The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of violent online games and aggressive personality traits on aggressive behavior by assessing aggressive feelings, cognition and physiological arousal. The participants were all male university students and the data was collected by using the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992). According to the results of the Questionnaire, these subjects were divided into two groups: the top twenty five percent(n=20, the high aggression group) and the bottom twenty five percent(n=20, low aggression group). The high and the low aggression groups were randomly assigned to play violent or nonviolent online games(“the games”). Aggressive behavior was measured by the mean intensity of white noise, which is the same experimental paradigm that Bushman used for measuring aggressive behavior. Aggressive feelings, cognition and physiological arousal were measured, respectively, by The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory Korean version (STAXI-K; Jun et al., 1997), by the Anger Thought Scale(ATS; Seo & Kwon, 2005), and by the blood pressure. To observe the change of the subjects' inner state during the games, we measured feelings, cognition and physiological arousal before and after the games, respectively. The results were as follows. Regardless of the outcome-win or lose, or the degree of violence of the games, it's only the aggressive personality traits that affected aggressive behavior. In the case of the change of the subject's inner state during the games, individual aggressive personality traits also influenced the aggressive feelings and cognition, while the degree of violence of the games influenced only aggressive thoughts. Regardless of the aggressive personality traits or the degree of violence of the games, the physiological arousal of both groups increased after the game. These results suggested that aggressive personality traits had an effect on the cognitive path in the GAM model.
The initiative time latency (ITL) is the silence that exists in the middle of one verbalization by one speaker. In a previous study, the client ITL was facilitative and the counselor ITL was non-facilitative when it measured by the client experiencing scale. This study examined the immediate outcome of the client/counselor ITL by measuring the coherence of verbalization in relation to the case outcome, success and failure. The coherence of the verbalization that exists just after the silence has a strong relationship with the category of the turn-taking signals that are included in the verbalizations just before the silence. So the coherence of the verbalization that exists just after the client/counselor ITL must be examined in combine with the category of the turn-taking signals in the verbalizations that exists just before the client/counselor ITL. To do this, we examined one successful case and one unsuccessful case that were managed by one counselor. The cases were continued 30 sessions long with agreed termination. And all the silences that exist in the middle of the clients' and the counselor's verbalizations were extracted. After then the category of the turn-taking signals (verbalization finishing and continuing) included in the verbalizations just before the silences and the level of coherence (high, low, unrelated issues) of the verbalizations just after the silences were coded. The frequencies and the percentages of the silences of each condition were calculated and the differences were tested (χ2). The client ITL of the unsuccessful case which was facilitative by the client experiencing scale was no more facilitative when it was measured by the coherence. And the level of coherence was significantly different between the category of turn-taking signals and the case outcome. For the successful case, most of the client's verbalizations after the ITLs were highly coherent after finishing speaking as well as after giving the signal for continued speaking. But in the unsuccessful case, the percentages of low coherence and unrelated issues were relatively high even after giving the signals for continued speaking.
This study was to investigate the differential predictors of anorexic and bulimic behavior and explore the interpersonal factors of disordered eating behaviors among female college students. For this purpose, the effects of perfectionism, interoceptive awareness, impulse regulation, body dissatisfaction, and ineffectiveness of EDI-2 on anorexic and bulimic behavior were tested. In addition, in order to examine the mediational role of interpersonal factors, two structural models assuming full and partial mediational effects separately were compared by the use of Structural Equation Modeling. The partial mediational model was supported and the main results were as follows. First, perfectionism predicted directly and indirectly anorexic behavior through the effect of self-improvement motive. Second, ineffectiveness predicted self-enhancement motive which could not affect bulimic behavior. Also, interoceptive awareness and impulse regulation had direct effects on bulimic behavior and body dissatisfaction influenced both of disordered eating behaviors directly. Finally, the limitations of this study and the implications for future studies were discussed.
The aim of present study was to investigate the coping process characteristics of high-worriers with a focus on primary control mode and secondary control modes. The subjects were 300 college students, and the measures used were the PSWQ (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), the BDI (Beck Depressive Inventory), the MOCI (Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory), and the Coping Process Questionnaire of Threatening Conditions. The results showed that high-worriers exhibited maladjusted primary control modes (passive and helpless coping in a ontrollable condition) and maladjusted secondary control modes (excessive need control in an uncontrollable condition). High-worriers also overestimated ‘fatality of consequences’, ‘control need’, and ‘control duty’ more than low-worriers. Furthermore, high-worriers underestimated their own ‘coping ability’ more than low-worriers. Our results were interpreted in terms of relevant previous studies, and we discussed the limitations of present study and suggestions for future research.
This study identified the personality and pathology subgroups, as based upon cluster analysis of the MMPI profiles of substance abusers. The Subgroups were compared for their duration of drug use, the frequency of substance abuse treatment and the frequency of imprisonment for other reason besides substance abuse. There were 2 types of MMPI subgroups. Type1 had a spike on scale 4(Pd). Type2 had high-ranging and floating profiles. The Type2 subgroup, the so-called Pathology subgroup was found have a significantly longer duration of drug use than the Type1 subgroup, the so-called antisocial personality tendency subgroup in duration of use. The Pathology subgroup(Type2) was found to seek treatment more voluntarily than the antisocial personality tendency subgroup(Type1). The Type2 subgroup also had a higher frequency of imprisonment for reason other than substance abuse. This result indicated that Type2 substance abusers had more somatic symptoms, persecutory ideas, emotional confusion and lower tolerance for stress. They are likely to benefit from general treatment programs that addresses their more chronic and serious mental health problems. Those in the Type1 subgroup, the antisocial personality tendency subgroup, may benefit from Motivational Interviewing or Motivational Enhancement Therapy that addresses their resistance and ambivalence resolution so that they become motivated to change.
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of four clock-drawing conditions (the free-drawn condition, the pre-drawn condition, the examiner clock condition and the copy condition) for differentiating mild dementia patients from geriatric depressed patients and normal elderly persons. The Clock Drawing Test(CDT), including four clock-drawing conditions, was administered to 25 patients with mild dementia, 25 patients with geriatric depression and 25 normal elderly persons, and all of whom were matched according to age, gender and the education level. The cut-off scores, efficiencies, sensitivities, specificities, positive likelihood ratio(+LR), negative likelihood ratio(-LR), and the Area Under Curve(AUC) for the four clock-drawing conditions were calculated. Additionally, the relative diagnostic efficiencies of the four clock-drawing conditions, with using z test on the AUC, were compared for differentiating mild dementia patients from geriatric depressed patients and normal elderly persons. With the exception of the examiner clock condition, the other clock-drawing conditions well discriminated the mild dementia patients from the geriatric depressed patients or the normal elderly persons. All conditions were not able to discriminate the geriatric depressed patients from the normal elderly persons. The pre-drawn condition was the most efficient for differentiating the mild dementia patients from the geriatric depressed patients or the normal elderly persons. The examiner clock condition showed the worst efficiencies for all the differentiations. Additionally, there were no significant differences among the relative diagnostic efficiencies of the free-drawn condition, the pre-drawn condition, and the copy condition. The relative diagnostic efficiencies of the examiner clock condition were the lowest. These results suggest the diagnostic utility of using the free-drawn condition and the pre-drawn condition for differentiating mild dementia patients. It should be noted that the low specificity of the copy condition may have influenced its diagnostic utility. Finally, the limitations of this study as well as ideas and suggestions for future research are discussed.
The present study investigated the early attachment styles of students with paranoid tendencies and examined the similarities and differences in major psychological variables among subgroups of students categorized by early attachment style. Thirty students with paranoid tendencies from a group of 492 college students were interviewed according to the Adult Attachment Interview protocol. The results showed that 9 students (30.0%) had an autonomous attachment style, 11 (36.7%) had a dismissing style, and 10 (33.3%) had a preoccupied style. Self and other concepts, depression scores, perceived parenting behavior, and adult attachment styles were compared across the 4 groups (autonomous, dismissing, preoccupied, and the controls). As for self and other concepts, the students in the dismissing and preoccupied groups both reported more negative concept of self and others when compared to the control group. However, the students in the dismissing group tended to have a more negative concept of others than those in the preoccupied group. With regards to perceived parenting behavior, the students in the dismissing group reported more neglect than those in the preoccupied group, while the students in the preoccupied group reported more excessive parental expectations than those in the dismissing group. Finally, the implications and limitations of the present study and directions for further research are discussed.
In the present study, the history and implications of the research concerning religiosity were introduced within the conceptual framework of clinical psychology. The goal of this study was to focus the readers' attention on the dimensionality of religiosity and to introduce the author's previous research on the dimensionality of religiosity. The relationship between psychotherapy and religiosity was then discussed, first generally and then concretely with an example of Gestalt therapy. The concept of “connectedness” proposed by Gestalt therapist Erving Polster as a common factor that explains both Gestalt therapy and religiosity was also discussed. Finally, the relationship between Gestalt therapy and religiosity was discussed as the author explained the eight dimensions of religiosity (orthodoxism, pietism, mysticism, religious trust, religious anxiety, religious socialism, meaning seeking, and atheism) in light of the concept of connectedness. The results of empirical studies were also reported.
The Korean version of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale Short Version (CAARS-KS) was used to assess ADHD symptoms in 505 university students. The reliability and validity of the data were analysed and the results showed a high degree of internal consistency among the items within each sub-scale. As for the convergent validity of the CAARS-KS, four sub-scales (inattention-memory problems, hyperactivity- restlessness, impulsivity/emotional liability, problems with self concept) were significantly correlated with other ADHD-related sub-scales obtained from both the CAARS-KL (long version) and Barkley's ADHD scales. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided further evidence that Conners' four-factor model was adequate for the assessment of ADHD symptoms in adults. Additional confirmatory factor analyses with 2-, 3- and 4-factor alternative models based on exploratory factor analyses showed little improvement or worse fit than the original default model proposed by Conners. In conclusion, the results of present study suggest that the CAARS-KS may be useful for efficiently assessing ADHD symptoms in adults.
As the number of elderly people increases, so does the number of dementia patients. There has never been a stronger imperative to develop instruments for dementia screening. The present study represents a preliminary stage in the construction of a Korean Dementia Questionnaire (KDQ) for use in the screening of dementia in clinical settings or epidemiological surveys. The family members of 86 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 57 patients with vascular dementia (VD) were interviewed individually. They were asked to report the cognitive, emotional, and physical symptoms that they had observed in their everyday contact with their patient relatives. A total of 299 dementia symptoms were reported by family members are reviewed, and 33 items were selected as preliminary items for the KDQ. When these 33 items were used to compare symptoms observed in AD and VD, valuable information was provided about the differentiation and severity of these two types of dementia. The results confirmed the clinical validity and utility of a KDQ consisting of 33 items selected in the present study. The need for a follow-up study to collect normative data on healthy elderly subjects is indicated, if the KDQ is to be used as an effective screening tool for dementia.
This study investigated the characteristics of the defense mechanisms used by substance abusers according to subgroups derived from MMPI-2 cluster analysis. Substance abusers who were on probation showed a slight rise on the Pd scale, and cluster analysis resulted in two distinct types of substance abusers. The first type, the defending type, showed relatively high Pd scale scores comparing to others, whereas those of the second type, the complaining type, showed significantly high scores on scales, such as Hs, Hy, Pd, Pa, Pt and Sc. The ego defense mechanisms used by the two types of substance abusers was examined, and the results showed that there were significant differences between the two types on scales such as Bragging, Passive-aggressive, Dissociation, Acting out, Reaction formation, Projection, Somatization, Evasion, Identification and Displacement. This study found that substance abusers of the defending and complaining types use different defense mechanisms, and suggested therapeutic interventions for relapse prevention relevant to the defense mechanisms used by each type of substance abuser.
The main purpose of this study was to develop a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program for juvenile sex offenders and to investigate the effects of the program. To this aim, a 15-session group CBT program was developed on the basis of previous studies, and juvenile sex offenders on probation in Seoul and Kyonggi Province received this program. Seventy-three adolescents completed this treatment program as well as pre- and post-treatment scales. The domains of the scales included cognitive distortion, victim empathy, self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and emotional stability. The results of the program were as follows. Statistically significant positive changes were found in the subjects' pre- and post- treatment scores pertaining to cognitive distortion, interpersonal relationships and emotional stability. These findings suggests that it is possible to make positive changes to the psychological characteristics of juvenile sex offenders using this treatment program. However, the changes in victim empathy and self-esteem did not reach the level of statistical significance. The implications and limitations of the present study were discussed along with suggestions for future research.
The present study examined the current status, major rolesand activities of Korean clinical psychologists. A questionnaire was e-mailed to 457 members of the KCPA (Korean Clinical Psychology Association). The response rate was approximately 33%, and 150 people completed the questionnaires. The participants were asked to complete 8 items on the demographic characteristics, educational experiences, employment settings, professional activities, theoretical orientation and career satisfaction. The results showed that the majority (74.7%) identified themselves primarily as clinical practitioners, followed by academicians and researchers. The psychologists' primary employment settings were universities, psychiatric hospitals and private practice. The major professional activities of the Korean clinical psychologists were psychotherapy (35.4%), diagnosis/assessment (33.0%), research/writing (21.0%), teaching (19.2%), clinical supervision (18.1%) and administration (10.5%). Among various theoretical orientations, eclecticism/integration (50.0%) was the most popular orientation and the next-most-popular orientation was a cognitive-behavioral orientation (32.0%). The level of subjective satisfaction with their career was moderate (Mean: 3.27, SD: 1.14 on the 5-point scale). The implications and future direction was discussed.