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남(南)·북한강(北漢江) 담수산(淡水産) 패류(貝類)의 분포상(分布相)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)
권오길(강원대학교 생물학과) ; 조동현(강원대학교 생물학과) ; 박갑만(강원대학교 생물학과) ; 이준상(강원대학교 생물학과) pp.1-4
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Abstract

The investigation of freshwater molluscs in the South Han River was carried out from 1984 and in 1985. The authors selected 12 stations and collected freshwater snails and mussels. We here publish the catalogue of molluscs in South and North Han River. The catalogue of molluscs in the South Han River is as follows; two classes, four orders, six families including twenty species(Semisulcospira coreana, Semisulcospira globus, Semisulcospira gottschei, Semisulcospira forticosta, Parafossarulus manchouricus, Gabbia misella, Radix auricularia coreana, Austroppepleaollura, Limnoperma lucustris, Lamprotula gottschei, Lanceolariaacrorhyncha, Unio douglasiae, Unio sp, Solenaia triangulalis, Anodonta fukudai, Anodonta woodiana, Corbicula felnouilliana, Corbiculafluminea, Corbicula sp).

Limnoperna fortunei의 초기발생 및 유생에 관한 연구
최신석(충남대학교 이과대학 생물학과) ; 신창남(충남대학교 이과대학 생물학과) pp.5-12
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Abstract

The maturity of gonads, early development of the fertilized egg, spawning period, and morphogenesis of larvae in Limnoperua fortunei were studied from October, 1981 to November, 1982 as on attempt to identify its life cycle. 1) Active motility of its sperm was observed at late May, and matured egg could be found at late June. 2) It was estimated that the spawning was occured from late August. This species was belong to the short-term breeder because it finished its spawning within 20 days. 3) It has free-living trochophore and D-shaped larva stage. The shell lengths of early, middle, and D-larval stage were <TEX>$140.0{\mu}m$</TEX>, <TEX>$167.6{\mu}m$</TEX> and <TEX>$210.0{\mu}m$</TEX>, respectively. The shell heigths of each stage were <TEX>$97.3{\mu}m$</TEX>, <TEX>$137.6{\mu}m$</TEX> and <TEX>$178.2{\mu}m$</TEX>, respectively.

Limnoperna fortunei 유생(幼生)의 성장(成長) 및 변태(變態)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)
최신석(충남대학교 이과대학 생물학과) ; 김정섭(충남대학교 이과대학 생물학과) pp.13-18
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Abstract

The metamorphosis and the growth of larva in Limnoperna fortunei were studied from October, 1981 to December, 1983. 1) The larva of this species is observed in the three different stages in the form of D-shaped. The shell length of the larva in the early stage is <TEX>$130.44{\mu}m$</TEX> to <TEX>$143.60{\mu}m$</TEX> and in the middle stage <TEX>$161.67{\mu}m$</TEX> to <TEX>$184.11{\mu}m$</TEX>. In the late stage the length size of the larva increases up to <TEX>$194.55{\mu}m$</TEX> to <TEX>$208.45{\mu}m$</TEX>. The shell height is <TEX>$103.19{\mu}m$</TEX>, to <TEX>$119.47{\mu}m$</TEX>, <TEX>$126.51{\mu}m$</TEX> to <TEX>$157.63{\mu}m$</TEX> and <TEX>$136.87{\mu}m$</TEX> to <TEX>$176.35{\mu}m$</TEX> in the three stages respectively. Thus the growth ratio of shell length to shell height is 1:0.75. 2) The metamorphosing stage begins when the shell height becomes larger than <TEX>$210{\mu}m$</TEX> and the shell length exceedes <TEX>$260{\mu}m$</TEX>.

전라남도 완도군 보길도에서의 폐흡충(paragonimus westermani) 중간숙주 조사
김재진(연세대학교 의과대학 기생충학교실) ; 장재경(연세대학교 의과대학 기생충학교실) ; 정평림(연세대학교 의과대학 기생충학교실) ; 소진탁(연세대학교 의과대학 기생충학교실) pp.19-23
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Abstract

Collections of Semisulcospira snails and crayfishes were made to detect out larval trematodes in Bogil Islet, Wando-Gun, Chonra-Nam-Do, Korea in August, 1985. In addition, intradermal test to figure out the prevalence rate of paragonimiasis in the islanders was also carried out. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Nineteen out of 186 examinees(10.2%) showed positive reactions by intradermal test with Paragonimus antigen. 2) Forty four snails out of 182 snails collected were infected with trematode cercariae. These larvae were Metagonimus sp., Cercaria yoshidae, Cercaria incerta and Cercarianipponensis. 3) Metacercarial incidence of Paragonimus westermani in crayfish was 65.4%. Mean number of metacercariae per crayfish was 6.5.

한국산(韓國産) 왜우렁(Parafossarulus manchouricus)의 패류학적(貝類學的) 연구(硏究)
정평임(연세대학교 의과대학 기생충연구실 및 열대의학연구소) pp.24-50
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왜우렁(Parafossarulus manchouricus)은 우리 나라와 중국대륙(中國大陸), 일본(日本), 대만등지(臺灣等地)에 널리 만연(蔓延)되어 있는 간흡충증(肝吸蟲症)(clonorchiasis)의 원인기생충(原因寄生蟲)인 간흡충(肝吸蟲)(Clonorchis sinensis)의 제일중간숙주(第一中間宿主)로서 Bithyniidae 과(科)에 속(屬)하는 담수권패(淡水卷貝)의 일종(一種)이다. 우리나라의 청평(淸平), 진주(晋州), 군산(群山) 및 일본(日本), 대만등지(臺灣等地)에서 채집(採集)된 왜우렁과 공주지역(公州地域)에서 채집(採集)된 Bithynia(Gabbia) misella, 그리고 미국(美國)의 Michigan 호(湖)와 독일(獨逸)의 Bodensee 근역(近域)에서 채집(採集)된 Bithyniatentaculata를 대상(對象)으로 이들의 산난특성(産卵特性), 형태(形態), 세포학적(細胞學的) 특성(特性), 흡충류(吸蟲類)의 자연감염실태(自然感染實態)와 서식지(棲息地)의 생태등(生態等)을 상호비교관안(相互比較觀案)하여 주로 우리나라에 분포(分布)되어 있는 왜우렁의 패류학적(貝類學的) 근거(根據)를 마련하고저 본(本) 연구(硏究)가 수행(遂行)되었다. 왜우렁의 배양(培養)에 있어 중요(重要)한 요소(要素)는 먹이로서 유패(幼貝)인 경우 Navicula나 Gomphonema와 같은 Benthic diatoms가 필수적(必須的)임을 알았고 알에서 부화(孵化)하여 성패(成貝)가 될 때까지는 54日, 그리고 산난(産卵)할때까지는 약(約) 150日이 소요(所要)됨을 알았다. 왜우렁뿐만 아니라 같은 Bithyniidae科에 속(屬)하는 B.(G.) misella나 B. tentaculata도 년(年) 1회(回) 산난(産卵)함을 보았다. 왜우렁의 패곡(貝穀)에는 나선형(螺線形) 육기(陸起)(spiral ridges)가 있음이 타종(他種)과 구별(區別)되는 점(點)이였고 B.(G.) misella의 성패(成貝)의 크기는 7.5mm를 초과하지 않았다. 왜우렁 유패(幼貝)의 주사전자현징경적(走査電子顯徵鏡的) 관내(觀奈)에서 나선형(螺線形) 주름만이 보였을 뿐이여서 Hydrobiidae科에 속(屬)하는 권원류(卷員類)와는 상이(相異)한 형태(形態)를 나타내었다. 왜우렁의 설치(舌齒)는 B. tentaculata와 비숫한 형태(形態)를 보였으나 B.(G.) misella는 cusps가 일반적으로 크고 날카로웠으며 비교(比較)된 삼종(三種) 모두의 치형(齒型)은 2:1:1:1:2이었다. 또한 한국산(韓國産) 왜우렁과 대만산(臺灣産) 왜우렁에 었어 곡고대곡구비(穀高對穀口比)가 서로 통계학적(統計學的)으로 유의(有意)하게 상이(相異)한 것은 지역적환경(地域的環境)의 차리(差異)때문인 것으로 사료(思料)되었다. 왜우렁의 세포분열상(細胞分裂相)은 타종(他種)과 차리(差異)가 없었으나 염색체수(染色體數)는 B. tentaculata와 마찬가지로 n=17이었고 B.(G.) misella는 n=18이었다. 왜우렁의 핵형(核型)은 지역간(地域間)에 그 차리(差異)를 볼 수 없었으며 성염색체(性染色體)는 확인(確認)할 수 없었다. 왜우렁의 간흡충유충감염율(肝吸蟲幼蟲感染率)은 진주산(晋州産) 0.14%, 군산산(群山産) 1.25%이었으나 청평산(淸平産)에서는 0%였으며, 공주산(公州産) B.(G.) misella 亦是 자열감염(自熱感染)을 인정(認定)할 수 없어 간흡충(肝吸蟲)의 중간숙주(中間宿主)가 될 수 없음을 확인(確認)하였다. 왜우렁의 서식처(棲息處)는 수류(水流)가 완만(緩慢)하거나 정체(停滯)될 수계(水系)였으나 비교적(比較的) 오염(汚染)이 적고 용존산소량(溶存酸素量)이 높은 곳에 서식(棲息)하고 있있으며 서식처(棲息處)의 calcium ion양(量)이 타지역(他地域)보다 월등(越等)히 높았음을 알 수 있었다.

Abstract

Five different populations of Parafossarulus manchouricus (Chongpyung, Chinju and Kunsan, Korea; and Japan and Taiwan), a population of Bitbynia (Gabbia) misella (Gongju, Korea) and two different populations of Bithynta tentaculata (Michigan, U.S.A. and Bodensee, Germany) were compared in regard to eff-laying characteristics, morphology, chromosome cytology, natural infections of parasites and ecology of habitats. A satisfactory culture method was devised for laboratory rearing of the snails. Tropical fish food (Terra SML) and powdered green leaves (Ceralife) were used as the main food sources for the snails. Benthic diatoms such as Navicula and Gomphonema from the periphyton were also essential for satisfactory growth, especially for the baby snails. The aquaria were stabilized with small stones from a local stream. Young P. manchouricus snails grew to adult size in about 54 days after hatching. They laid eggs 150-156 days after hatching. The whole cycle (birth to egg-laying) took approximately 5 months. The three species of bithyniid snails are iteroparous and lay eggs once a year. There were no major morphological differences in the shells of genera or subgenera studied here. They did exhibit the following rather minor differences. The shell of Parafossarulus has spirally raised ridges, and its apex is usually eroded; the other two genera lack these characteristics. The shell of B. (Gabbia) misella is small, nor exceeding 7.5 mm in length, while the shells of the other two species are larger, being more than 10 mm in length. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the protoconch of P. manchouricus reveals nearly smooth sculpture with small, low, spiral wrinkles. This sculpture is quite different from that of the Hydrobiidae, a family to which the bithyniids are frequently assigned. Scanning electron microscopy of the radulae of the three bithyniid species showed that their radular morphologies are very similar, but there are some small differences, which may be species-specific. There were some statistical differences in shell heights between the Korean and the other populations of P. manchouricus, and between this species and the other two bithyniids as well. The shell differences between the several populations of Korean P. manchouricus may be related to environment. Edtails of the chromosome cycle of these bithyniid snails are similar to those reported for other snails. No specific differences were observed in the chromosome cycle between the various species and populations of snails employed in this study. Reporred for the first time in molluscs are two darkly stained "nucleolar organizers" during pachyterne stages of meiosis. Two different chromosome numbers were observed in the three bithyniid species: n=17 in B. tentaculata and P. manchouricus, and n=18 in B. (G.) misella. no sex chromosomes or supernumerary chromosomes were seen. There were no morphological differences in karyotypes of three Korean strains of P. manchouricus. The infection rates of cercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in Chinju and Kunsan strains of P. manchouricus were 0.14% and 1.25%, respectively. However, Clonorchis cercariae were found in Chongpyung strain of P. manchouriceu and Gongju strain of B. (G.) misella. The habitats of P. manchouricus around Jinyang Lake were relatively clean without any heavy pollution of aquatic microorganisms and organic materials during the period of this study. The levels of dissolved oxygen (D.O.) and biochemical oxygen demand (B.O.D.) of the water specimens sampled from the study areas ranged from 6.0 to 9.6 ppm and from 0.4 to 1.6 ppm, respectively. Eight metalic constituents from the water samples were also assayed, and all metalic ions detercted were remarkably low below the legal criteria. However, calcium ion in the water samples from the habitats of P. manchouricus was considerably higher than others.

한강수계(漢江水系) 패류상(貝類相) 연구(硏究)의 개관(槪觀)
김덕만(서울교육대학) pp.51-63
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Abstract

Studies on the molluscan fauna in Han River were chronologically summarized in this review. In summarizing the related reports, the fauna in the middle- and down-streams of Han River consisted of 2 classes, 5 subclasses, 5 orders, 10 families and 21 species with 3 variations. In addition to the chronological review on molluscan fauna, water pollution problems of Han River according to the urbanization and industrialization around the Seoul areas were ecologically discussed.

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