In an attempt to compare the brain activity between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a normal control group, we analyzed the Quantitive Electroencephalography (QEEG) and we evaluated the possibility of QEEG as a useful clinical tool. The taditional measures of absolute and relative power and frequency, and the asymmetry measures were derived from the ranges of the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies. The asymmetry indexes were computed using two different formulas: the PCT index and the A index. The results showed the following. (1) The delta relative to power was increased and the alpha relative to power was decreased in the depressed patients, as compared to the controls. (2) The delta frequency was slower and the alpha frequency was faster in the depressed patients, as compared to the controls. (3) With the A index, the alpha and beta asymmetries were indicative of the left frontal and central hypoactivity, respectively, as was previously reported for MDD patients. However, theta asymmetry was also found in the PCT index, in addition to the alpha and beta asymmetries. Discriminant analysis correctly classified 82.6% and 87% of the patients (Ed note: check this.) when the A index and the PCT index were included, respectively. It was found that spectrally analyzed EEG could become a useful tool when diagnosing major depression and also for examining the basis of the symptoms.
The aims of this study were to examine the relationships between life stress, coping and perceived social support and the posttraumatic stress and the mental health of 5·18 victims. The subjects were 311 5·18 victims in Gwangju, Seoul and Gyeonggi Province. The data was collected through several trained examiners' interview and survey. The results showed that the relationships between posttraumatic stress, mental health and life stress, passive coping, and perceived social support were significant, but those between posttraumatic stress, mental health and active coping were not. The results from multiple regression analyses showed that life stress, passive coping and the perceived social support predicted the posttraumatic stress and mental health. The interaction effect between life stress and social support on the relationship between mental health and life stress was marginally significant. Analyses according to groups such as the wounded, the arrested, and the bereaved families showed somewhat different results according to the groups. That is, the interaction effect between life stress and social support on the relationship between posttraumatic stress and social support was marginally significant in the case of the wounded. To the contrary, the interaction effect between life stress and passive coping was marginally significant in the case of the arrested. The meanings of this study were the examination of some of the factors that influence the mental health of trauma victims and to provide suggestions for psychotherapy.
This study examined the relationship of social phobia symptoms with concern for offending others, anger-related variables, and individualism-collectivism. For predicting social phobia symptoms with the concern for offending others, we used hierarchical regression with the level of Social Interaction Anxiety symptoms (SIAS) and Social Phobia symptoms (SPS) in the first step, and the other predictors were used in the subsequent steps. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that anger inhibition, anger control, fear of negative evaluation from others, and a low level of horizontal individualism predicted the variance of social phobia symptoms with the concern for offending others. On the contrary, hierarchical regression for SIAS indicated that anger inhibition, anger control, and a high level of horizontal individualism predicted the variance of SIAS. Hierarchical regression for SPS indicated that the anger-related variables, and individualism-collectivism didn't predict the variance of SPS. These findings suggest that the culture specific variables may explain social phobia symptoms with the concern for offending others. Finally, the implications and limitations of the present study are discussed.
The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) Does self-focused attention distinguish two different types - that is adaptive one and maladaptive one - of an over-general autobiographical memory and depression? 2) Does an over-general autobiographical memory act as a moderator or a mediator in the relationship between self-focused attention and depression. The adaptive one was named “the General Self-focused Attention”, which is defined as the degree of attention that an individual pays to the self, and the maladaptive one was named “the Self-Absorption”, which is defined as the tendency of constantly giving excessive attention to one's specific aspects and having difficulty turning his attention to other aspects or the external environment. 199 undergraduates completed the Scale for Dispositional Self-focused Attention in Social Situations (SDSAS; Lee & Kwon, 2005), the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Mackinger, Loschin, & Leibetseder, 2000) and the CES-D. The results were as follows; Individuals with a high Self-Absorption score reported more depression, and Self-Absorption was found to be a good predictor of depression. Self-Absorption was confirmed to be maladaptive self-focused attention on depression. On the other hand, General Self-focused Attention was not confirmed as adaptive. Neither the moderating nor the mediating effects of an over-general autobiographical memory on the relation between self-focused attention and depression were supported by the study's findings. Therefore, an intervention strategy for decreasing the maladaptive self-focused attention is needed for the treatment of depression.
This study was to examined the effectiveness of the Rey Complex Figure Test to detect malingering. This test was administrated to three groups: the malingering (n=24) and the effortful (n=25) groups with mild traumatic brain injury and the normal control group without head injury (n=24). The malingering group did consistently poorer than the effortful group and the normal control group on the various variables for the Rey Complex Figure Test, these variables are the copy time, the copy score, the immediate recall, the delayed recall, the true positive, the false positive, the true negative, the recognition index and the atypical recognition errors. When examining the classification accuracy between the malingering group and the effortful group, the copy time (.54), the immediate recall (.54) and the delayed recall (.58), showed better sensitivity as single variables while maintaining a specificity of at least .95. From the result of this study, we can suggest a new malingering detection index, which is the copy score + the recognition index - (the atypical recognition errors * 3), with including the recognition index (the sum of the true positives and the true negatives) instead of just the true positives in the combination score of Lu, Boone, Cozolino, & Mitchell (2003). This malingering detection index has high sensitivity and classification accuracy, (.83 and .90, respectively), while maintaining the specificity of .96 when classified between the malingering and the effortful groups. The clinical implications and the limitations of this study are also discussed.
This study examined the effect of parenting behavior on adolescent depression, as well as the mediating roles of an avoidant emotion regulation style and emotional clarity on adolescent depression. 419 adolescents (7th-10th grade) living in Seoul participated in this study and they completed self-report measures on depression, parenting behavior, an avoidant emotion regulation style, and emotion clarity. All the variables showed significant correlations with one another. The results of the structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that an avoidant emotion regulation style and emotion clarity partially mediate between parenting behavior and adolescent depression. This study presents an integrative model of adolescent depression and it provides implications for the treatment and prevention of adolescent depression. The limitations of this study and suggestions for further study are also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to develop the norms and to test the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Parenting Stress Index (K-PSI). Following the recommended 3-step translation process, the K-PSI was administered to the parents of 1,919 typically developing children (age range: 1 to 12 years). The reliability was tested via internal consistency and test-retest reliability (N=35). Its construct validity was examined by administering the K-CBCL (preschoolers=527, school-aged children=71) and the BDI (N=89). The discriminant validity was assessed by administering the K-PSI to the parents of children with developmental disabilities (N=96). The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that similar factor structures exist for both the PSI and K-PSI, although cross-cultural differences were suggested. Overall, the results showed high internal consistency (.56 to .95), test-retest reliability (.50-.90) and construct (.40-.69) and discriminant validity, and this suggested that the K-PSI were valid psychometric properties. We also discussed the implications of using the K-PSI both as a clinical tool and a research instrument.
The present study was conducted to examine whether metacognition uniquely contributes to test anxiety above and beyond other relevant predictors and to determine the relative contributions of the dimensions of metacognition to test anxiety. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that metacognition was a significant predictor of overall test anxiety after controlling for depression, perfectionistic concerns over mistakes, study skills, and academic self-efficacy in a sample of 172 undergraduate students. This unique effect of metacognition was also supported on measures of tension, worry, bodily symptoms, and test- irrelevant thinking, the four components of test anxiety. In addition, perfectionistic concerns over mistakes and academic self-efficacy each uniquely contributed to overall test anxiety above and beyond the other relevant predictors, including metacognition. Furthermore, simultaneous multiple regression analyses showed that negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of worry, lack of cognitive confidence, and positive beliefs about worry each uniquely contributed to overall test anxiety after controlling for the other dimensions of metacognition. Negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of worry made the greatest contribution to overall test anxiety. Finally, the clinical implications and limitations of this study are discussed.
The purpose of this study is to discover differences in trait-anger and anger expression pattern based on adult attachment styles. More specifically, it is focused on the moderating effect of anger expression effectiveness between the trait-anger and drinking problems. We asked 394 college students to complete questionnaires about adult attachment style, trait-anger, anger expression patterns and drinking problems. The subjects were classified into 4 groups based on adult attachment styles: secure, preoccupied, dismissing, or fearful. The preoccupied and fearful groups had higher trait-anger scores than the secure group. The fearful group used significantly more anger-in patterns than the secure attachment group. Other groups didn't differ in anger expression patterns. The moderating effects of anger expression effectiveness between the trait-anger and drinking problems were significant in the preoccupied and the fearful groups, but not in secure and dismissing groups. Finally, we discuss the implications and limitations of this study and suggest future studies.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gestalt contact boundary disturbance and interpersonal problems on soldiers' adjustment to military life. To accomplish this, we determined which factors associated with gestalt contact boundary disturbance and interpersonal problems impact military adjustment in a negative way. We then identified, correlations between factors in these two areas. Next, we proposed and tested a model designed to evaluate personal characteristics that affect adjustment to military life. We then surveyed army soldiers using a questionnaire that consisted of items from the Gestalt Contact Boundary Disturbance Inventory, Interpersonal Problem Inventory, Military Adjustment Inventory and Beck's Depression Inventory, and evaluated the correlation and mediation effect of the different factors. The results of our analysis revealed that, among gestalt contact boundary factors, projection and sensory blockage, were negatively correlated with the adjustment to military life. In addition, when interpersonal problem factors were evaluated, retaliation, indifference, and avoidance had a negative effect on military adjustment. Furthermore, the factors that were negatively correlated with adjustment to military life were found to be positively correlated with the level of depression. Moreover, the results of this study revealed that projection and sensory blockage impact military adjustment and depression directly, and that these factors are indirectlymediated by interpersonal problem factors. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
This study aimed to analyze the influence of the auditory attention on childrens’ and adolescent’s cognitive function. It has been recently reported that auditory attention has great impact on children’s & adolescents’ cognitive functions, although this has been studied less and the findings applied less to psychological assessment and intervention than has visual attention. The analysis (correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression) was done using the data from 44 subjects who visited and underwent psychological testing at center in Seoul between 2004 and 2006., The correlation results showed the auditory attention on the CPT has strong relationships with the overall IQ subtests, but visual attention on the CPT has significant relationships with only 4 IQ subtests. On the stepwise multiple regression analysis, auditory attention was a significant predictor of the total IQ, the verbal IQ and the performance IQ. In conclusion, this researcher suggests that these results might be caused by the transcoding processing effect, the difficulty of the auditory attention task as compared to the visual attention task and the close connection between auditory attention and the emotional aspect. It is expected this reporting can be applied to the development of more refined and elaborated assessment tools and a cognitive enhancement program in the future.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the factors from the Five-Factor Model of Personality can be applied to a categorical model of personality disorders. Three hundred ninety subjects, who were over 19 years of age, participated in collecting the data. The five factors (neuroticism, extroversions, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness) of personality showed significantly correlations with the scores of the ten DSM-Ⅳpersonality disorders. On the results of multiple regression analysis, the five factors of personality significantly predicted the DSM-IV personality disorders. The Paranoid, Schizotypal, Borderline, Avoidant, and Dependant PDs were positively predicted by ‘neuroticism’. The Paranoid, Schizoid, Avoidant, and Obsessive-Compulsive PDs were negatively predicted and the Borderline PD was positively predicted by ‘extroversion’. The Schizotypal, Borderline, and Narcissistic PDs were positively predicted by ‘openness to experience’. The Paranoid, Schizotypal, Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic PDs were negatively predicted by ‘agreeableness’. The Paranoid and Obsessive-Compulsive PDs were positively predicted and the Histrionic and Narcissistic PDs were negatively predicted by ‘conscientiousness’. These results suggest that personality disorders can be represented by the Five-Factor Model of Personality.