When delivering consultative services in schools, consultants need to understand 'resistance' within the context of consultation and develop skills to effectively manage it. With a growing interest in psychological and educational consultation in schools over the last few decades, research in this area has significantly been increased and a fair amount of literature has been published concerning resistance in school consultation. However, currently available discussions on this topic are limited in terms of their scopes and theoretical foundations, and an attempt to integrate them from a theoretical perspective has not been made yet. This article examines various aspects of resistance in school consultation from the perspective of Bandura(1986)'s Social Cognitive Theory. Specifically, this article conceptualizes resistance in school consultation and reviews various causes and types of resistance based on triadic reciprocality. This article also explores a potential role of self-efficacy in the consultee's motivational process of resistance. Overall. this article demonstrates that Social Cognitive Theory can serve as a useful theoretical and conceptual framework for understanding various aspects of resistance and developing a management plan with resistance in school consultation.
This is a short-term longitudinal study investigating the relationships between changes in mental health and academic burnout among Korean middle school students. Study sample consisted of 409 middle school students in Seoul provision, with 161 male, 216 female, and 32 unidentified. Both Symptom Check List(SCL-47) and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey(MBI-SS) were used. In order to examine the pattern of changes in mental health and academic burnout among students, standardized residuals were calculated using regression equations which were then put into canonical correlation analysis. The results of this study are as follows. First, according to Function 1, among sub-factors of mental health, decreases in depression, compulsion, anxiety, and hostility were particularly associated with decreases in exhaustion and cynicism among academic burnout. Put in another way, students who showed increases in depression, compulsion, anxiety, and hostility experienced more academic exhaustion and cynicism. Second, according to Function 2, increases in phobic anxiety, compulsion with decreases in anxiety, depression were associated with decrease in academic exhaustion and increase in cynicism. Considering Russell's dimensional theory of emotion, Function 1 showed that mental health symptoms including both aroused and non-aroused affects were related with increases in exhaustion and cynicism while Function 2 showed that mental health symptoms including only aroused aspects were related with decrease in exhaustion and increase in cynicism. Thus, a conclusive intervention program seems to be required to deal with both aroused and non-aroused affects of students who are experiencing increased exhaustion and cynicism. On the other hand, an intervention program focused on aroused affects seems appropriate to students who are experiencing decreased exhaustion and increased cynicism. This study has its value in that it has enhanced understanding of students in school and counseling settings by revealing the relationships between mental health and academic burnout among adolescents and suggested differentiated intervention strategies based on patterns of students' academic burnout.
In a group of 353 elementary students, the present study examined the moderation effects of prosocial behaviors and social competence in the relations between overt/relational aggression and peer status (social preference and perceived popularity). The results indicate that both overt aggression and relational aggression lowered social preference regardless of gender. Prosocial behaviors and social competence did not buffer the negative influence of aggression on social preference. Among boys, overt aggression was a significant predictor of increased perceived popularity. Although inconsistent, relational aggression also predicted boys' perceived popularity. However, among girls, relational aggression, not overt aggression, was associated with perceived popularity. The moderation effects of prosocial behaviors and social competence were significant only among boys. In other words, boys' aggression, although it lowers social preference, contributes to their social influence and dominance when it is effectively combined with positive characteristics. It is necessary to develop new intervention strategies which reflect the adaptive function of aggression within peer groups.
This study was conducted to introduce the concepts of social and emotional learning(SEL) that was found effective in enhancing social-emotional competencies, preventing problem behaviors, and improving academic performance and to examine the necessity and sustainability of schoolwide SEL in Korean school systems pursuing academic excellence. Theoretical literature, empirical studies, SEL curricula, the U.S. laws stipulating SEL learning standards, Singapore’s SEL practices, and SEL lesson plans developed by Korean teachers were reviewed. As a result, the construct of social-emotional competencies was found to consist of five components(i.e., self-awareness, social awareness, self-management, relationship skills, responsible decision-making), and SEL was defined as the strategic process of implementing many school-based prevention and intervention services designed to enhance social-emotional competencies in a coordinated and integrated manner. Such process consisting of three phases(i.e., readiness, planning, implementation) and 10 stages included six sustainability factors. Methods of implementing SEL in schools were categorized into either a person-centered approach(e.g., skills training) or an environment-centered approach(e.g., creating caring, supportive and safe climate). It was inferred that the method of infusing SEL into academic learning would be more acceptable to Korean school systems than that of implementing SEL curricula in the group counseling manner. Prior empirical research showed that schoolwide SEL would improve students’ school-related attitude, behavior, and academic performance as well as teachers’ self-efficacy and teaching practices. For such positive outcomes, it would be necessary to identify roadblocks to implementing schoolwide SEL in advance and to prepare plans to break through them. Finally, the significance and challenges for adopting and implementing SEL in Korean school systems were discussed and suggestions for further research were made.
The incidence of suicide among adolescents has rapidly increased, causing a serious social problem currently in Korea. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of parent-child bonding on suicidal ideation among middle school students, and to examine the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between parent-child bonding and suicidal ideation. For the Adolescent Health Promotion Study, 500 middle school students were selected national-wide by using quota sampling from regional areas in Korea. A multiple regression analysis and Sobel test were used to verify the significant mediating effect. The results show that suicidal ideation were negatively associated with the levels of parent-child bonding and self-efficacy, and that self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between parental bonding and suicidal ideation. That is, parental bonding directly affected suicidal ideation, and it increased suicidal ideation through self-efficacy as a mediator. These findings imply that parent-child relationship of adolescents is a core factor which impact the adolescents' suicide, and that self-efficacy plays an important role in suicidal ideation. Policy, education, and intervention efforts should be targeted at both improving family relationships and increasing self-efficacy among adolescents in planning suicide prevention programs.
The major purposes of this study were whether need for cognitive closure and self-esteem have an influence on school adaptation and psychological well-being of chinese international student or not. Participants of this study were one hundred twenty chinese students who attended a sungkyunkwan university located in Seoul, Korea. As a non-experimental study, a questionnaire that consisted of need for cognitive closure, self-esteem, school adaptation and psychological well-being was used. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, unpaired t-test, one-way ANOVA, Turkey test, correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression. The summary of the results is as follows: First, there are significant differences in need for cognitive closure according to grade, the length of stay and study in korea. Second, there are significant differences in school adaptation according to gender and the length of study in korea. Third, there are significant differences in psychological well-being according to gender, grade and the length of study in korea. Last, there are significant effects the need for cognitive closure and self-esteem on school adaptation and psychological well-being.
This article undertaken with Korean college freshmen developed and validated Student Adjustment Test(SAT) Ⅰ·Ⅱ. Based on Tinto's theoretical model of 'separation-transition-integration stages'. each of two instruments was performed at different time period according to the suggested stages of adjustment, and these instruments were designed to assess the level of initial commitment to the university and the level of integration between a freshman and a university, which have been assumed to influence freshman's decision related to early departure after the first semester. Three studies were performed. The first study examined the construct and concurrent validity of SAT Ⅰ. The second study investigated the construct and convergent validity of SATⅡ. The last study was conducted to examine the predictive validity of SATⅠ·Ⅱ. The results through a series of studies suggested that SATⅠ·Ⅱ are validated instruments, and contributed to predict freshmen's early departure. Implications and limitations of this study were discussed.