This study was designed to explore the mediating effects of intrusive-thought-focused coping strategies on the relationship between excessive need for thought control, cognitive self-consciousness, and level of obsessions. A total of 312 university students participated in this study and completed questionnaires on intrusive thoughts (IOWQ), obsessional symptoms (PI), need for control (OBQ), cognitive self-consciousness (CSC-E), and use of coping strategies (WCCL). The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The results showed that intrusive-thought-focused coping significantly mediated the relationship between the need for thought control, cognitive self-consciousness, and level of obsessions. In addition, in comparison to a fully mediated model, a partially mediated model including an additional direct path between need for thought control and level of obsessions better explained the data. The results of this study extend prior our understanding of the contribution of cognitive factors contributing to the development of obsessions by investigating developmental pathways. The implications and limitations of this study are also discussed, along with directions for future research, are also discussed.
‘Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)’ refers to a decline in cognitive functions but not as dementia, especially in memory. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a multifactorial cognitive ability enhancement program on cognitive performance and subjective appraisal of MCI. Thirty-two elderly study participants who were diagnosed with MCI using the CERAD-K (Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease) were randomized in a program group (receiving treatment) and control group. A multifactorial cognitive ability enhancement program that included education about cognitive functioning (e.g., memory functioning), cognitive restructuring for memory-related beliefs and cognitive performance skills training was compared to a control condition. The result indicate that the individuals in the program group had significantly better cognitive performance (e.g., verbal memory, face memory, etc.) and memory controllability and lower subjective memory complaints at the end of program. Findings suggest that individuals with MCI can benefit from a multifactorial cognitive ability enhancement training. For further development of efficacy of such program, study that is combined with cognitive ability enhance program and medications is needed.
The purpose of the present study is to examine the moderator effects of meta-mood on the relationship between repressive coping style and empathy. The Emotional Empathy Scale, the TMMS (Trait Meta-Mood Scale), the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Manifest Anxiety Scale were administered to 248 university students (96 males, 156 females). Using both the average scores on the Social Desirability Scale and the Manifest Anxiety Scale as the cut-off scores, the subjects were divided into four groups: high anxiety-high defensiveness, high anxiety, repression, and low anxiety. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the effects of repressive coping style and trait meta-mood on empathy. The results showed that trait meta-mood exerted significant effects on the relationship between repressive coping style and empathy. Based on these findings, the relationships among anxiety, defensiveness, empathy, and self- perceived emotional intelligence were discussed.
This study examined the effect of childhood feeding problems on parenting stress and whether behavior problems are fully or partially mediated by the developmental stage. The CEBI, K-CBCL, and K-PSI were administered to the 578 parents of toddlers (N=134), preschoolers (N=255), and school-aged children (N-189). The correlation analysis showed that all variables were significantly related, and the result of one-way ANOVA showed that there were significant differences between the age groups. Structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that behavior problems fully mediated the relationship between feeding problems and parenting stress in toddlers. However, in preschool and school-aged children, behavior problems partially mediated the relationship between feeding problems and parenting stress. Research implications and limitations are discussed.
The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (K-SAS-A). A total of 1,364 students (758 boys and 606 girls) in grades 4-5, 7-8, and 10-11 completed the K-SAS-A, performance anxiety scale, K-CATS, depression scale (CES- DC), and sociometric nomination of social and performance anxiety. The parents of students in grades 4-5 and 7-8 also completed the K-SAS-A, adapted for use with parents, and the K-CBCL. The internal consistency of the K-SAS-A was high and the test-retest reliability over six months was acceptable. Factor analysis of the K-SAS-A revealed a three-factor structure (Fear of Negative Evaluation, Social Avoidance and Distress-New, and Social Avoidance and Distress-General), which was similar to that reported in previous studies preformed with the original scale. With regard to gender and age differences in social anxiety level, girls showed more social anxiety than boys, and students in grades 4-5 experienced less social anxiety than older adolescents. Correlation analyses revealed a positive correlation between the K- SAS-A and performance anxiety scales, including the K-CATS, and CES-DC. Parent- and peer-rated social anxiety were positively correlated with K-SAS-A scores. The overall results suggested that the K-SAS-A is reliable and valid for the assessment of social anxiety in children and adolescents. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed along with future research directions.
We developed a virtual city to examine the effects of map rotation on wayfinding efficiency (WE) and spatial knowledge (SK) in navigation systems depending on the subjects' wayfinding abilities. Eighty male college students completed the Wayfinding Ability Test, and 30 students who scored above/below the 25th percentile were divided into two groups of 15. In a virtual city, both groups participated in wayfinding tasks using track-up map and north-up map in the first and third session, respectively. Both groups also completed spatial knowledge tests in the second and fourth sessions. To control the experiences of 3D games, 2 (map types) X 2 (groups) repeated-measures ANCOVAs were used. In the results, significant interactions of map types and groups were found on both WE and SK. That is, the students in the lower 25th percentile attained higher WE and SK scores when they used the track-up map rather than the north-up map. In contrast, the students in the upper 25th percentile attained higher WE and SK scores when they used the north-up map rather than the track-up map. After the correlation analysis between sub-components of wayfinding ability and WE/SK in both map conditions, it showed that, in the north-up map condition, the correlation between ‘sense of direction’ and WE and the correlation between ‘using map’/‘visuospatial perception’ and SK were significant. These results suggest that those with poor wayfinding abilities use track-up map more favorably for WE and SK, that those with a poor sense of direction have difficulties with wayfinding when using the north-up map, and that those with poor map/visuospatial perception have difficulty achieving SK when using the north-up map.
The purpose of the present study is to shed light on the specific mechanism through which negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of worry influence test anxiety. Based on previous studies and the Self-Regulatory Executive Function model of emotional disorder (Wells and Matthews, 1994, 1996), partial and full mediation models in which experiential avoidance would mediate the relationship between negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of worry and test anxiety were proposed. In order to evaluate and compare the two mediation models and the alternative models, simple effects model and symptom model, structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used in a sample of 405 undergraduate students. SEM revealed that both partial and full mediation models fit the data well, and the former was superior to the latter. In contrast, neither the simple effects model nor the symptom model was supported. The direct effect of negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of worry seemed somewhat stronger than its indirect effect through mediation of experiential avoidance on test anxiety in the partial mediation model. These results provide the first empirical evidence of the mediating role of experiential avoidance in explaining the relationship between negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of worry and test anxiety in young adulthood. Results are discussed in terms of the need to consider experiential avoidance in understanding and preventing or treating test anxiety experienced by young adults with strong negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of worry.
The purpose of this study was to (1) investigate the relationship between several components of narcissism and aggression, and (2) explore the moderating effect of self-concept clarity on the relationship between narcissistic features and aggression. A total of 347 university students enrolled in introductory psychology courses completed questionnaires that assess narcissism, self-concept clarity, and aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to analyze the data. The results were as follows: (1) among the narcissistic features examined, Exhibitionism and Entitlement had significant main effects on aggression in the male and female groups, respectively; (2) self-concept clarity was significantly and negatively associated with level of aggression in the female group; and (3) there was a significant interaction between narcissistic features and self-concept clarity to explain aggression beyond narcissism and self-concept clarity alone. In particular, self-concept clarity moderated the effect of Entitlement on aggression in the female group. The implications and limitations of the study were further discussed.
The purpose of this study was to test reliability and validity of the Personality Belief Questionnaire (PBQ). Students and non-clinical sample (N=374) completed the PBQ, the Diagnostic Test of Personality Disorders (DTPD), and the Young Schema Questionnaire-S3A (YSQ). The PBQ was readministered to 30 of the participants eight weeks after the initial administration. Good internal consistencies and test-retest reliabilities were found for all of the PBQ subscales. The inter-correlations among the PBQ subscales were moderate-to-strong. Most of the PBQ subscales were found to reflect the structural relationships among personality disorders in the DSM-Ⅳ. The results were consistent with the study by Beck et al. (2001). To test the convergent validity of PBQ, correlation analyses were conducted with the DTPD and the YSQ. All of the PBQ subscales was positively correlated with corresponding subscales of the DTPD. The results of correlation and multi-regression analysis between the PBQ and the YSQ showed that the PBQ was associated with maladaptive schemas that reflect dysfunctionl beliefs of personality disorders. The results support the cognitive theory of personality disorders and the PBQ is a reliable and valid test.
The present study investigated the relationship between objective and subjective ratings of social skills and symptoms of social phobia in children. The sample consisted of 18 children with social phobia or social phobia and other anxiety disorders (7-12 years old) and their mothers. The children participated in a conversation with an unfamiliar adult, and the children's mothers observed their performance. Children and their mothers independently rated their social skills before and after the conversation. Two observers also independently rated the children's social skills. There was a moderate correlation between social phobia symptoms and objective social skills in children. The mothers tended to think that their children exhibited more nervous behaviors than they actually did. There was no significant difference between the mothers' ratings and observers' ratings on nervous behavior in children after the mothers observed their children's performance. The methodological limitations and clinical implications of the present study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and analyze the various predictors of depressive disorder in women with breast cancer on the basis of biopsychosocial model. A total of 128 breast cancer patients were recruited, and they were assessed on the basis of cancer-related variables, sociodemopraphic variables, symptoms of depression, cancer-related somatic symptoms, and psychosocial variables (optimism, self esteem, husband support). The results showed that 31% of the patients exhibited a high level of depressive symptoms, and 14% of the patients were classified as having depressive disorder. The 4-step hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis was significant, and the rate of correct prediction was 94.9%. Before entering the psychosocial variables, none of the cancer-related variables, sociodemographic variables or cancer-related somatic symptoms was significant. The high risk of depressive disorder in breast cancer patients was associated with a personality trait. The results supported that depressive symptomatology in breast cancer patients is not associated with objective variables, but rather that it is very strongly linked with psychological variables. Finally, the implications for the identification of and psychosocial intervention for depressive disorder in breast cancer patients were discussed.
The present study examined visual deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), with a special focus on the perception of movement. Eighteen patients with mild AD viewed displays containing eight volumetric objects. Equal numbers of younger and older adults served as the controls. Each object rendered in a random check texture-mapped image appeared on the monitor and underwent rotation against a background rendered in the same texture-mapped image. Texture density also varied as part of control. Wooden objects constructed in the same proportion were used as response stimuli. In the visual task, participants identified the matching wooden object as the one depicted graphically by pointing to it. In the tactile task, they identified the matching object after probing each response stimulus using only one hand. Because the displays were lateralized such that each stimulus object was presented in either the left or right visual field, the tactile task served to examine the interhemispheric interaction. The results of the visual task showed that patients with AD performed poorly in comparison to individuals in other groups. By contrast, the older adults and patients with AD both performed poorly on the tactile task, with the performance of the AD group deteriorating even further. The finding of poor performance on the visual task is consistent with the findings of similar studies demonstrating that AD affects several aspects of vision. The present results extended these results further to suggest that movement perception is impaired in AD. The equally poor performance on the tactile task investigating the intra and interhemispheric conditions indicates that there is no disproportionate impairment of cortical connectivity in AD, at least in the domain of visual processing. The results of this study demonstrate the need for a more comprehensive diagnostic measure of AD that encompasses a broader spectrum of visual functions than that examined by the measure currently available.
In this study, narcissistic individuals were divided into two subtypes overt and covert. The levels of hostility, anger experience, and anger expression in each subtype were examined. For this purpose, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale, Covert Narcissism Scale, Korean Version of the Aggression Questionnaire, and Korean Version of the StateTrait Anger Expression Inventory were administered to 298 undergraduates. The participants were divided into three groups (covert narcissists, overt narcissists and students with low levels of narcissism) based on their scores on the NPDS and CNS 145. Differences in hostility, anger experience and anger expression were compared using ANOVA. The covert narcissists experienced more hostility than the overt narcissists, and students with low levels of narcissism. The covert and overt narcissists experienced more anger than the students with low levels of narcissism. Furthermore, there were significant differences in anger-control between the overt narcissists and students with low levels of narcissism. The overt narcissists experienced more anger-out, and covert narcissists experienced more anger-in. The results indicated that covert narcissists, who have a tendency to suppress their anger, are more maladaptive than overt narcissists in many respects. Moreover, this study proposes that different anger management techniques should be used for individuals with covert and overt narcissism.
Attachment influences personality and is related to repression which is a personality trait. According to the Approach System Model of Schwartz, although repression can be adaptive, it may actually have an effect on health. The purpose of this study was the following. This study first axamined the influence of attachment on repression, stress perception, coping with stress, and then examined the differences in the degree of repression, stress perception, and strategies for coping with stress between the various attachment styles. A total of 644 university students participated in this study by completing a questionnaire investigating attachment styles, degree of repression, stress perception and use of coping strategies. A total of 422 students were finally selected by discriminant analysis of the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) and Hazan & Shaver's attachment style scale. The following results were obtained. The students in the secure attachment group scored higher on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-CSDS) and lower on the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS) than those in the other groups. That is, the secure attachment group exhibited more repression. The high repression group had a significantly low level of stress perception and used a more positive coping strategy. These differences are most apparent in individuals with a secure attachment style. The use of positive coping strategy was significantly higher in the secure attachment-high repression group and the secure attachment-low repression group. However the individuals in the anxious/ambivalent attachment-high repression group perceived less stress and used fewer positive coping strategies than those in the other groups. The subject in the avoidant attachment-high repression group also perceived less stress, and were more likely to seek social support strategies in the level of marginally significance. The result of this study suggests that adaption may differ according to attachment styles and the degree of repression. That is, in the repression groups there are differences in strategies used to cope with stress according to attachment styles. One's capacity for repression is necessary for coping effectively in daily living. Therefore in counselling situations, the therapist must not view repression as being to be undesirable. Therapists must not only support positive aspects of repression but help clients use more adaptive and flexible coping strategies.
Food craving is an ‘intense desire to eat’ that can explain the difficulty experienced by many people who try to restrain from eating. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the General Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (G-FCQ-T, Nijs, Franken, & Muris, 2007). It was developed to estimate the cravings for various types of food experienced by diverse clinical groups and everyday people. A total of 168 healthy undergraduate students and community participants completed the G-FCQ-T. The Cronbach's alpha for total score was .875 and ranged between .705 and .850 for the various subscales. Test-retest reliability was .85 for the total score and between .61 and .86 for the subscales. In the convergent and discriminant validation, the G-FCQ-T was correlated with scales concerning overeating and binge eating, but weakly or not related with dietary restraint scales. Consistent with the previous studies, factor analysis revealed four factors: preoccupation with food, loss of control, positive outcome expectancy, and emotional craving. These results indicated that the Korean version of the G-FCQ-T is a reliable tool for measuring trait-like food cravings. In addition, the results indicated that food craving is conceptualized as the multidimensional motivation in relation to cognitive and emotional processing.
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between alpha asymmetry in prefrontal cortex (PFC) electroencephalography (EEG) and depression. We compared the resting baseline PFC alpha activity of a depressed patient group (N = 59) and that of a healthy control group (N = 29). Using one way ANOVAs, significant group effects were found in all asymmetry indexes. The depression group showed relatively low activity in the left PFC. There were no significant effects of episode state or diagnostic subtype. There were no differences in asymmetry indexes between current depressed patients and previously depressed patients. We could not find any differences in asymmetry scores between the major depressive disorder group and the other depression group. These results indicate that PFC EEG asymmetry is a trait marker for depression.