The purpose of this study was to investigate relations among elementary school teachers' functional perfectionist tendency, teacher efficacy, and burnout, test the effects on teacher burnout with the mediating elements of relations among the variables and teacher efficacy, and search for solutions for teacher burnout. For those purposes, first, the relations between elementary school teachers' functional perfectionist tendency and burnout were examined; secondly, the relations between teacher efficacy and burnout were investigated; and finally, it was tested if teacher efficacy mediated the relations between their functional perfectionist tendency and burnout. A total of 300 teachers working for elementary schools in Incheon Metropolitan City were asked to fill out a questionnaire. The research findings were as follows: First, there was a low level of significant negative correlation between the elementary school teachers' functional perfectionism and burnout. Their functional perfectionism was also in significant negative correlations with dehumanization and loss of personal achievement. Secondly, teacher efficacy had explanatory power for teacher burnout. Specifically, self-regulating efficacy and confidence of its subvariables provided significant explanations for teacher burnout. Lastly, it was tested if teacher efficacy mediated the relations between functional perfectionism and teacher burnout. As a result, functional perfectionism, a prediction variable, provided significant explanations for teacher burnout, a dependent variable, and teacher efficacy, a mediating variable. When both functional perfectionism and teacher efficacy were entered simultaneously, teacher efficacy fully mediated the relations between functional perfectionism and teacher burnout. The study found that there were negative correlations between the teachers' functional perfectionist tendency and burnout and proved that teacher efficacy fully mediated the relations between the two variables. The implication and limitations of the study were discussed along with some suggestions for future researches and psychotherapy practice.
The purpose of this study was two-fold: One was to explore achievement strategies used by high school students in academic contexts and the other was to validate the types of achievement strategies. High school students were asked how they feel, think and behave while they prepare for upcoming examinations. Data analyses were conducted as follows. First, a free response survey was administered to 358 high school students and the content analysis yielded 103 items describing their feelings, thoughts and behaviors in situations where school examinations were near at hand. Second, a questionnaire consisting of the 103 items was administered to 497 high school students. An exploratory factor analysis yielded 47 items, which were grouped into 11 components. Feeling scale was composed of four components (i.e., depression, rejection, sense of expectation and confidence, anxiety). Thought scale was composed of four components (i.e., worry, evasive imagination, positive imagination, negative imagination). Behavior scale was composed of three components (i.e., examination- preparatory behavior, examination-unrelated behavior, self-management behavior). The classification of such components was verified through a confirmatory factor analysis for each scale (i.e., feeling, thought, behavior). Third, a questionnaire consisting of the 47 items was administered to 410 high school students. Cluster analyses were conducted to extract distinct clusters and revealed four types of achievement strategies (i.e., strategic optimism, thoughtful-effortful strategy, self-handicapping strategy, onlooking strategy). Finally, differences in gender, self-esteem, achievement goal orientation and life satisfaction by achievement strategy were tested through chi-square analyses and analyses of variance. Differences in gender, self-esteem, achievement goal orientation and life satisfaction by achievement strategy were found significant. Theoretical implications of the results were discussed. In addition, practical implications for the development of intervention programs for high school students were presented. Finally, the limitations of this study and suggestions for future research were discussed.
The purposes of this research are: to observe the related variables; to compare the effect size; and make suggestions for leadership selection by admission officer system based on the results from the observation and comparison through meta analysis. The research questions crafted in order to achieve the purpose are as follows. First, what kind of variables were discussed in the previous studies? and can these variables be classified as the categories of the existing studies? Second, how are the effect sizes of the youth leadership related variable groups? Third, how are the effect sizes of sub factors of the related variable groups? The specific results of this research are as follows. First, youth leadership related variables can be classified as demographic, organization-activities, home environment and sociopsychological variables. Second, sociopshycological variable group shows the largest effect size. Third, among the sub factors, self esteems (ES=1.3231) and degree of satisfaction for life (ES=1.1737) show two largest effect sizes. In conclusion, based on the result of the research, this research suggests an alternative for a method to select students through admission counseling leadership selection system.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the life-culture for elementary school student. Content analysis was used to define and understand the elementary school student's life- culture and collect resources available elementary school student's counseling, guidance. The targets of this research were 57 second-grade students in the elementary school two class, who were divided into the nineteen group consisting of three children and played the talking, feeling, doing game with researcher. and the data was qualitatively analysed. As a result, The most frequent life-culture for lower grad of elementary school were related to friend. and it showed family system, personal system, culture system.
One of the most common characteristics exhibited by children and adolescents with ADHD is academic impairment. This review examined non-medication intervention studies on the academic impairment of students with ADHD in the general categories including behavioral interventions, academic interventions, cognitive-behavioral therapy & self-regulation. The results showed that non-medication interventions appeared to be effective in enhancing academic functioning of students with ADHD. Behavioral interventions have demonstrated an impact on academic behavioral variables while academic interventions on academic performance variables. Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in improving academic outcomes is limited. Majority of studies conducted over preadolescent boys. Thus, the extent to which these results might generalized to girls and adolescents should be examined. Studies which used teacher, parents, peers & computers as mediators for interventions showed effective. The majority of studies that have been conducted are limited by methodological flaws. Recommendations for future research efforts are delineated.