Suicide is a pathological behavior that requires academic and clinical attention because it cannot be undone once accomplished. Prevention of suicide is especially important in South Korea, as the suicide rate is alarmingly high. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempt considering the roles of the acquired capability for suicide and suicidal desire, which are the concepts proposed in the interpersonal psychological theory, the latest theory of suicide. A total 91 psychiatric patients with reported depressive symptoms provided data on non-suicidal self-injury, acquired capability for suicide, suicidal desire, and the number of lifetime suicide attempts using self-report inventories. Additionally we used a pressure algometer and structured interview. Results indicated that non-suicidal self-injury significantly predicted suicide attempt, mediated by pain tolerance, which is one of the subcomponents of acquired capability for suicide. Furthermore, suicidal desire moderated the relationship between pain tolerance and suicide attempt. Lastly, pain tolerance mediated the relationship between non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempt when suicidal desire was high but not when suicidal desire was low. Results were still significant after controlling for the effects of smoking and depressive symptoms. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
This research examines the effect of a growth-writing program on the world assumptions and fear of intimacy of survivors of dating violence. Research subjects included women between 19 and 38 years who had experienced dating violence and were not currently dating. The writing practice was completed during four days, and participants’ world assumptions (WAS) and fear of intimacy (FIS) were measured before and after the program and in the follow-up (2 weeks) period. The number of participants in the growth-writing, expressive-writing, and control groups was 10, 11, and 7 respectively. Analyses were performed using, one-way ANOVA, repeated measurement ANCOVA, and paired sample t-test. Results indicated that, the first hypothesis, which proposed that a growth-writing program would enhance positive world assumptions in survivors of dating violence, was mostly supported. Although scores on world assumptions did not increase significantly immediately after finishing the growth-writing program, they showed significant improvements during the follow-up phase. On the other hand, the second hypothesis, which proposed that a growth-writing program would reduce the fear of intimacy in survivors of dating violence, was proven invalid. This study’s results indicated that, although four days of treatment could not improve the world assumptions of survivors of dating violence, it was confirmed that it could have a positive effect in the long term. However, results also implied that there is a limit for self-disclosure in reducing fear of intimacy in human relationships. Finally, the significance and limitations of the study are described, and suggestions for future research are provided.
This study aimed to examine the mediation effects of negative urgency on the relationship of anger-in and anger-out, which are subtypes of anger expression, with binge eating behavior. Participants were 302 early adults aged 18 to 29 years. They were asked to complete on-line questionnaires, including the Korean version of State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory–IV (STAXIK), Revised Bulimia Test (BULIT-R), and UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Data analysis was conducted using correlation analysis and structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed a significant correlation between anger expression and binge eating behavior. Additionally, there was a significant positive correlation among anger-in, binge eating behavior, and negative urgency. The complete mediation effect of negative urgency on the relationship between anger-in and binge eating behavior was significant, and the direct effect of anger expression on binge eating behavior was non-significant. Finally, implication ns and limitations of this study and suggestions for future research were discussed.
The present study examined the mediating effects of self-soothing ability and depressive mood on the relationship between family coherence and binge eating behavior. Participants were asked to complete 10 questions selected from the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III (FACES III), Self-Report Measure of Soothing Receptivity, Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Bulimia Test Revised (BULIT-R). Data from 430 female university students were analyzed. Results of the study were as follows: First, a positive correlation was found between family coherence and self-soothing ability as well as with depressive mood and binge eating behavior. On the other hand, family coherence and depressive mood, family coherence and binge eating behavior, and self-soothing ability and binge eating behavior showed negative correlations. Second, self-soothing ability and depressive mood appeared to have a fully mediating effect on the relationship between family coherence and binge eating behavior. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed.
Emotional distress tolerance has been considered a lower-order dimension of distress tolerance as well as being closely related to pain tolerance. However, there is accumulating evidence that emotional distress tolerance and pain tolerance might not be associated with each other in individuals with psychological problems related to repetitive painful events. This study aimed to examine the role of painful events in the relationship between emotional distress tolerance and pain tolerance. Three hundred undergraduate students completed measures of emotional distress tolerance, pain tolerance, painful events, depression, and anxiety. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that painful events moderated the relationship between emotional distress tolerance and pain tolerance even after controlling for the effects of depression and anxiety on pain tolerance. More specifically, it was found that painful events weakened the relationship between emotional distress tolerance and pain tolerance. These findings highlight the need for further exploration of the relationship between emotional distress tolerance and pain tolerance.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of a computer-based evaluative conditioning training (ECT) on explicit and implicit attitudes regarding substance addiction. Twenty-two inmates, who were diagnosed with substance-use disorders, and were imprisoned in a treatment detention center, were allocated to one of the two groups, treatment group, who were exposed to the ECT (n=11) and control group (n=11), who were not. Both the groups completed the Pennsylvania Alcohol Craving Scale, the Drug Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale, and an adapted version of the Implicit Association Test presented along with an eye-tracker, at the pre- and post-test stages. Results showed that there were no significant differences in explicit or implicit attitudes between the two groups. Based on these results, the implications and limitations of this study are discussed.
The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global rating method (SCORS-G) is a coding system that assesses the cognitive and emotional aspects of interpersonal functioning in narrative materials. This study aimed to validate the Korean version of the SCORS-G using card from the Thematic Apperception Test (1, 2, 3BM, 4, 13MF, 12M, 14). The Personality Assessment Inventory, NEO-Five Factor Inventory, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale, Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale, and Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) were administered to 215 undergraduate students. The reliability and validity of the SCORS-G were tested by rating TAT protocols according to the scoring criteria. The level of interrater reliability for 8 dimensions of the SCORS-G was mostly acceptable. Based on existing literature, we established a two-factor model consisting of the cognitive and emotional factors and verified a model fit using confirmatory factor analysis. As a result, the model fit was good, which suggests that the factor structure of the SCORS-G is valid. Furthermore, the cognitive and emotional factors of the SCORS-G had a significant correlation with various psychopathologies, personality traits (Big-5), interpersonal problems, cognitive distortion, and emotional dysregulation. We provide an interpretation guideline for the clinical utility of SCORS-G based on the present and previous studies, and discuss the clinical implications and limitations of this study.
The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed to reflect pathological personality traits, a key criterion for Section III personality disorders. Previous study examined the validity of the Korean version of PID-5 (K-PID-5). They reported that some of factors in its structure were inconsistent with those of the English version of PID-5. The present study aimed to replicate the validity of a modified version of the K-PID-5, items of which were revised from the previous version of the KPID- 5. A sample of 510 adults completed the K-PID-5, the Korean Personality Disorders Test, the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5), and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). The results confirmed that the modified K-PID-5 had adequate test-retest reliability and construct validity. The K-PID-5 had a similar factor structure to that of the English version of PID-5. Additionally, it had significant correlations with the Korean Personality Disorders Test, PSY-5, and NEO-FFI. In conclusion, the modified K-PID-5 exhibited adequate reliability and validity for estimating DSM-5 Section III personality disorders.
Individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD) experience significant impairment in daily functioning due to their excessive gaming behaviors. IGD is related to not only a significant amount of time spent on internet gaming but also to internet gaming for mood modification. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of emotion experiences and gaming motivations on internet gaming behaviors in daily life via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). The results showed that the IGD group (n=49) had an increased level of internet gaming usage and higher gaming motivations compared to the control group (n=50). The IGD group experienced higher levels of negative emotions and lower levels of positive emotions. Results from multilevel modeling demonstrated that at the between-individual level, the amount of general negative emotion, depression, anger, irritation, and excitement predicted an increased level of internet gaming usage. At the within-individual level, general negative emotion, tiredness, irritation, and anger positively predicted internet gaming usage, while comfort and calmness showed negative associations. Regarding gaming motivations, both coping motivation and enhancement motivation predicted increased internet gaming usage. In addition, the IGD group showed a significant moderating effect on the relationship between enhancement motivation and internet gaming usage. It was suggested that negative emotion experiences and internet gaming for mood modification could predict gaming behaviors in daily life. Increased enhancement motivation could serve as a risk factor for excessive gaming, particularly for individuals with IGD. Clinical implications were discussed.
This article is an introduction to the special edition of the Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology on evidence-based treatments for children and adolescents, including those for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and disruptive behavior. Each article presented in this special issue describes the diagnostic criteria, prevalence, and evidence-based treatment for mental disorders; criteria for evidence-based treatments or empirically supported treatments; and issues concerning psychotherapy research. Each paper will help improve treatment efficiency in clinical settings by providing a well-founded treatment for specific disorders.
Depression in child and adolescent tends to presage a chronic and recurrent course of illness and impairment in adulthood. Concerns about medication also prompt growing interest in the effects of psychotherapy in child and adolescent depression. The main purpose of this study is to identify evidence-based treatments of child and adolescent depression. For this purpose, we reviewed the clinical features and researches on evidence-based treatments of child and adolescent depression. Based on overseas meta-analysis and systematic reviews, both cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) have a “strong/well-established” evidence base, family therapy (FT) has a “modest/probably efficacious” evidence, and psychodynamic therapy (PDT) has a “controversial/experimental” base. Although domestic researches on psychotherapy are limited, several trials had examined the efficacy of CBT or IPT for youth depression. Based on domestic researches, CBT and IPT have a “modest/probably efficacious” evidence base in Korea.
The purpose of this study is to review the current status of evidence-based treatments for traumatized children in Korea and other countries and to suggest guidelines for child trauma practice. Because exposure to trauma in childhood has been associated with a broad range of psychopathology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), therapeutic approaches could focus on various therapeutic components according to target symptoms and types of trauma. First, foreign treatment effectiveness studies were reviewed and a brief summary of available evidence-based interventions for traumatized children was provided, along with contexts for their uses. Second, 12 studies on the effectiveness of interventions for traumatized children and adolescents, published in Korea from 1997 to 2017 were investigated. Finally, recommendations for child trauma practice and suggestions for future research are discussed in terms of evidence-based practice.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing disorder affecting children, adolescents, and adults. Due to the increasing range of available options, selection and prioritization of treatments is becoming harder for clinicians. This review aims to provide a review of the literature on evidence-based psychotherapy treatments for ADHD supplemented by expert opinion on plausibility of symptoms improvement. In this paper, several meta-studies, which were conducted mainly in the United State and Korea were reviewed. As a result, behavioral parental training, behavioral classroom management, behavioral peer relationship intervention, and a combination of behavioral techniques were suggested as psychological treatment techniques. These techniques have been repeatedly proven to be effective in well-designed studies. In Korean studies, the effectiveness of non-behavioral techniques such as play therapy or art therapy has been demonstrated. These findings of this review are likely to be influenced by a number of factors such as research design, use of a control group, and measurement selection. Better designed follow-up studies are needed.
This study aimed to suggest treatment guidelines for evidence-based treatments of disruptive behavior in children and adolescents by reviewing related research articles. Disruptive behavior refers to a wide range of significant behavior problems, and it persists by complex interactions of multiple risk-factors across the individual, family, peer, school, and community domains. This study examined empirically-supported treatment programs for disruptive behaviors from other countries and reviewed 28 Korean research articles, from 1998 to 2019, dealing with treatments of disruptive behaviors. Finally, this study summarized guidelines for evidence-based treatments of disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents, and discussed future directions for research and clinical implications.
This study aimed to review Korean and foreign treatment outcome studies on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to provide treatment guidelines for persons with ASD. After summarizing the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, prevalence, and comorbidity of ASD, reviews of treatment outcome studies on ASD published outside Korea were examined to identify the evidence-based treatments for ASD. Twenty-seven specific intervention techniques were identified. Articles published in Korean journals were then analyzed using the same criteria. Subsequently, findings on the effectiveness of a technology-based intervention, a new form of treatment, were summarized based on treatment outcome studies published abroad and in Korea. The present results showed that treatment programs based on the principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA) are effective in improving the functions and abilities of persons with ASD and in reducing ASD symptoms. Based on these results, treatment guidelines for ASD are provided and future directions for domestic studies are suggested.