전라남도 고흥해역의 바지락을 채집하여 연령과 성장에 대하여 조사하였다. 각장에 대한 각고, 각폭, 전중량의 상대성장식에서 상관계수 (r²)는 0.8003-0.9053의 범위로 비교적 높은상관관계를 나타났다. 윤문의 평균 윤경은 SL_(1.58) = 12.51 ± 2.55 mm, SL_(2.58) = 20.27 ± 3.08 mm, SL_(3.58) = 26.90 ± 2.49 mm, SL_(4.58) = 31.35 ± 3.62 mm, SL_(5.58) = 35.45 ± 3.54 mm, SL_(6.58) = 38.78 ± 4.04 mm로 나타났으며, 평균전중량은 TW_(1.58) = 0.35 g, TW_(2.58) = 4.62 g, TW_(3.58) = 5.84 g, TW_(4.58) = 6.71 g, TW_(5.58) = 7.50 g, TW_(6.58) = 8.14 g로 나타났다. Bertalanffy 성장식을 구한결과는SL_(t)= 51.01(1-e^(-0.1738(t+1.07)TW_(t) = 11.65(1-e^(-0.1738(t+1.07))2.9519로나타났다.
Growth and age of the Short-necked, Ruditapes philippinarum were collected from Goheung coast in Korea. Relative growth equations among SL, SH, SW and TW of Ruditapes philippinarum were ranged from 0.8059 to 0.8859. The ring radius were estimated from a von Bertalanffy method with the values of SL_(1.58) = 12.51 ± 2.55 mm, SL_(2.58) = 20.27 ± 3.08 mm, SL_(3.58) = 26.90 ± 2.49 mm, SL_(4.58) = 31.35 ± 3.62 mm, SL_(5.58) = 35.45 ± 3.54 mm, SL_(6.58) = 38.78 ± 4.04 mm. Back calculated total weight at the formation of annual ring on the shell of Ruditapes philippinarum with the values TW_(1.58) = 0.35 g, TW_(2.58) = 4.62 g, TW_(3.58) = 5.84 g, TW_(4.58) = 6.71 g, TW_(5.58) = 7.50 g, TW_(6.58) = 8.14 g. Growth curves for shell height and total weight fitted to the von Bertalanffy equation were expressed as:SL_(t)= 51.01(1-e^(-0.1738(t+1.07)TW_(t) = 11.65(1-e^(-0.1738(t+1.07))2.9519
연구는 3종의 이매패류를 대상으로 당면체의 소화효소 활성에 대해 조사하였다. 본 연구에 사용된 이매패류는 꼬막(n=61), 지중해담치 (n=30) 및 개조개 (n=30) 이며, 이들은 한국 남해안에서 2010년 5월에 채집하였다. 당면체의 소화 효소 활성 분석은 분광광도계를 이용하였다. 꼬막, 지중해담치, 개조개의 당면체를 구성하는 소화효소는 amylase와 cellulase가 약 90%로 대부분을 차지하였다. 그리고 꼬막, 지중해담치, 개조개의 당면체를 구성하는 소화효소 중 protease 의 활성도가 가장 낮았으며, 각각 0.02, 0, 0.08%로 나타났다. 당면체를 구성하는 소화효소 활성도는 3종 모두 cellulase > amylase > chitinase > laminarinase의 순으로 나타났다.
본 연구는 3종의 이매패류를 대상으로 당면체의 소화효소활성에 대해 조사하였다. 본 연구에 사용된 이매패류는 꼬막(n = 61), 지중해담치 (n = 30) 및 개조개 (n = 30) 이며,이들은 한국 남해안에서 2010년 5월에 채집하였다. 당면체의소화효소 활성 분석은 분광광도계를 이용하였다. 꼬막, 지중해담치, 개조개의 당면체를 구성하는 소화효소는 amylase와cellulase가 약 90%로 대부분을 차지하였다. 그리고 꼬막, 지중해담치, 개조개의 당면체를 구성하는 소화효소 중 protease 의 활성도가 가장 낮았으며, 각각 0.02, 0, 0.08%로 나타났다. 당면체를 구성하는 소화효소 활성도는 3종 모두 cellulase ＞amylase ＞ chitinase ＞ laminarase의 순으로 나타났다.
96시간 동안 고염분에 노출시킨 일본재첩, Corbicula japonica의 LC_(50)은 19.550 psu였다. 0, 5, 10, 20 psu에 7일 동안 노출시킨 실험개체들은 실험종료시기에 각각 95%,80%, 35%, 10%의 개체들이 생존하였다. 일반적인 일본재첩의 아가미는 좌․우 한 쌍으로서 내부판의 면적은 외부판보다1.37배 넓었다 (p < 0.001). 아가미의 새엽에는 그 위치에 따라 상부에 정단섬모상피세포 (7 μm), 정단측면섬모상피세포(5 μm), 후정단측면섬모상피세포 (3 × 8 μm), 측면섬모상피세포 (5 μm) 가 존재하고, 새엽의 중간부분에는 혈림프동을 둘러싸고 있는 혈관상피세포가 존재하며, 하부에는 새엽하부상피세포가 존재하고 있었다. 새엽의 하부에 주로 존재하는분비세포들은 전자밀도가 낮은 섬유성의 분비과립을 가지고있었다. 5 psu에 7일 동안 노출된 일본재첩의 아가미는 부분적인 섬모의 탈락과 glycogen 과립이 다수 관찰되었다. 10psu에 노출된 개체들은 일부 새엽의 상피세포가 파괴되었으며, 미토콘드리아를 포함한 세포소기관 또한 파괴되었다. 섬모들은 원형질막이 팽창되었고 미세융모를 연결시키는 당질층의파괴도 관찰되었다. 20 psu에 노출된 일본재첩의 아가미는 새엽섬모상피세포 핵비대, 세포소기관의 파괴, 세포질내glycogen 과립의 침적과 공포형성이 관찰되었고, 50% 이상의새엽은 새엽상피층의 탈락으로 인하여 키틴질 기둥이 모두 노출되었다. 따라서 이러한 섬모와 상피세포의 파괴는 생리활동의 장애를 유발시키고, 개체 사망의 직접적인 원인으로 작용할것이다.
This study was performed to observe ultrastructure of the gill and to ascertain the effect of salinity on histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the gill of the Japanese clam, Corbicula japonica. Experimental period was 7 days. Experimental groups consisted of control, 5, 10, 20 psu. LC_(50) (96 h.) by the probit was 19.55 psu. Mortality was significantly different from the control (p < 0.05). Inner demibranch of the gill of C. japonica was wider 1.37 times than outer demibranch (p < 0.001). The filament zone on the plica can be distinguished by the six epithelial celll cell; frontal ciliated epithelium (7 μm), latero-frontal ciliated epithelium (5 μm), postlatero-frontal epithelim (3 x 8 μm), and lateral ciliated epithelium (5 μm) in the frontal zone, endothelial cellin the intermediate zone, and abfrontal cell in the abfrontal zone. It had one type of secretory cell that was filled with fibrous substances of low electron density. The gill of C. japonica exposed to 5 psu for 7 days was observed partially disappearance of the cilia, and glycogen granule in the filament. In the 10 psu, gill appeared partially modification of epithelial cell and destruction of the glycocalyx. Gill exposed to 20 psu was extended nuclus of the ciliated epithelial cell, destruction of the organelles, and observed glycogen granules infiltration and numerous vacuoles. Moreover, more than 50% filaments were observed that come out chitinous rod from disappearance of epithelial cell in the filament. Therefore, the destruction of the cilia and epithelial cell induce physiological activity and it may be leading directly to death.
남해안 거제도 연안인 장목항에 인공부착판을 투입하여 주요한 부착성 저서동물의 가입양상을 조사하기 위해서 매달 가입된 종을 살펴보면 3월에는 파래, 4월에는 지중해담치가, 5월에는 지중해담치와 유령멍게가 가입되었고, 6월에는 유령멍게와 다발이끼벌레류가, 8월에는 주걱따개비와 해변말미잘이가입되었으며, 10월에는 석회관갯지렁이가 가입되었다. 월별로 투입된 부착판 1개월간 가입된 생물의 습중량은 5-6월에서가장 많았다. 각 종들의 산란시기에 의해서 종 특유의 가입시기를 가지는 것으로 나타났다.
This study was conducted to investigate the recruitment pattern of sessile organisms on the artificial substrates of PVC in Jangmok Bay, Geoje Island, southern coast of Korea. Five PVC plates were submerged from March to October, 2007 at one month interval, and two plates were retrieved after one month. The dominant recruiters was a green algae, Entermorpha prolifera in March, Mytilus galloprovincialis in April, M. galloprovincialis and Styela plicata in May, S. plicata and hydrozoans in June. During August, Balanus amphtrite and anthozoans were dominant recruiters, and a serpulid worm, Hydroides ezoensis in October. There was a clear specific recruiting period of sessile faunas depending on their reproduction cycles in a sheltered embayment like Jangmok Bay.
In order to understand effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) on shell repair of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, shell regeneration experiments were carried out using oysters drilled a hole on the right valve. The change of pH and hemocytic characteristics in both extrapallial fluid and hemolymph were observed during the shell repair. The thickness of mantle tissue was apparently decreased, while necrosis in epithelium and periostracal gland was increased in response to PAH exposure. Our finding suggested that PAH could adversely influence on shell repair.
The gametogenic cycle and the spawning season in female and male Cyclina sinensis were investigated by quantitative statistical analysis using an image analyzer system, and the biological minimum size (the size at 50% of sexual maturity) was calculated by combination of quantitative data by size and von Bertalanffy's equation. Compared the gametogenic cycle by quantitative statistical analysis with the previous qualitative results (Kim et al., 2000; Chung et al., 2003) in female and male C. sinensis, monthly changes in female and male gametogenic cycle calculated by quantitative statistical analysis showed similar patterns to the gonadal stages in female and male reproductive cycle by qualitative histological analysis. Comparisons of monthly changes in the portions (%) of each area to eight kinds of areas by quantitative statistical analysis in the gonads in female and male C. sinensis are as follows. Monthly changes in the portions (%) of the ovary areas to total tissue areas in females and also monthly changes in the portions of the testis areas to total tissue areas in males increased in March and reached the maximum in May, and then showed a rapid decrease from June to October. Monthly changes in the portions (%) of oocyte areas to ovarian tissue areas in females and also monthly changes in the portions of the areas of the spermatogenic stages to testis areas in males began to increase in March and reached the maximum in June in females and males, and then rapidly dropped from July to October in females and males when spawnig occurred. From these data, it is apparent that the number of spawning seasons in female and male C. sinensis occurred once per year, from July to October. Monthly changes in the number of the oocytes per mm2 and in the mean diameter of the oocyte in captured image which were calculated for each female slide showed a maximum in May and reached the minimum from December to February. Therefore, C. sinensis in both sexes showed a unimodal gametogenic cycle during the year. The percentage of sexual maturity of female and male clams ranging from 25.1 to 30.0 mm in length was over 50% and 100% for clams over 40.1 mm length. In this study, the biological minimum size (sexually mature shell lengths at 50% of sexual maturity) in females and males were 26.85 and 26.28 mm, respectively.
Some characteristics of germ cell differntiations during spermiogenesis and mature sperm ultrastructure in male Phacosoma japonicus were investigated by transmission electron microscope observations. The morphology of the spermatozoon of this species has a primitive type and is similar to those of other species in the subclass Heterodonta. Morphologies of the sperm nucleus and the acrosome of this species are the cylindrical type and cap shape, respectively. The spermatozoon is approximately 45-50 μm in length, including a long curved sperm nucleus (about 3.70 μm long with 45° of the angle of the nucleus, an acrosome (about 0.55 μm in length), and tail flagellum (about 42-47 μm). The axoneme of the sperm tail shows a 9+2 structure. As some characteristics of the acrosomal vesicle structures, the basal and lateral parts of basal rings show electron opaque part (region), while the anterior apex part of the acrosomal vesicle shows electron lucent part (region). These characteristics of the acrosomal vesicle were found in the family Veneridae and other several families in the subclass Heterodonta. These common characteristics of the acrosomal vesicle in the subclass Heterodonta can be used for phylogenetic and systematic analysis as a taxonomic key or a significant tool. The number of mitochondria in the sperm midpiece of this species are four, as one of common characteristics appear in most species in the family Veneridae and other families in the subclass Heterodonta. However, exceptionally, only three species in Veneridae of the subclass Heterodonta contain 5 mitochondria. The number of mitochondria in the sperm midpiece can be used for the taxonomic analysis of the family or superfamily levels as a systematic key or tools
The Turbinellidae shell Columbarium pagoda pagoda (Lesson, 1834), from the southern coast of Korea was recorded as new to the Korean molluscan fauna. The shell is typically solid and fusiform, with a well elongated spire and long anterior canal, and keel with a row developed spine. The protoconch is small, planorboid to depressed dome-shaped. The family Turbinellidae is reported from Korea for the first time.
광학 및 전자현미경을 이용하여 소라 아가미의 형태와 미세구조를 기재하였다. 소라의 아가미는 bipectinate형이다. 새엽상피층은 단층으로 상피세포, 섬모세포, mitochondria-rich cell 그리고 분비세포로 구성되어 있었다. 상피세포들은 원주형이며, 자유면에는 미세융모들이 발달되어 있었고 인접한 세포들과는 상부측면에 세포연접들로 연결되어 있었다. 섬모세포들은 자유면에 섬모와 미세융모들을 가지며, 세포질에는 잘발달된 미토콘드리아들이 무리지어 존재하고 섬모의 기저 뿌리 끝이 연결되어 있었다. Mitochondria-rich cell은 기저부에 원형의 핵을 가지며, 세포질의 대부분은 발달된 미토콘드리아들이 차지하고 있었다. AB-PAS와 AF-AB 반응 결과, 분비세포들은 주로 산성점액을 함유하고 있었다. 분비세포는 단세포선으로 세포의 형태와 분비과립의 미세구조적 특징에 따라4 종류 (A, B, C, D) 로 구분할 수 있었다.
Gill morphology and ultrastructure of the spiny top shell, Batillus cornutus were described using light and electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). The spiny top shell, Batillus cornutus has bipectinate gill. The epithelial layer of gill filament was simple and composed of columnar epithelium, ciliated cell, mitochondria-rich cell and secretory cell. Microvilli were well-developed on the free surface of columnar epithelial cell. The epithelial cells are connected to the neighboring cells with intercelluar junctions at the apico-lateral surface. The cilia and microvilli were commonly observed on the free surface of ciliated cell. Tubular mitochondria appeared clustered in the apical cytoplasm, and exhibited connected ciliary rootlet. Mitochondria-rich cells contained a oval-shaped nucleus in the basal area. And majority of cytoplasm was occupied by well-developed mitochondria. Result of AB-PAS (pH 2.5) and AF-AB reaction showed that secretory cells contained mainly acidic carboxylated mucosubstances. Secretory cells are unicellular glands and can be divided into four types (A, B, C and D) depending on the cell shape and ultrastructure of secretory granules.
The unwanted artificial oil-spill has severely contaminated the coastal environment in the world.level of contamination has so far been monitered by various indicator species including mussel, oysters, flounder, and cockle. In this study, we decided to use the oyster as a model organism to observe the morphological changesbeingexposed to the artificial oil-spill in the coastal areas in Taean, Korea.The oysters were collected from four local sites (Sindu-ri, Uiwang-ri, Jonghyeon-dong, Ansan and Uihang-ri) exposed to various levels of pollution after an oil spill in Taean. Microscopic analysis of the hepatopancreatic microstructure in the digestive gland from the collected oysters show that the swelling, whorl, and destruction phenomenon of the nuclear membrane, a well-known microstructure induced by heavy metal exposure, was observed. Nuclear body (Nb), anothertypical characteristic of contamination or infection were also observed in some samples.necrosis was observed in tissue samples collected from the area with a high degree ofoil pollution. In addition, parasite-like particles (virus, perkinsus) were observed in most samples. Taken together, these results suggest that oil contamination in the oyster habitatsinfluences the cytopathological changes in Crassostrea gigas.