The purpose of this study is to provide a basis for examining the usefulness of fixed psychological testing and discussing ways to improve the effectiveness of comprehensive psychological testing. An online questionnaire was administered to 95 clinical psychologists as part on the study. It was found that comprehensive psychological testing consisted of a fixed configuration. The main purpose of the testing was ‘diagnostic’ and generally provided more than a certain amount of information. But for some purposes, they didn’t provide enough information. The test provided different levels and types of information in hospital and non-hospital Participants responded that utility sides are ‘client understanding’ and ‘reliability and validity of the testing’. However ‘time and cost inefficiency’ and ‘lack of flexibility in test configuration’ were mentioned as the disadvantages. This study is meaningful in that it is the first attempt to investigate comprehensive psychological testing in Korea. However, there are some limitations: the number of involved clinical psychologists is small and many of them had recently acquired their professional qualifications.
The Social Reconnection Hypothesis suggests that social exclusion may trigger a desire in people to form bonds with others in order to satisfy their need to belong. In the present study, we explored whether this adaptive response after social exclusion is moderated by social anxiety. Eighty-two undergraduate participants completed self-report measures including the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and a recall task for social exclusion/acceptance manipulation. Thereafter, we assessed emotion recognition bias through a computer-based experiment, asking the participants to search for a target expression (happy, angry) in a crowd of faces. By applying signal detection theory, we examined sensitivity (d’) and response criterion (c) for each expression. We found that there was no difference in emotion recognition for each expression across exclusion and acceptance, not considering social anxiety. However, the moderating effect of social anxiety was found in c, not in d’. In terms of c for the angry expression, those with lower social anxiety tended to judge an angry face as “absent” after exclusion, more than after acceptance. On the other hand, those with higher social anxiety did not judge differently after exclusion/acceptance. These results indicate that individuals with lower social anxiety cope with exclusion through adaptive emotion recognition, whereas those with higher social anxiety do not.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) traits and injury behaviors and the mediating effect of implicit and explicit decision-making abilities between ADHD traits and injury behaviors. A total of 56 elementary school students (27 boys, 29 girls) completed two decision-making tasks including Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Game of Dice Task (GDT). Their parents carried out an assessment battery consisting of the measures of ADHD traits and injury behaviors, such as actual injury experience and injury behavior tendency. The results indicated that there was a positive relationship between ADHD traits of the children and their injury behaviors and a negative relationship between ADHD traits and implicit and explicit decision-making abilities. A Bootstrap approach was used to test the mediation effect of implicit and explicit decision-making abilities. Results indicated that, for the actual injury experience, there were no the mediating effects of the two decision-making abilities, just the influence of ADHD traits’. In addition, for the injury behavior tendency, only the implicit decision-making ability mediates the influence of ADHD traits on injury behavior tendency. Thus, the significant and clinical implications of the current study have been discussed on the basis of the overall findings, followed b suggestions for further research.
The present study aimed to investigate changes in emotion and state self-esteem of depressed individuals after social feedback. For this purpose, 26 female college students with depression (DIs) and 29 healthy controls (HCs) were randomly assigned to either positive or negative feedback condition and asked to converse with a confederate. Changes in emotion (positive and negative feelings) and state self-esteem after the feedback were measured by Visual Analogous Scale and Korean Version of State Self Esteem Scale, respectively. A significant interaction effect in self-esteem, but not in emotion, between group and feedback condition was found. Specifically, HCs’ state self-esteem was unchanged after feedback. For DIs, state self-esteem was positively changed only after positive social feedback. The result indicated that, compared to HCs, DIs’ state self-esteem was more sensitively affected by social feedback. The findings of the present study are interpreted in terms of integration of self-enhancement and self-verification theories, and implications and limitations were discussed.
This study aimed to identify the effect of harm avoidance on suicidal ideation in adolescents and to examine the mediation effects of worry and catastrophizing. A total of 438 adolescents in Seoul and Kyunggi completed self-report questionnaires, including the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, Junior Temperament and Character Inventory 12-18, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, and Korea Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. The results were as follows. First, significant correlations were found among harm avoidance, worry, catastrophizing, and suicidal ideation. Second, the relationship of harm avoidance and suicidal ideation was significantly mediated by worry, and the serial multiple mediation effect was also significant from harm avoidance to worry, catastrophizing, and suicidal ideation successively. It is presumed that adolescents’ harm avoidance can affect suicidal ideation by mediating maladaptive cognitions. An intervention for adolescents’ negative cognition is important in preventing suicidal ideation. Implications and limitations of this study were further discussed.
Rejection sensitivity and negative cognitive bias are risk factors for depression. Rejection sensitivity is a concept that explains individual differences in the perception of and reactions to rejection. Individuals with high rejection sensitivity anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to rejection. Cognitive bias is a pattern of deviation that occurs when people interpret and remember given information or situations. Depressed people have negative cognitive bias. This study aimed to investigate the dual mediating effect of negative interpretation bias and negative memory bias in the relationship between rejection sensitivity and depression among undergraduate and graduate students. A total of 159 undergraduate and graduate students completed the Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression, and Similarity Rating Task using E-prime Software. The research model was constructed based on previous research in this field. To compare the research model and the two alternative models, structural equation modeling was conducted. The complete dual mediation model attained the best fit for present study. The finding suggests that high rejection sensitivity may contribute to depression through the increase of negative interpretation bias and negative memory bias. Our findings support the combined cognitive bias hypothesis proposed by Hirsch and colleagues in the relationship between rejection sensitivity and depression. Finally, the therapeutic implications and limitation of the study were discussed.
Posttraumatic stress disorder is characterized by not only significant psychological distress but also long-term difficulties in social and occupational functioning and adjustment. Psychological response to exposure to trauma can vary depending on the type of traumatic incident or factors related to the individual exposed to trauma. As such, it is important to investigate the potential protective factors that consider individual characteristics and the particular nature of the trauma. The present study thus examined the effect of exposure to human error-related aircraft accident in air force pilots on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Secondly, the moderation effect of cognitive flexibility was tested. A total of 64 male air force pilots participated in the study. The results indicated that air force pilots exposed to human error-related aircraft accident evidenced more posttraumatic stress symptoms than pilots with no prior exposure to human error-related aircraft accident. Furthermore, cognitive flexibility moderated the relationship between flight-related trauma secondary to human error and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The findings indicate that exposure to traumatic events during flight missions may be significantly associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms and that high degree of cognitive flexibility may serve as a protective factor. The implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Affect labeling refers to naming one’s emotional experiences, which has proven to be a helpful strategy in down-regulating negative emotion. This study aimed to examine the effects of affect labeling on reducing emotion-induced eating among individuals with bulimic symptoms. Forty-two female undergraduates with bulimic tendencies were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: affect labeling (AL; n=14), cognitive reappraisal (CR; n=13), or psychological education (PE; n=15). Following treatment, an impromptu speech task was given in order to induce anxiety, and participants were instructed to use the previously learned strategy during the speech task. Subsequently, a bogus taste test was conducted with high-carbohydrate snacks, and snack intake (kcal) was calculated as a measure of anxiety-induced eating behaviors. Results showed that both the AL and CR groups reported lower speech anxiety and consumed less snacks, as compared to the PE group. Furthermore, the AL group consumed even less snacks than the CR group. These results suggest that, while both AL and CR are effective in reducing anxiety-induced eating behaviors, AL may be more effective than CR. The implications of these findings are discussed.
The purpose of this study is to construct the clinical version of the Gambling Related Cognition Scale (GRCS-12), which is based on Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS) and confirm its optimal validity for Korean clinical sample. A total of 2,420 problem/pathological gamblers (male 97.1%) seeking treatment for gambling disorder completed the GRCS. They were randomly divided into two groups. Item analysis and explanatory factor analysis (EFA) were performed on the data of group 1(1,237) to construct GRCS-12 and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the data of group 2 (1,183) and the validity of GRCS-12 was confirmed. Based on the results of item analysis and EFA on the data of group 1, GRCS-12 consisting of four factors (prediction/interpretation, gambling-related expectancies, illusion of control, and perceived inability to stop gambling) and twelve items was constructed for group 1. The four factors accounted for 67.06% of the total variance. Reliability and validity were confirmed using group 2. The CFA results indicated that the four factors had internal consistency ranging from 0.68 to 0.72, while the reliability of all twelve items was 0.80. Thus, GRCS-12 showed good convergent validity, discriminant validity, criterion-related and predictive validity, and sensitivity to change. The implications and limitations of the present study along with suggestions for future research have also been discussed.
The Humiliation Inventory (HI) was developed by Hartling and Luchetta(1999) to assess the internal experience of humiliation. The aim of this study is to validate the Korean version of HI (K-HI). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the data of 252 adults (Mean age=34.83, SD=7.6) to check factorial validation. After 10 items that cross-loaded onto two factors were removed, three factors of 22 items were confirmed. Based on the EFA, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on the data of 253 adults (Mean age=34.12, SD=8.5) to test the stability and generalization of the factor structure. The original Inventory had two subscales: “fear of humiliation” (F1), and “cumulative humiliation” (F2). When a third factor, “humiliation of incompetence” (F3), was added to K-HI, the model fit (TLI=.90, CFI=.91, RMSEA=.09) was better than that of the two-factor model. This result may reflect cultural distinctiveness. Korea is a highly competitive society,-; therefore, “fear of humiliation” and “humiliation of incompetence” may have different meanings among the Korean people. Also, K-HI exhibited appropriate concurrent validity. It correlated with Internalized Shame positively and with Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem negatively. Assuming that humiliation correlates with anger and aggression, correlation analyses were carried out with the State-Trait Anger Expression. They showed significantly positive correlations and demonstrated the clinical utility of K-HI. Cronbach’s αs of the three factors were good (F1=.96, F2=.94, F3=.81). K-HI is expected to be used in the studies of other themes, such as anger, aggression, depression, suicide, and psychotherapy.”