQLS), and the influences of family support, stress coping strategies, symptoms on the quality of life. 222 chronic schizophrenic patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, of more than 2 years and who resided in a mental hospital, rehabilitation centers, mental sanatoria were examined with SQLS. Following analysis, three factors(positive self- perception, uncomfortableness, and emotional unstableness) were extracted from SQLS. There were no significant differences among the groups. The person chronic schizophrenic patient trusted, asked for help and wanted to talk to most was identified as the mother among family members. The chronic schizophrenic patient's quality of life score was best explained by the order of stress coping strategy, symptoms, and family support. In other words, it was reported that their quality of life was higher when they took more coping strategies, when they had less serious psychotic symptoms, and when they could have more family support. In conclusion, suggestions and limitations of this study, and directions of future study were discussed.
The present study aimed to explore the response bias pattern, discriminability, and reaction time of boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity tendency by the differences in reward amount. Sixty subjects from 9 to 12 years of age were divided into two groups, 28 for attention deficit hyperactivity tendency and 32 for control group, according to Conners' abbreviated teacher rating scale. They were asked to identify Wisconsin Card sorting Test by form and number stimulus. Half of each group received reward differently. Half of Each group were rewarded 3 times much more when they identified form successfully and the others did number stimulus. Control group showed significant response bias toward more rewarded stimulus than attention deficit hyperactivity tendency group did. These findings suggest that children with attention deficit hyperactivity tendency are less sensitive to toward and their behavior isn't controlled by indwelling information of reward possibility, but immediate contingencies. The limitations and implications of this study were discussed.
This study was to investigate cognitive characteristics and overexcitability of the gifted children in KEDI-WISC and TTCT. The subjects were 24 preschool and elementary school students who have scored above 130 points on KEDI-WISC, which was considered as gifted children. KEDI-WISC and TTCT were given to gifted children and KPI-C, demographic questionnaire were acquired from their parents. To investigate peculiar cognitive characteristics of gifted children, FSIQ, VIQ, PIQ and 10 subtest measures of KEDI-WISC were compared among 1)gifted(n=24), 2)superior(n=13) and 3)ADHD(n=18). The result was shown that gifted group was significantly higher level on block design, information and vocabulary of KEDI-WISC than the other two groups, but picture completion, picture arrangement, digit symbol of KEDI-WISC were not significantly different with other groups. Based on previous study of overexcitability of gifted children, gifted group was divided into two groups which was inattentive and non-inattentive group. Non-inattentive group showed significantly higher score on similarity test of KEDI-WISC than inattentive group, and they also showed higher score on digit symbol test which was not significant. Based on previous creativity study, we investigated whether children who have higher scores of creativity test are more hyperactivity than other children. However, inattentive group did not show significantly higher score than non-inattentive group on TTCT score. Finally, the results were discussed and the implications for future studies were suggested.
The present study aimed to examine the different deficits of executive functions in children and adolescents with a diverse range of diagnoses of ICD-10. The subject(n= 49) aged 11 to 18 years belonged to 5 diagnosis groups which were as follows: eating disorder (ED), neurotic disorder, conduct disorder (CD), hyperkinetic disorder (HKD), and schizophrenia. The subjects were compared on a neuropsychiatric test battery consisted of the following 4 executive function tasks according to the narrow definition of EF: WCST perseverative error, TOH move, TMT Part B, and CPT nogo. The 5 diagnostic groups were distinguished significantly on the variables, perseveration(set-shifting), cognitive flexibility, passive avoidance (inhibition), but they didn't be on behavior planning. The schizophrenic patients performed significantly worse than 4 other psychiatric groups on the perseveration(set-shifting) and cognitive flexibility. The patients with HKD showed the significant worse performance than the rest 4 groups in regards to passive avoidance (inhibition). The patients with ED presented with a perseveration(set-shifting) more deficit than the rest groups without schizophrenia, but it did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that the specificity of EF for specific diagnosis groups exists, i. e. there are quality differences of EF between diagnosis groups.
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Korean version(CAARS-K). Participants were 912 normal college students for the examination of internal consistency and the factor analysis. Additionally 55 college students participated in this study to examine test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the CAARS-K. The four factor-driven subscales of the CAARS-K produced high internal consistency and relatively strong test-retest reliability over one or two weeks. And they were significantly correlated with another ADHD measures. Exploratory factor analysis revealed somewhat different results compared to those of antecedent research and suggested a three-factor structure accounting for 34.2 percent of the total variance. These factors were termed by emotional problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity, deficient executive function. The limitations of the study and the suggestions for further study were discussed.
According to the suggestions of three cognitive theories of anger(Beck, 2000; Deffenbacher & McKay, 2000; Lazarus, 1991), the automatic thoughts which occur in anger situations can be divided into primary anger-thought and secondary anger-thought. The aim of the present study is to develop scales which assess primary anger-thought and secondary anger-thought separately. Initial items were sampled in 179 undergraduate students, and the preliminary Primary/Secondary anger-thought scale were administered to 408 undergraduate students for exploratory factor analysis. Convergent and discriminant validity were examined in 410 undergraduate students. The main results were: 1) The Primary anger-thought scale was composed of 20 items, 2 factors (Sensitivity to wrongful and selfish behavior of others(11 items), disregard and disappointment in intimate relationship situation(9 items). 2) The Secondary anger-thought scale was composed of 34 items, 3 factors(Derogation of others/revenge(19 items), Helplessness(7 items), Anger-control/ constructive coping(8 items)). 3) The internal reliabilities of each factors in the Primary/Secondary anger-thought scale were .75.96. 4) The convergent and discriminant validity of the Primary/Secondary anger-thought scale were supported consistently. The Anger-control /constructive coping factor in the Secondary anger-thought scale showed positive correlations with adaptive anger behavior, and is suggested to be functional anger thought.
This study was to construct the Korean version of the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale(SOCRATES-K), and to examine its reliability and validity. Original SOCRATES is an instrument designed to assess motivation for change in problem drinkers, but the SOCRATES-K is designed to assess motivation for change in alcohol dependents. Data from a open ward sample(N=81) and a closed ward sample(N=61) provided support for the validity and reliability of the SOCRATES-K. Factor analyses yielded 3 relatively unrelated factors that were stable across rotations: Recognition, Taking steps, and Ambivalence. Recognition scores at baseline were found to be moderately positive related to degree of problem insight and intensity of alcohol problems, and Ambivalence scores were found to be moderately negative related. Taking steps scores were found to be mildly negative related to alcohol craving. Finally limitations of this study and suggestions for further studies were also discussed.
The Clock Drawing Test(CDT) has the strength to evaluate several domains of the neurocognitive function in a short period of time. However, most studies have been focused mainly on the efficiency of the CDT for differentiating dementia patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the CDT could correctly reflect the severity of brain injury in patients with traumatic brain injury as well as differentiating dementia patients or not. After the clinical characteristics were examined, the CDT and the Korean-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test(K-WAIS) were administered to 69 patients with mental disorders due to traumatic brain injury. Based on the severity classification of brain injury by Golden and Golden(2003), the patients were classified into two groups; mild to moderate and severe to very severe. The two groups' scores on 3 subscoring systems and the total scores of the CDT were compared. The correlations between the performance of the K-WAIS and the CDT response and the relationships between the severity of brain injury and the error type of the CDT response were tested. As a result, there were correlations between the severity of brain injury and lower CDT scores in patients. Additionally, the CDT score was more correlated with the subtest scores and IQ of the K-WAIS in the severe to very severe group than the mild to moderate group. The group with severe to very severe brain injury showed much more errors in size of the clock and graphic difficulties but didn't show the others of the errors types. These results suggest that the CDT can be useful in assessing the neurocognitive function of the traumatic brain injured patients as well as the dementia patients. Finally, the suggestions, limitations and further issues for future study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the treatment of social anxiety disorder in adolescents. Of twelve high school students diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, eight completed group cognitive-behavioral therapy for 8 sessions. Social anxiety symptoms and cognition measures were given at pretreatment, midtreatment, posttreatment, and 2-month follow-up. Results showed that at posttreatment, group cognitive- behavioral therapy led to improvement in most measures of social anxiety symptoms and cognitions. The treatment effects were maintained at 2 month follow-up. These results suggest that group cognitive-behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder in adolescents.