This study examined the effect of a brief Cognitive-Behavioral Group Treatment(CBGT) for college students with Drinking problems. The is that CBGT group will have more difference scores on SADQ, CDSE, DBQ, and BDI than the control group. Subjects were screened with the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test(MAST) and Problem Drinking Questionnaire(PDQ). The CBGT group consisted of 4 subjects and the control group consisted of 7 Subjects. Before the treatments begin, both groups were given the SADQ, CDSE, DBQ, BDI Questionnaires. The control group were provide information about alcohol effects. They were encouraged to monitor their alcohol intake daily. However, they were not information on strategies to reduce the amount of drinking. The CBGT subjects were asked to record situations in which they drank alcohol and negative and positive effects of alcohol, and they were asked to record strategies to control drinking and problem solving. Group differences between the CBGT condition and the control condition on the dependent measures were tested by Mann-Whitney U-Test and Wilcoxon T-Test. Within-group differences between the pre-tests and the post-tests were also examined the same nonparametric. The statistical have shown that only the SADQ scores and CDSE scores between the CBGT group and the control group were statistically significant. This result indicated that CBGT reduced alcohol dependency and increased confidence in controlling alcohol intake in common high-risk situation. As a case example, one subject showing the most improvement in CBGT was described in this study. Also the reasons for nonsignificant results were suggested and the limitations of the present study were discussed. Some for the future research were proposed.
The present study investigated the relationship between depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning of married women. A total of 591 between the ages of 20 and 50 were married participated in the 1st survey and after 3 months 150 among them mailed their responses for the 2nd survey. The 1st questionnaire included the type and level of stress in the past 6 months, the level of depressive symptoms(CES-D) and social adjustment, perceived social support, self-efficacy and coping style. At the follow-up, the level of depressive symptom were reassessed. The results said that age, level of education and status of employment were associated with the level of perceived stress. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the 1st CES-D explained the 20.1.% of variances of 2nd CES-D and the psychosocial variables altogether explained the 36.8%. The avoidant and coping style and social support had significant effects on it although 1st CES-D was controlled. This study suggested the importance of the psychosocial functioning of married women associated with depressive symptoms and indicated the psychosocial factors which would be usefuI for intervention program.
The present study focused on the temporal change of depressive symptoms and examined the psychosocial factors associated with it. A total of 150 married women participated in the first survey which assessed the level of depressive symptoms, social adjustment, life stressors, self-efficacy, coping style and perceived social support and they reported the level of depressive symptoms at the 3 months follow-up. Based on the CES-D scores on the first and follow-up survey, they were divided into Movers and Stayers. The stayers ( over 24 on the first and follow-up CES-D or under 24 on the first and follow-up ) were 68.7% and the movers ( over 24 on the first and under 24 on the follow-up, or vice versa ) were 31.3%. The movers who were not depressed ar the first and reported depressive symptoms at the follow-up, were more avoidant in their coping style than the nondepressed stayers. And the Depressed Stayers showed higher level of depressive symptoms than the Movers, but were not significantly different from the Movers in the psychosocial functioning. The results sevealed psychosocial factors associated with development and persistence of depressive symptoms and suggested clinical implication for the Movers.
The purpose of this study is to find what problems schizophrenic patients have in understanding of inconsistent mixed messages and to investigate the cause of the problems. In Experiment 1, the degree of understanding about inconsistent mixed messages of schizophrenic patients was analyzed. The subjects were 30 schizophrenic patients, 15 with positive symptom and 15 with negative symptom, and 15 normal people. In order to understand the degree of understanding inconsistent mixed messages by subjects, the judgement on state of emotion and the situation of dialog were measured. In Experiment 2, the purpose was to investigate why schizophrenic patients have a difficulty in understanding inconsistent mixed messages. In order to explain the cause of messages understanding difficulty shown in Experiment 1, Experiment 2-A intended to find the possibility of attention deficit. The result was that in the case of positive schizophrenics, the condition in which the attention was inducted increased the degree of understanding more than the condition which had no attention induction. This result suggests that the cause of performance of positive schizophrenics could be due to the selective attention deficit. However, the low understanding of the negative schizophrenics can't be explained by the attention deficit because they didn't show a difference between attention inducting condition and no attention inducting condition. In Experiment 2-B, the possible cause of low performance in negative schizophrenics was investigated in terms of cognitive ability impairment. The experiment condition was a simpler inconsistent task than in Experiment 2- A, in which only the degree of understanding facial expressions was measured. As expected, facial expression understanding of negative schizophrenics as compared with positive schizophrenics, was shown to be low. This tells us that the reasons why schizophrenic patients cannot handle mixed messages are different between two groups of schizophrenic patients. This suggests that in order to increase the degree of patients' communication with inconsistent messages, we may need different approaches depending on each group.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of cognitive deficits in positive and negative schizophrenic patients on tests of memory performance and memory organization. Positive schizophrenics, negative schizophrenics, nonschizophrenics and normals were administered multi-trial word list learning procedures. The findings of the study were : 1) positive schizophrenics were unimpaired on recognition test, and showed explicit impairment on recall and cluster tests related to memory organization, but positive schizophrenics and nonschizophrenics didn't show any significant difference in memory performance; 2) the positive schizophrenics, as well as normals and nonschizophrenics were able to organize semantically related words and improved clustering scores in trials with lists presented in categorized and uncategorized fashion; 3) negative schizophrenics were impaired on recall, and recognition test regardless of memory organization; and 4) the normals, nonschizophrenics and positive schizophrenics were able to organize semantically related words in trials, but negative schizophrenics were not able to organize semantically related words which presented in unorganized fashion. These results imply that the positive and negative schizophrenics are in the same diagnosis category, but are explicitly different in the pathological process and the cognitive deficits. The validation of heterogeneity in schizophrenics is discussed for future study.
This study was designed to ascertain the validity and clinical utility of the Ego Impairment Index (EII) in two groups of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia diagnosed with the DSM-IV. Two groups of patients were tested by the Rorschach and the MMPI. The results were as follows: 1) The EII components were significantly interrelated and a single factor was derived from the factor analysis. 2) As hypothesized, the degree of ego impairment was greater in patient's with schizophrenia than those with major depressive disorder. 3) Barron's ego strength scale of the MMPI was not significantly correlated with the index. 4) As results of discriminant function analysis, the correct discriminating mean power of this discriminant function was 90%. Therefore, this results offer support for the use of the EII as an empirical means of assessing the degree of ego impairment.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological traits of alcohol abuse group through psychological assesment. The subjects were 56 male alcoholic patients who were admitted to Ewha Womens University Hospital Neuropsychiatric department from January 1994 to June 1997 and 56 male control group. Alcoholic patient group was diagnosed as alcohol dependence according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The psychological assessment involved State-Trait Inventory., Ewha Diagnostic Test of Defense Mechanism Test and Minesota Muthiphtic Personality Inventory. The results showed that the alcohol abuse group had significantly higher Trait-Anxiety Score than the normal control group as well as in projection, displacement, acting-out, dissociation, somatization., passive-aggressive, identification and regression defense mechanisms with Ewha .Defense Mechanism Test(EDMT). MMPI subscales were presented within normal range but alcohol abuse group exhibited significantly higher than normal control goup along the F, 1 to 10 subscales, scale 6 being the highest and lower K scale. These results indicated that the alcohol abuse group have trait-anxiety, unstable and self-denial defense mechanisms as trait factors, and paranoid tendency towards interpersonal relationship as a psychological state. Therefore, it is suggested that these psychological traits and state factors could bring negative effects to therapeutic relationship.
A personnel selection test in Korean nuclear power plant settings has been developed for preventing nuclear safety-accidents. This test is consisted of two parts : 'conscientiousness' and 'psychological unstability', which are regarded as important measurement concepts relating to accident-proneness. The procedures of the test construction are as follows. In a preliminary test, data of 237 college students were gathered and analyzed for item-selection. The final form of the test was administrated to 507 students and reliabilities and validities were measured. Internal consistency coefficients show .73~.95 range, and retest reliabilities keep in .67~.88 level. Factor analysis with principal component method explains 69.4% of variants and extracts 4 factors. Each factor include conscientiousness and 3 unstability scales, exclusively. This factor structure is confirmed again in confirmatory analysis. Correlation with SCL-90-R measuring psychopathology shows no or negative with conscientiousness and high positive with all of unstability sub-scales. For measuring criterion-related validity, the test was administrated to incumbent 68 nuclear operators and compared with subjective job performance evaluation result. 6 job performance evaluation scales such as stress, job performance, competency evaluation, accident experience, group communication, team performance, show significantly high positive correlation with conscientiousness part and high negative correlations with unstability sub-scales. Especially, accident experiences are positively correlated with depression, anxiety, anger, acting-out, impulsivity, vulnerability and defensiveness. Finally, the limitations of this study and suggestions for the following studies were discussed.
Naming difficulty is one of the common cognitive impairments demonstrated by vascular dementia (VaD) as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current study was conducted to develop a short form of the 60-item Korean-Boston Naming Test (K.-BNT; Kim & Na, 1997) empirically for using in dementia patients. First, the K-BNT was administered to 130 dementia patients (75 AD and 55 VaD) and 130 healthy normal elderly whose age, sex, and education level were matched with the dementia patients. Based on the difference between groups in the proportion providing a correct response to each item and the results of discriminant functional analysis, 15 good predictor items to differentiate dementia patients from normal adults were found. The internal consistency (Cronbach's α) for these 15-items was .86. The correlation between the 60-item K-BNT and the 15-item short form (S-K-BNT) was as high as .94 (p<.001). To compare the probabilities of correctly identifying dementia, the areas under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the S-K-BNT and the K-BNT were compared. It was found that the S-K-BNT is the more efficient measure for identifying dementia than the K-BNT. Second, age and education-stratified norms on the S-K-BNT are presented for 565 healthy normal elderly aged 55-84 years. Third, the S-K-BNT was cross-validated in an independent sample that consisted of 68 dementia patients (39 AD and 29 VaD) and 68 healthy elderly. Correct classification rates were compared between the S-K-BNT and the K-BNT. They were 75.7% and 70.6%, respectively. It confirmed that the 15-item S-K-BNT is as efficient as the 60-item K-BNT in identifying dementia. Finally, several precautionary notes relating to the use of S-K-BNT were discussed.
This study was conducted to determine the concurrent validity of the Korean Marital Satisfaction Inventor/(K-MSI). As the criterion group for the first study, thirty-five female clients who sought counseling for their marital conflicts were recruited through the cooperation of the Korean Legal and Family Counseling Centers. For the second study, 27 mothers of children with behavioral problems were recruited among those who visited two counseling center for children because of their child's problems. The K-MSI scores of the criterion group subjects were compared to those of the standardization sample whose age and: education were controlled. The marital counseling group demonstrated significantly lower marital satisfaction than the normal group in all the subscales such as Inconsistency, Conventionalization, Global Distress, Affective Communication, Problem- Solving Communication, Aggression, Time Together, Disagreement About Finances, Sexual Dissatisfaction, Conflict Over Child Rearing except the subscales of Role Orientation, Family History of Distress and Dissatisfaction with Children. The mothers of children with behavioral problems also showed significantly lower marital satisfaction in the subscales of Conflict over Child Rearing, Dissatisfaction with Children, Global Distress, Affective Communication, and Problem Solving. Results indicated that the K-MSI demonstrated the concurrent validity in discriminating the subjects with marital conflicts and specific problems with children from the normal subjects, and that it is a very useful tool in screening the clients with marital and family problems in clinical settings.
To test the reliability and validity of the Depression Adjective Check List-Korean version(K-DACL; Lee, 1993), 516 college students and 215 psychiatric patients including depression, anxiety disorders and somatoform disorders completed the K-DACL, BDI, BAI and Hopelessness Depression Scale(HDS; Lee, 1993). Internal consistency of the K-DACL was high(alpha=:92, .93), split=half reliability was high(r=.93, .91). and test-retest reliability was moderately low(r= .36) as expected. Concurrent validity estimates between K-DACL and BDI and HDS were moderlately high(r= .64 - .70) and the estimates between K-DACL and BAI was moderately low(r=.35) as expected. The diagnostic efficiency of the K-DACL was good in differentiating depression group from somatoform 'disorder and normal group. Optimal cut-off score of the K-DACL was 20/21 in males and 18/19 in females. The factor analysis supported the existence of two underlying factors, 'negative moods' and 'positive moods', which was robust across sex and diagnosis.
The aims of the present study are both to construct the Korean version of an instrument which has been world-widely used to measure speech anxiety and to examine its reliability and validity. The 'Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker5 was translated into Korean. Several self-report inventories including the Korean version of Speech Anxiety Scale (K-SAS)were administered to 212 college students. Item analyses of their responses on K-SAS indicated two of 30 items weren't appropriate, and thus 28 items were finally selected to construct K-SAS. K-SAS is highly reliable in terms of internal consistency, split-half reliability, and test-retest reliability, and also has good concurrent validity. It was more strongly correlated with Speech Anxiety Hierarchy, another Speech Anxiety Scale than with the Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory; therefore, this supports good discriminat validity of K-SAS. Factor analysis reveals that K-SAS has two factors labeled 'Enjoyment of Speech Situation' and 'Tension of Speech Situation'. In conclusion, K-SAS appears to be a highly reliable, valid measure to assess speech anxiety in college students.
This study addressed three issues in clinical use of K-WAIS. First, a clinician frequently faces the situation in which a subject's premorbid intelligence should be estimated. This study provides VIQ, PIQ, FIQ means for 25 subgroups of the K-WAIS standardization sample. These data can be used for estimating a subject's premorbid intelligence based on his/her age and years of education. Second, how big a difference between VIQ and PIQ may be interpreted as clinically significant? An investigation of 201 normal subjects indicates that a 17-point difference is required at 15% significance level and a 23-point difference is required at 5% significance level. Third, which age norm should be utilized, for example, for a 34-year-and-11-month old subject? A proposed solution is to take the mid-points of the two sets of results, one based on the 23~34 age norm and the other based on the 35~44 age norm.
This study intented to explore Jung's theory of the relation of psychological types and psychological adjustment, by studying the relationship between psychological types of MBTI and scales of MMPI, especially psychological characteristics on MBTI E-I scale and on MMPI si scale in 476 university students. We classified 4 groups by the MBTI extrovert-introvert scale and MMPI si scales. Those 4 groups are: Group 1 (introverted attitude(I) and socially introversion(si>50)), Group 2(extroverted attitude(E) and socially extroversion(si<50)), Group 3(introverted attitude(I) and socially extroversion(si<50)), Group 4(extroverted attitude(E) and socially introverted(si>50) Simple correlation analysis between MBTI continuous scales and MMPI scales and one way .ANOVA with the anxiety scale and ego strength scale as dependent measures were conducted on the 4 groups. The results were as follows. MBTI E-I scale and MMPI anxiety scale showed signifiant positive correlation. The results of one way ANOVA with the anxiety scale as dependent variable rejected the null hypothesis and the results of multiple comparison classified Group 1 and Group 4 as high anxiety homogeneous group. One way ANOVA with the ego-strength scale as dependent variable rejected null hypothesis and the results of multiple comparison classfied Group 1 and Group 4 as low ego-strength score homogeneous group. These results suggested the following. First, not all introverts experience psychological difficulties. Even the introverts, if socially active, appear to show good psychological functioning. Second, not all the extroverts adapt well psychologically. The extroverts with poor social participation are likely to show poor psychological functioning.
This study aimed at classifying 6 to 12-year old children who are treated for attention difficulties using K-CBCL scores. Eight K-CBCL sub-scale scores of 97 elementary school boys having attention difficulties were statistically analyzed with cluster analysis method. Four groups with different profiles of K-CBCL scores emerged from the analysis. Group 1 with Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems and Attention Problems scores over 65 T-score was defined as Mixed Problems Group and group 2 with T-score over 65 on both Externalizing Problems and Attention Problems scale, Externalizing Problems Group. Group 3 with T-score over 65 in Attention Problems scale only was named Attention Problems Group. Group D consisted of boys with T-score under 60 in all subscale scores including Attention Problems score, and thus named Normal Profile Group. The two Groups with comorbidity(group 1 & group 2) appeared to have poorer relationship with parents, peers, and siblings than the Group without comorbidity(group 3). Clinical implications and limitations of the present study were discussed.
In the previous studies, the family differentiation(the family system's interaction pattern) was conceptualized as an uni-dimension, which was balance of separateness and connectedness. However, when separateness and connectedness are considered as two extremes of the uni-dimension, the concept of family differentiation levels cannot be elaborated. Thus, in the present study, the family differentiation are separated by two independent dimensions involving separateness and connectedness. Separateness refers to the process in which a person increasingly achieves a sense of self that is distinct from significant others. The opposite pole of separateness on a continuum is enmeshment(fusion). Meanwhile, connectedness is defined as the ability to maintain a sense of emotional intimacy to significant others while having distinct boundaries to the self, which is on the continuum with disengagement(cut-off) at the opposite pole. The results showed that the high family differentiation level maintained both separateness and connectedness, while the low family differentiation level showed both enmeshment and disengagement. These results suggest that the family differentiation explained better by the two independent dimensions than by the uni-dimension.