Previous studies have suggested that positive urgency, positive and negative alcohol expectancies, and working memory (WM) capacity may affect college students’ excessive alcohol consumption, not only independently but interactively as well. The purpose of this study was to test a hypothetical model in which positive alcohol expectancy would moderate the relationship between positive urgency and alcohol consumption, whereas negative alcohol expectancy would demonstrate significant moderating effect only when WM capacity is sufficient. Participants were 179 college students with drinking experience, and data from 164 students who met the response accuracy criteria for the WM capacity task were analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. Results indicated that positive urgency predicted alcohol consumption for individuals with high positive alcohol expectancy, and WM capacity did not moderate such interactions. Negative alcohol expectancy did not moderate the relationship between positive urgency and alcohol consumption, regardless of WM capacity. This study contributes to existing literature by examining the integrative effects of multiple risk factors on college students' excessive alcohol consumption, which were separately investigated in most previous studies. Furthermore, clinical implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
This study investigated the social cognition deficit of antisocial personality disorder, through both K-MASC which is an integrative measuring tool for social cognition and SCORS-G using TAT, retesting the conflicting results of previous studies. A group of participants with antisocial personality tendencies (n=37) and a control group (n=38) were selected based on PAIANT scores, after carrying out a survey that consisting of PAI and TCI among 494 undergraduate students. First, SCORS-G using TAT and K-MASC was administered and social cognitive ability was compared between these two groups. Thereafter, temperamental characteristics were controlled through a MANCOVA, to determine the effect of antisocial personality characteristics on social cognition. Results showed that the group with antisocial personality disorder tendencies displayed an overall deficit in cognitive and emotional aspects of social cognitive ability, compared to the control group. However, after the temperamental characteristics were controlled there was a significant difference between groups only in the cognitive aspect of social cognitive ability. The results indicated that individuals with antisocial personality disorder tendencies are likely to display an overall deficit in social cognitive ability compared to the control group, but the cognitive aspect of this ability is the core deficit related to antisocial personality disorder.
The present study was conducted to examine the differential effects of perceptual and semantic encodings on recall and recognition memory in elderly people with Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) and to compare them with those in the normal elderly (NE) and amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (amMCI). Computerized perceptual (number of letters) and semantic (man-made/natural) verbal encoding tests were administered. After a 20-minute delay, free-recall and recognition tests for the encoded target words were performed. At the comparison of the difference (semantic encoding-perceptual encoding) of memory performances between perceptual and semantic encodings, the NE showed a greater difference than the amMCI, but the SCD did not show any differences with either NE or amMCI. Although the amMCI showed poorer performance on both recall and recognition tests than the NE and SCD, the SCD did not show any differences in both tests with NE. At the comparison of the difference (recognition-delayed free recall) of the memory performance between the delayed free-recall and recognition, the NE showed a greater difference than the amMCI, but the SCD did not show the difference with either group. These results showed that the SCD already had subtle problems in semantic encoding and memory retrieval but with less degree than amMCI. They suggest that the SCD is an intermediate stage between the NE and amMCI.
The present study proposes an integrated model of the development and maintenance of social anxiety disorder. We explored temperamental and cognitive factors contributing to social anxiety (i.e., behavioral inhibition system [BIS], behavioral activation system [BAS], and negative interpretation bias). A total of 493 undergraduate participants completed the BIS/BAS Scales, Consequences of Negative Social Events Questionnaire (CONSE-Q), and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). We analyzed the data using a procedure based on regression models. Results showed that the mediation effect of negative interpretation bias between BIS and social anxiety was significant, regardless of gender. The moderation and moderated mediation effects of BAS were significant in male participants. We found that the effect of the BIS on negative interpretation bias decreased when levels of the BAS were higher. Furthermore, higher levels of BAS reduced the mediation effect of negative interpretation bias. These results indicate that the BAS in men could play a buffering role in the model of social anxiety disorder proposed in this study.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the cognitive characteristics of four Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) subtypes (amnestic MCI [aMCI]-single domain, aMCI-multiple domain, non-amnestic MCI [naMCI]-single domain, and naMCI-multiple domain), considered the forerunners of dementia, using criteria proposed by Petersen (2004). The Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) was administered to 321 participants who complained of impairments in cognitive functions. The patients who were diagnosed for dementia, but whose symptoms were not consistent with MCI classification criteria or who were diagnosed for ‘clinical dementia rating 1’ were excluded. Following this, the data of 109 participants, including the four MCI subtype groups and the normal group, were used for analysis. The results showed that the aMCI-multiple domain group had a lower Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) copy score than the aMCI-single domain group, and no significant difference was found in memory area between both groups. The aMCI-single domain group showed a lower level of Seoul Verbal Learning Test (SVLT) immediate recall than the naMCI-single domain group and no significant difference was found in non-memory area between both groups. The aMCI-multiple domain group showed a lower level of RCFT delayed recall than the naMCI-multiple domain group and no significant difference was found in non-memory area between both groups. The implications and limitations of the study and future research directions are also discussed.
It is argued that transgressions of primary psychopathy have instrumental purpose while transgression of secondary psychopathy have reactive features. This study compares and explains the psychological processes that primary and secondary psychopathy end up with transgressions in order to extend clinical implications of the heterogeneity of the two psychopathies. In order to do so, this study carries out Levenson’s Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, the Korean mechanisms of moral disengagement scale for adults, the moral emotions scenario scale (instrumental/reactive), and the unethical decision making scale (instrumental/reactive) on 712 male and female undergraduate students. Two research models, where moral emotions (instrumental/ reactive) and moral disengagement work between primary and secondary psychopathic traits and unethical decision making (instrumental/reactive), were used in this study; the results are as follows. In the research model 1, indirect effects of moral emotions and moral disengagement are identified in the relation between primary psychopathic traits and unethical decision making for instrumental purpose. In addition, an indirect effect of moral disengagement is identified in the relation between secondary psychopathic traits and unethical decision making for instrumental purpose. Meanwhile, in the research model 2, a direct effect as well as an indirect effect of moral emotions and moral disengagement is identified in the relation between primary psychopathic traits and unethical decision making by reaction. additionally, an indirect effect of moral disengagement is identified in the relation between secondary psychopathic traits and unethical decision making by reaction. This research suggests effective interventions for prevention, treatment and education for primary and secondary psychopathy.
The purposes of this study were to examine the characteristics of the implicit association test (IAT) and the heart rate variability (HRV) after performing mental imagery using the modified trauma recall paradigm, and to investigate whether IAT and HRV measures could predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) status. Participants were 71 college students, 58 community residents without PTSD, 29 community residents who have experienced traumatic events, and 82 patients with PTSD, totaling 240 persons. This study manipulated mental imagery by leading participants to recall self-related traumatic events or to imagine negative or neutral events. The results showed that PTSD was associated with enhanced implicit selfnegative associations when negative events were imagined and high LF/HF ratio when self-related traumatic events were recalled. Logistic regression analysis showed that cumulative trauma, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms were associated with a PTSD diagnosis. The model remained significant after the addition of heart rate (HR) and the D score of IAT, and correctly classified 76.5% of the cases with PTSD. The results suggest that HRV and IAT measures can increase the sensitivity of PTSD diagnosis. Finally, limitations of this study and suggestions for further research were also discussed.
Both automatic and controlled processes can be observed in sequence by manipulating the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) using the priming paradigm. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of activating an episodic trauma memory on self-regulation by using the naming task, a type of semantic and emotional priming task. In the naming task, the primed stimuli were three types of words including specific foreign, specific domestic and general trauma events, and the target stimuli were three kinds of emotion words classified by the levels of affective valence and activation. Three experiments were carried out. The participants in Experiment 1 (n=60) with 150ms SOA and Experiment 2 (n=57) with 1,000 ms SOA were college students. The participants in Experiment 3 (n=57), which used both 150 ms and 1,000 ms SOAs, were patients being treated at psychiatric outpatient clinics after exposure to traumatic events. The results showed that the reaction times in the non-clinical group were more delayed (i.e., reversed priming effect) when using the domestic (e.g., Sewol ferry) or general (e.g., violence) trauma events as primed stimuli and the negative emotion words of high-arousal (e.g., fear or anger) as target stimuli when compared to the other experimental conditions. But, the clinical group exposed to the 1,000 ms SOA condition showed facilitation and reversed priming effects when being presented with negative emotion words of high-arousal as target stimuli after priming with domestic and foreign traumatic events, respectively. These results were discussed in terms of the autobiographical memory and automatic emotion regulation seen in posttraumatic stress disorder. Limitations of this study and suggestions for further research were also discussed.
The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the Dysfunctional Self-Evaluation Scale (DSES). Dysfunctional self-evaluation was expected to influence on a distorted self-concept, thereby causing a psychological maladjustment. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were carried out on data administered to 233 an individual between the ages of 20 and 64 in study 1, resulting in three factors of 24 items. In sequence, EFA were carried out on data administered to 205 an individual between the ages of 20 and 64 in study 2, three factors of final 15 items were confirmed. The DSES was divided into three factors: positive distortion self-evaluation, negative distortion self-evaluation, and social comparison self-evaluation. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on the data of 205 an individual between the ages of 20 and 64 to test the stability and generalization of the factor structure in study 3, and confirmed the goodness-of-fit for three factors model. And factors showed appropriate levels of reliability estimates. In study 3, a criterion-related validity analysis confirmed Positive distortion self-evaluation was related to overt narcissism, while negative distortion self-evaluation was related to covert narcissism, depression, and anxiety. Social comparison self-evaluation was related to covert narcissism, depression, and anxiety. Finally, limitations of this study and suggestions for further studies, as well as implications for clinical use were discussed.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) Section III includes a hybrid dimensional-categorical model of personality disorders. The Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed with 220 items to assess the personality traits within this model but has several limitations such as fatigue and difficulty in maintaining attention. The im of this study was to develop and validate the Korean version of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Short Form (K-PID- 5-SF). Through confirmatory factor analysis, it was found that K-PID-5-SF had similar factor structures to those of the Korean version of PID-5. The internal consistency of the K-PID-5-SF was adequate. The K-PID-5-SF had significant correlations with the Korean version of PID-5, Korean Personality Disorders Test, the Personality Psychopathology Five, and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. In conclusion, the K-PID-5-SF had adequate reliability and validity for evaluating personality pathology, contributing to a better understanding of an alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorders.
The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the normal depression scale, which measures depression experienced by general people. To achieve this purpose, we performed preliminary study and main study in community-based sample, and decided 17 items for this normal depression scale. In the preliminary study, the data of 518 participants were used for analysis and 30 items for male and 35 items for female were chosen. In the main study, the data of 440 participants were used and 17 items were chosen. The result of reliability testing shows high internal consistency and good test-retest reliability. And the result of factor validity indicates 1 factor model and fair goodness of fitness of the model.
There has been an increase in the application of meditation to psychotherapy based on research showing that mindfulness meditation helped people improve their mental health and wellbeing as well as change their brain functions. Researchers in Korea have reported that meditation positively influenced clients with diverse psychological problems. However, a few researchers have warned us that meditation could be causing latent psychiatric problems or neurosis in clients with vulnerable ego function. Some of the psychological disorders, called majang, have also been presented in Buddhism literature. If psychotherapists want to apply meditation in psychotherapy, they should be understanding of its positive and negative effects. This study, therefore, examines not only the benefits of meditation, but also its side effects based on psychiatric studies in Western and Buddhism literature. Furthermore, this study examines the adverse effects of meditation and effective solutions to counter these adverse effects through Buddhism studies. Finally, there are different points of view as well as common factors of healing between psychotherapy and meditation. This study suggests that clinical therapists should be aware of some of the different views about the application of mediation in psychotherapy.
This study described the philosophy, treatment system, and core strategies of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), and reviewed its treatment efficacy, effectiveness, and clinical utility according to a systematic review method. DBT showed clear evidence of efficacy in pervasive emotion dysregulation problems such as suicidal and self-harm behaviors of borderline personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, binge eating, and self-harm in adolescents. Effectiveness of DBT in community settings were also found. Evidence for clinical utility requires more empirical support. Dissemination and implementation of DBT in Korea as well as facilitation of DBT research are discussed.