This study investigated the impact of psychological conflict induced by the inconsistent feedback of coping behavior on the physiological, behavioral change and ulceration, and examined the effects of psychotropic agents on the coping behavior and ulceration which were induced by the conflict-stress conditions. Results of the experiments were as follow. The experimental animal showed a significant reduction in coping behavior, body weight loss, and severe ulceration compared to yoked-control animals. The acute effects of psychotropic drugs were not found in terms of coping behavior reduction, body weight loss, and ulceration. However, the chlorpromazine treatment group suggest the tendency to relieve ulceration. The chronic drug effect showed that chlorpromazine prevent the reduction of coping behavior under the conflict condition and amitriptyline relieve the ulceration. Chlorpromazine, chlordiazepoxide treatment groups suggest the tendency to relieve ulceration.
In the present studies, the main effect hypothesis of social support were compared with the buffering effect hypothesis of social support. The former stated that lack of social support and changes in support over time are stressors in themselves, and as such ought to have direct influences upon psychological symptomatology, whether or not other stressful circumstances occur. The latter states that individuals experiencing significant life stress, but with strong social support, will be protected from developing symptomatology associated with stress. In a preliminary field study, the relationships of negative life events, social support, and psychological symptomatology were explored, and it was found that social support had a positive relation to psychological adaptation regardless of the number of negative life events. Considering this result, the present study examined the influences of the manipulated stressfulness and social support on performances of dual task and anxiety. The results of study were as follows. Supported groups recalled more items than non-supported groups. Low-stressed groups recalled more items than high-stressed groups. And low-stressed group which was supported recalled more than any other groups. That is, the main effects of social support and stressfulness were found on recall. The main effects of anxiety was also found. However, no interaction effects were found. These results supported the main effect hypothesis of social support. But there were also the tendencies of the buffering effect in the particular types of social support. These suggest that main effects and buffering effects may exist depending on the types of social support and the characteristics of stressful event.
The type A behavior pattern(TABP : coronary-prone behavior) is a set of behaviors which appears in individuals predisposed to this trait in stressful situations. TABP is not a behavior pattern, rather a personality trait or disposition. Therefore, these personality variables would determine the differences noticed in the behavior of type A and B. The purpose of this study was to confirm the relationship of the TABP to the dimensions of extraversion and neuroticism of Eysenck's personality theory implicated in the behavior characteristics of the TABP. Subjects were composed of undergraduate and graduate students(n=87), using the following psychometric instruments; Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Korean Version, The Eysenck Type A Questionnaire, The Framingham Type A Scale, The Bortner Type A Scale, and The Susceptibility to Punishment Scale. the relationship predicted.
Individual differences of activation, which determine levels of the responsiveness or excitation of individuals to the stimuli, can be considered personality characteristics reflecting the properties of nervous system. And activation level in man is presumed to vary diurnally in a circadian rhythm due to time variation and environmental influences. Present research aimed to investigate the characteristics of activation levels and it's diurnal rhythms in schizophrenics. For this purpose, two-dimensional activation of cortical arousal and autonomic activation in both trait and state was emphasized in this research. 9 chonic schizophrenics as the experimental group and 14 normals as the control group were asked to complete the Korean version Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ) and the short-form Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL). EPQ is a questionnaire which was devised so as to assess trait activation, and AD-ACL is also a instrument based upon self-report for assessing activation states. In this research diurnal variation of state activation depending on endogenous rhythm as well as semipermanent trait of activation was emphasized. Results were as follows : (a) schizophrenics were higher than normals on trait cortical arousal but lower than normals on state cortical arousal. (b) On a trait autonomic activation level, there were not significant differences between schizophrenics and normals but schizophrenics were higher than normals on a state autonomic activation level. (c) In diurnal rhythm of state cortical arousal, inverted U-shaped curve normals but flattened curve in schizophrenics were found. For these results, it would be concluded that schizophrenics with higher trait cortical arousal levels presented lower state cortical arousal levels than normals, and that this elevated state autonomic activation in schizophrenics. Moreover, these results suggested various possible modifications of Eysenck and Thayers' two-dimensional activation theory as following; a)In connection with Strelau's 'reactivity-activity' model, trait cortical arousal would be regarded as reactivity that is a temperamental trait, compared with state cortical arousal would be regarded as activity that is an energetic characteristic of behavior being regulated by reactivity. b)Trait autonomic activation would be regarded as an abnormal trait that is a characteristic factor in neurotics, while state autonomic activation would be regarded as an abnormal state that is a common factor shared by all abnormal groups.
This study examined whether positive symptoms of schizophrenia reflect a loss of cognitive processing control and negative symptoms whether restriction in cognitive Processing. The main purpose of Experiment I was to gather normative data from young adult generated script for routine daily activities. In Experiment II compared normal young adults, schizophrenic patients' with positive symptoms and those with negative symptoms in recall and recognition. The prevailing view was examined by analysing the ability to use general world knowledge in comprehension and inference. The result showed that (a) normal young adult displayed results similar to previous research (b) positive symptom schizophrenics as well as negative symptom schizophrenics showed cognitive restriction (c) positive symptom group reflect a loss of cognitive control but knowledge based on conventional activities were represented on a similar level. Especially the independent processing of the positive symptom and negative symptom was discussed.
This study was to find out if the schizophrenic patients and the hospitalized offenders had role taking ability. Three groups participated in this study; the schizophrenic group(N=19), the hospitalized offender group(N=19), and the normal group(N=19). The subjects were asked to respond on the MMPI by three different instructions in order to measure the ability to fake-good and fake-bad. The results showed that the schizophrenic group and the hospitalized offender group did not have role taking ability and that the offenders were unable to feign nonaggressiveness the Pd scale.
In this study, memory monitoring process ("Feeling of Knowing" judgement process) was used to examine the difference of the depressed and the nondepressed in self-perception. 40 stimulus-response pairs of noun were presented to the subjects serially. After the presentation procedure, subjects were instructed to recall the response word for each stimulus word. Then, they were asked to predict their possibility of recognition for each stimulus word in recognition task. Finally, 4-alternative forced choice recognition task was administered. This was compared with the real recognition performance of those items. As result, there was no difference in memory performance or memory perception ability between the depressed and the nondepressed. However, the depressed person's expectation of recognition task performance was lower than that of the nondepressed. The depressed underestimated their memory ability relative to the real performance. This result supported Beck's cognitive model of depression.
Following manipulation of attention, each subject was presented with 60 adjectives, 20 under each of the three types of orienting task-structural, semantic, and self-referent. The results indicated that the self-focused attention group compared to the external focused attention group, recalled more positive than negative information processed under the self-referent task, and the depressed group recalled more negative than positive information. Such negative cognitive bias of the depressed group was more evident under the self-focused condition than under the external focused condition.
This study was designed to test a hypothesis derived from cognitive-behavioral theories of depression. It was predicted that compared to a sample with a low level depressive mood, high level subjects would overestimate the frequency of negative feedback received during the task. Two samples with depressive mood were assigned randomly to two different rates of negative feedback. The hypothesis was supported partly : The subjects with high depressive mood level recalled the frequency of negative feedback to be higher than the low level subjects. But, this difference was significant only at a low rate of negative feedback. The finding was discussed in terms of cognitive and behavioral theories of depression.
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of attribution and learned helplessness experiences on task performances and affective responses. In the learned helplessness training phase a modified Levine's discrimination task was administered to subjects who experienced the noncontingent feedback. Then, an attribution questionnaire was administered to 36 subjects who experienced the noncontingent feedback and they were classified into one of internal attribution group, external attribution group, and unclassified group. 12 subjects who have not experienced the learned helplessness served as a control group in the present study. In the test phase two different tasks, one similar to the training task(Logical deduction test) and the other unsimilar task(S-Maze test) were administered to the subjects, and then MAACL(Multiple Affect Adjective Check List) was also administered to all the subjects to check their depressive and hostile state. The major findings of the present study were as follows : The performance deficit of the subjects exposed to the helplessness condition was found only in the logical deduction task which is similar to the helplessness training task. Internal attribution group demonstrated lower performance than external attribution group in the similar task. Internal attribution group showed a higher level of depressive affect than external attribution group, and external attribution group showed a higher level of hostile affect than internal attribution group. These findings were discovered within a theoretical framework of the original model and the reformulated model of the learned helplessness.
It was hypothesized that fearful experiences of obsessive-compulsives might be associated with their cognitive characteristics. This study was designed to identify whether there is the tendency of selective information processing of threat stimuli in obsessive-compulsives or not. The subjects in this study were obsessive students. In order to manipulate stressful experiences they were shown the aversive or neutral scenes according to the treatment conditions. Immediately afterwards, a modified Stroop task was administered. Subsequently, through word recognition test hit and the degree of confidence of each recognition decision were examined. The results were as follows. As expected, the amount of color naming interference on threat words was larger than on neutral words in the obsessive group; the difference between the two contents of words did not appear in the control group. However, the stressful experiences induced by the aversive scenes had not any effect on the amount of color naming interference. Furthermore, the obsessive group showed superior performance to the control group in the word recognition test, and both groups recognized better threat words than neutrals. In the confidence rating of each recognition decision, on the other hand, only the main effect of word contents was significant, but any other effects were not. In the post-hoc analysis, the signal detection analysis of recognition decisions was executed. As the result, the difference between the two groups was significant in neither d` nor beta. These results were interpreted as confirming the hypothesis that there is the tendency of selective information processing of threat stimuli in obsessive-compulsives. And these facts supported the clinical reports that obsessive-compulsives did not get control of processing related to threat stimuli. Finally, this tendency of selective information processing in obsessive-compulsives was discussed in terms of both attentional bias toward threat stimuli and danger schema. In addition, the implications of this study, the limitations of this, and the direction of further research were discussed.
We investigated the prognosis of schizophrenic or schizophreniform patients by using M response in Rorschach Test. Admission duration was the index of prognosis. Patients were divided into two group-a long term and a short term admission group. We observed the number, activity, and quality of M responses. Results on the number of M response showed a significant difference in two groups. However activity and quality of M response between two group were not significant.
The two purpose of this single case report were as follows : to introduce applied relaxation technique devised by Öst(1987), and to explore the possibility of using applied relaxation in the treatment of a social phobia as well as and to find the practical difficulties in using that. So the rationale and practice of applied relaxation were described. And after this technique was applied to a patient with social phobia, the treatment processes were described progressed. Result of the treatment was that the tension level to anxiety-provoking situations was reduced and the change in the degree of relaxation with relaxation practice homework increased as the treatment progressed.
Lightner Witmer was one of the American students who took his doctoral degree under Wilhelm Wundt at Leipzig, and also one of the charter member of American Psychological Association. In 1896, he inaugurated the first psychological clinic at University of Pennsylvania. As a experimental psychologist, he played a number of crucial role in establishing and defining the clinical psychology as a helping profession. Clearly he was one of the great contributors in the development of psychology, yet he remains a shadowy, little known figure. This article summaries his life, carrier, and work without criticism.