The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of worry on sleep and fatigue and to determine whether the regulation of emotion plays a role as a mediator in the relationship between worry and sleep and worry and fatigue, respectively. The study included 310 university students that completed a questionnaire comprise of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, the Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory, and the Fatigue Scale. The correlation between worry and sleep and the correlation between worry and fatigue were all significant, showing that people who worry more experience greater difficulties with sleep and fatigue. A series of regression analyses were performed to determine whether the regulation of emotion plays a role as a mediator between worry and sleep,and worry and fatigue respectively. The results did not support the hypothesis that of regulation of emotion was a mediator between worry and sleep. However, regulation of emotion seemed to play a role as a mediating variable between worry and fatigue. Therefore, worry has an effect on fatigue indirectly rather than directly. These results suggest that in individuals with high levels of worry that complain of fatigue treating the emotional regulation would be more effective than treating the worry itself.
This research explored the experiences of parent /divorced college students with a focus on resilience by the a method of phenomenological qualitative analysis. The participants were 6 parent /divorced college students. Data was collected by in-depth interview and the Sentence Completion Test, Symptom Checklist Revised and Parent /Divorced Experience Questionnaire. With data based on qualitative analysis, 8 common subjects were generated. Participants had risk factors such as ‘negative emotions about parents’, ‘fear of prejudice against divorced family’, ‘passive and withered interpersonal relationship’, ‘problem with heterosexual relationships’ and protective factors as ‘new perspective of family’, ‘emotional support’, ‘positive self-image’ and ‘clear economic concept’. This research was limited by data collection from of relatively adjusted subjects and only one in-depth interview session. The suggestions for future studies include comparison of experiences and resilience between groups with good a poor adjustment.
The objective of this study was to examine the temporal relationship between the symptoms of social anxiety and depression in children and adolescents, and to investigate the effect of age on the temporal relationship. Children(364 4th-5th graders) and adolescents(373 10th-11th graders) were given self-report measures of social anxiety and depression. The same measures were repeated 6 months later. The results of the structural equation modeling indicated that the path coefficient from T1 social anxiety to T2 social anxiety and the path coefficient from T1 depression to T2 depression were significant in both children and adolescents. The path coefficients from T1 social anxiety to T2 depression and from T1 depression to T2 social anxiety were significant in the children's model. T1 social anxiety was not associated with T2 depression, but T1 depression was significantly associated with T2 social anxiety in the adolescent model. However, in the adolescent model with modified scales, the path coefficient from T1 depression to T2 social anxiety was not significant.
This study investigated the effect of visuospatial rehabilitation training on the improvement of cognitive functions in schizophrenic patients. A total of 22 patients living at the Institute for Social Return participated. The rehabilitation group and the control group each consisted of 11 patients. The visuospatial training consists of 10 sub-programs, which were developed to train the visuomotor skills, visual perception, visual imagery & rotation, spatial perception and visual integration skills. Comprehensive neuropsychological tests such as Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test(ROCF), Trail-Making Test(TMT), Stroop test, d2 test, K-CVLT, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test(WCST) and PANSS were administered before and after the training. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of demographic variables such as age, IQ, educational level, age of onset. The two groups did not differ on the performances of any of the neuropsychological tests and the PANSS scores administered prior to rehabilitation training. The rehabilitation group showed significantly improved performances on the copy condition of ROCF, TMT, part B and Stroop, Color-Word interference condition, which were administered after the training. However, the control group did not show these improvements. In addition, the rehabilitation group showed significantly reduced negative symptoms after training, but the control group did not. These results indicate that visuospatial training is effective not only for the improvement of visuospatial functioning, but also for attention. In addition, these results indicate the importance of cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenic patients who are preparing for social return.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of perceptions of social rank and external entrapment on anger and anger expression on marital satisfaction. One hundred and one married couples participated in this study, and they were asked to report how they would respond to a hypothetical situation (after reading an angry script) and fill out questionnaires. The results showed that there were significant differences between wives and husbands in the induced anger after reading the script, anger-control, and marital dissatisfaction, but no significant differences between them in perceived social rank and external entrapment. For the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), the actor and partner effect, for external entrapment of both spouses, was significant, but only the partner effect for the wives' perceived social rank, the actor effect for the husbands' anger-out,and the actor effect for the wives' anger-in were significant. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) demonstrated that the husbands' external entrapment affected their marital dissatisfaction directly and indirectly by their anger-out. The wives' external entrapment affected their marital dissatisfaction directly and indirectly mediated by their anger-in. In addition, the wives' perceived social rank affected their spouses' marital dissatisfaction, and the husbands' marital dissatisfaction affected the wives' marital dissatisfaction.
This study was conducted to examine the schizotypal personality features, such as disordered thinking/perception, in individuals at risk for Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Recently, an obsession model has been proposed, which classifies obsessions into two different subtypes: autogenous obsession and reactive obsession. This model has suggested an association between autogenous obsessions and thought disorder. Previous studies on semantic priming have suggested that schizophrenia and schizotypy enhanced the indirect semantic priming effects at short prime-target intervals relative to controls. Therefore, semantic priming paradigms were used to test whether autogenous obsessions display increased indirect semantic priming effects. The participants were 3 groups of college students: 14 had elevated autogenous obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and autogenous obsession scores, 15 had elevated reactiveOC symptoms and reactive obsession scores, and there were 15 normal control participants. Subjects performed a lexical decision semantic priming task at short prime-target intervals under two experimental conditions (direct semantic priming and indirect semantic priming). Consistent with the prediction, the subjects with Autogenous Obsession (AO)s displayed increased indirect semantic priming compared to the subjects with the with Reactive Obsession (RO)s and normal controls. Contrary to expectation, the RＯs exhibited significantly enhanced direct semantic priming compared with the AＯs and normal controls. These results suggest that autogenous and reactive obsessions, in their relationship with schizotypal personality traits, do not appear to be attributable merely to the type of obsession AO, RO may be linked to the schizophrenia spectrum along a continuum of multidimensionality of schizotypy.
The purpose of this study was to determine the cross-informant agreement between mother and adolescent reports on behavioral emotional problems according to their depressive symptoms. The participants were 422 middle and high school students (193 boys and 229 girls) and their mothers. The adolescents assessed their own depressive symptoms by the CES-D as well as behavioral and emotional problems by the K-YSR. The mothers assessed their own depressive symptoms by the CES-D and their children's behavioral emotional problems by the K-CBCL. Depressed adolescents and their mothers were selected by 15th percentile scores of the CES-D. They were then compared for agreement with a normal group. The agreement between mothers and adolescents was analyzed with Fisher's z transformation by the T scores of the K-CBCL and K-YSR. The results showed a low agreement between the same subscales of the K-CBCL and the K-YSR with an average r=.28. Girls agreed more with their mothers than boys did on the delinquent behavior. The high SES group agreed more with their mothers than the low SES group did on the anxious/depressed and thought problems. Depressed mothers agreed more with adolescents than non-depressed mothers did on the anxious/depressed and social problems. Non-depressed adolescents agreed more with their mothers than adolescents did on the externalizing problems. These results demonstrated that it is important to integrate both the mothers and adolescent perceptions and to consider their depressive state.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between personality pathology and interpersonal behavior patterns and the characteristics of interpersonal behavior patterns of personality disorders(PDs). 458 college students participated. PDs and interpersonal behavior were measured by the PDQ-4+ and the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior(SASB). Significant positive correlations were found between the total scores on the PFQ-4+ and some of cluster scores on the SASB Intrex. As being severe personality pathologies, actions of blame, ignore, and attack to others, reactions of sulk, recoil, and wall off to other behaviors, and behaviors of self-attack, and self-neglect to self were increased. Correlations between 10 scores of PDs on the PDQ-4+ and 24 cluster scores of the SASB Intrex and mapping on the Multidimensional Scaling revealed that all PDs except the histrionic PD showed higher levels of attack, ignore and blame behaviors to others, and lower levels of love/affirm, protect, and active love behaviors. The cluster A PDs showed tendencies of separation from others. The cluster B PDs showed the highest level of attack on others and self-emancipate and autonomous, and the cluster C PDs showed the lowest levels of attacking behavior amonf all clusters. Freeing, separating from others, submit, self- emancipate, self-control were unique factors that differentiate PDs from normals; these factors ranged in autonomy dimension in the SASB. Namely, autonomy was the most important variable for differentiating the PDs. Results of this study were discussed and follow-up studies were proposed.
Nineteen ADHD and 19 normal control (NC) children participated in the study. The two groups were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tests to evaluate language, visuospatial function, attention, processing speed, memory, and executive functions. All measures utilized a standard score with M = 100 and SD = 15. The major findings were as follows. First, the deficits among the ADHD children relative to the NC children were most severe in the executive functions. The deficits in the children with ADHD was greater for the Executive IQ than the Wechsler IQ. Second, the children with ADHD children had deficits in attention. However, this deficit was apparent only when the attention tasks required executive regulation. Third, the ADHD vs. NC group differed with regard to the distribution of the Executive IQ − Wechsler IQ index, suggesting use of this index as a supportive diagnostic tool. These findings lend strong support for the hypothesis that ADHD reflects primary deficits in executive functions.
This study investigated anger thought, trait anger, anger life events of paranoia and depression. The Paranoia Scale, the Zung Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anger Scale, the Primary Anger-Thought Scale, the Secondary Anger-Thought Scale, and the Anger Life Event Scale were administered to college students(N=568). The result of correlation analysis showed that paranoia and depression were significantly correlated with disregard and disappointment in intimate relationship situations, helplessness, and anger life event. However, while paranoia had a relatively high correlation with derogation of others/revenge, depression had a high correlation with helplessness. A comparison of the anger experience in paranoia with that in depression revealed that the explanatory power of anger variables in paranoia was greater than in depression, and helplessness, trait anger, and anger life event were common predict variables. Sensitivity to the wrongful and selfish behaviour of others was determined to be an additional predictive variable of paranoia, and little anger control/constructive coping was determined to be an is additional predictive variable of depression. Independent sample t-test was used to examine the differences in anger experience between the paranoid and the depressed groups. The paranoid group showed greater sensitivity to the wrongful and selfish behaviour of others, derogation of others/revenge, trait-anger, and frequency of anger life events in comparison to the depressed group. Suggestions and limitations of this study, and direction for future studies were discussed.
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of thought-action fusion(TAF) and thought-event fusion(TEF) to obsessions. Study 1 was performed to develop the Thought-Reality Fusion Scale(TRFS) which can measure TAF and TEF. The data were collected from 419 college students. Factor analysis revealed that the TRFS was found to have five factors in autogenous thoughts, while four factors in reactive thoughts. And the TRFS was found to have concurrent validity. In study 2, how TRF is differently related to autogenous/ reactive obsessions or worry and depression was examined. 492 college students were given to answer to the TRFS, Revised Obsessional Intrusions inventory(ROII), Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) and Penn State Worry Questionnaire(PSWQ). Obsessions were significantly related to all the factors of TRFS. Over all factors, reactive obsessions were more related to TAF and TEF than autogenous obsessions were. Autogenous obsessions showed significant correlations with likelihood TAF, reflection TEF, likelihood TEF and prevention TEF in the order, while they showed insignificant correlation with moral TAF. On the other hand, reactive obsessions showed significant correlations with likelihood TEF, reflection TEF, prevention TEF, likelihood TAF and moral TAF in the order. Worry and depression were less related to TRFS than obsessions. Finally, the significance of this study and further studies were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of the CBCL subscales for predicting DSM-IV Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) group without comorbid disorders from non-referred group. The sample included 118 children aged 6 to 11 (99 boys, 19 girls), who were referred to psychiatric hospitals and psychological clinics and were diagnosed by child psychiatrists and clinical psychologists based on the full-battery psychological evaluations and medical interviews. Statistical performance was conducted through univariate and multivariate stepwise logistic regressions as well as receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. The Attention Problems subscale significantly predicted ADHD boys group from non-referred boys group and showed good diagnostic accuracy, as assessed through ROC analyses (AUC = .88). The Social Problem subscale significantly predicted ADHD girls group from non-referred girls group and showed good diagnostic accuracy, as assessed through ROC analyses (AUC = .90). CBCL subscales demonstrated good diagnostic effectiveness for diagnosing ADHD without comorbidity in children. Further research will be necessary to consider the importance of the sex distinction for discriminating ADHD group.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of intolerance of uncertainty and perceived emotion controllability on worry, and identify the role of problem orientation as mediator variable. Also, gender effect on the role of problem orientation was examined. The sample consisted of 143 female and 166 male university students who completed the questionnaire about intolerance of uncertainty, perceived emotion controllability, problem orientation and worry. The results were as follows. First, the structural equation model analyzing the partial mediating effect of problem orientation on the influence of intolerance of uncertainty and perceived emotion controllability on worry fit in total group. Problem orientation mediated the paths from both intolerance of uncertainty and perceived emotion controllability to worry. In addition, the direct paths from both intolerance of uncertainty and perceived emotion controllability was also significant. Second, gender differences were observed in the model when data were analysed separately for the male and female group. In male group, problem orientation mediated the path from perceived emotion controllability to worry, but path from intolerance of uncertainty to problem orientation was not significant. In case of intolerance of uncertainty, only the direct path to worry was significant. On the other hand, in female group, problem orientation mediated paths from both intolerance of uncertainty and perceived emotion controllability to worry. In addition, the direct path from emotion controllability to worry was also significant. Implications and limitations of this study were discussed along with the suggestions for future research.
Hwa-Byung is a form of psychogenic illness among lay people in Korea and was recently listed as a culture-bound syndrome of Korea in the DSM-IV. However, there has been no self-report measure assessing the severity of Hwa-Byung. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measure of the Hwa-Byung syndrome and examine its reliability and validity. The participants were 111 outpatients visiting the depression clinic and the Hwa-Byung clinic and 33 normal adults. The structured interviews (SCID-I, HBDIS) were first administered to determine the diagnosis of the participants and then a preliminary pool of 70 items of Hwa-Byung Scale and SCL-90-R were administered. Based on the differentiation between Hwa-Byung and normal individuals and between Hwa-Byung and depressed patients, 39 items were selected as the first items. To examine the reliability and validity, the Hwa-Byung Scale was administered to a second sample (63 Hwa-Byung patients, 50 depressed patients, 53 normal controls). Thirty-one items were constructed using factor analysis on the data. The Hwa-Byung scale was divided into two scales: the Hwa-Byung personality scale (16 items) and the Hwa-Byung symptom scale (15 items). Both scales demonstrated high internal consistency. Limitations and implications of the Hwa-Byung scale are discussed.
The Appraisal of Social Concern(ASC) Scale is a self-report measure of social anxiety-related cognition, especially for social phobias. the goal of this study was to validate the Korean Version the Appraisal of Social Concern(K-ASC) and to demonstrate its clinical efficacy. In study 1, the results of an exploratory factor analysis in a sample of undergraduates(n=182) and patients with social phobias(n=101) yielded 2 factor structure. The factors tapping is (1) concerns with negative evaluation and rejection, and (2) concerns with physical symptoms. The subscale scores were strongly correlated. In study 2, the K-ASC was found to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In addition, the construct validity of the K-ASC was comparable to that of well-established measures in use for social phobia. In study 3, the clinical efficacy of the K-ASC was validated. The scores of the K-ASC in persons with social phobias were significantly higher than the undergraduate normal controls and clinical samples. The specific cut-off scores for the total score and each subscale of the K-ASC would enhances the diagnostic utility for social phobias. Therefore the ASC was useful for the assessment of cognition and cognitive changes in patients with social phobia
This study was conducted to examine the validity of the short forms of the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition(K-WISC-Ⅲ; Kwak et al., 2001). K-WISC-III data from 294 normal and clinical samples aged 6 ~ 16 were used to examine eight short forms of Doppelt type short forms of the K-WISC-III: seven from Campbell(1998)'s study and one from K-WISC-Ⅲ factor analysis. Data from 294 subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The first group was used to make regressional equations of the eight short forms to estimate IQs. The second group was used to compare the estimated IQs of the eight short forms with IQs determined using the full scale. There were high levels of correlations between estimated IQ and full scale IQ. Mean differences between two IQs were not significant, except for the “Information+Picture Completion” short form. Spearman's Rho correlations between the two IQ categories were very high. The results demonstrated the validity of the short forms of the K-WISC-III.
The present study attempted to develop and validate a new internet motivation scale. A total of 107 items for internet motivation were collected based on previous scales and a focus group interview of 22 internet addicts. A preliminary questionnaire was administered to 451 undergraduates. By item analysis, 47 items were finally selected for the Internet Motivation Scale. The model included 8 first-order factors and 3 second-order factors: sensation-seeking, mastery, sexuality (experience motive), interaction, information, expression (communication motive), preoccupation, and escapism (addiction motive). Cross-validation data from 233 subjects supported the 3-8 factor model by confirmative factor analysis and concurrent validity with the Internet Use Motive Scale and Young's Internet Addiction Scale.
The purpose of this study is to confirm the reliability and validity of the dependent subscale and the avoidant subscale of the Diagnostic Test for Personality Disorders(DTPD; Seo & Hwang, 2006). Two subscales of the DTPD and several tests known to measure dependent and avoidant traits were administered to 566 respondents(286 college students and 280 adults). Internal consistencies and test-retest reliabilities of two subscales of the DTPD were considered to an acceptable level. Factors of these two subscales conform to diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV(American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Correlations of two subscales of the DTPD with tests known to measure dependent and avoidant traits proved the concurrent validities. These results suggest that two subscales of the DTPD have reliability and validity to measure the Dependent Personality Disorder and the Avoidant Personality Disorder respectively.
The purpose of the present study was to test the effects of the Korean Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction(K-MBSR) program on depression, mindful attention awareness, and absorption, using the KDS-30, the Korean MAAS, and the Korean absorption scale in university students. The treatment group and the control group were students attending regular courses at the National University, Chungbuk, South Korea. The treatment group received eight sessions of the Korean MBSR program, while the control group attended a course on the psychology of health. Before and after the program, the Korean depression scale(KDS-30), Korean MAAS, and Korean absorption scale were administered to both groups. The results showed that the treatment group had a significant reduction of depression and a significant increase of absorption compared to the controls. This suggests that the Korean MBSR reduces depression and increases absorption. Future research directions are suggested.
The present study was designed to examine the effect of depressive mood on the functional asymmetry in motor performance. Participants were screened out of 360 college students on the basis of the BDI-II score: cut-off score of 14 for the High Depression Group (upper 20%) and 5 for the Low Depression Group (lower 20%). The participants in this study were all right-handed and matched for gender; 32 depressed students (16 males and 16 females) and 32 non-depressed students (16 males and 16 females). A hand dynamometer was used as a standardized measure of asymmetric motor function. The results showed that in males, there was a significant Group by Hand interaction effect. The mean grip strength of the right hand was significantly higher than that of the left hand for the Low Depression Group, whereas the High Depression Group did not show significantly greater right-hand grip strength. However, no such significant interaction effect was observed in females. The result of this study are consistent with the current neuropsychological model indicating relatively low activation of the left hemisphere in depression.