This study investigated the relationships among negative self-concept, defensive attributional style, self-referential target reasoning, reasoning biases about intentionality and hostility. It was postulated that these variables are the core factors in paranoia. The Paranoia Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, the Hostility Scale, the Self-concept Scale, the Self-Discrepancy Scale, the Attribution and Target Reasoning Questionnaire were administered to 444 college students. The results showed that the paranoid tendency was significantly correlated to negative self-concepts, and reasoning bias that showed more self-as-target bias for other person's ambiguous behaviors and interpreted the behaviors as more intentional and more hostile. Paranoid group attributed the ambiguous situation more internally and the obviously negative situations more externally. And, It was showed that the self-concept significantly correlated with the reasoning biases of target, intentionality, and hostility. It was confirmed that the self-concept is a core variable in paranoia. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.
The present studies tested a linear mediation model of social phobia derived from Beck, Emery, and Greenberg's(1985) cognitive theory of anxiety disorder. The linear mediation model assumed that dysfunctional beliefs as a cognitive vulnerability variable might predict socially phobic symptoms mainly by mediating of maladaptive automatic thoughts as a cognitive product of the beliefs activated by threatening social situations. In Study 1, the linear mediation model and two alternative models were tested with cross-sectional data from 542 undergraduates. The results of structural equation analyses showed that the linear mediation model fitted the data very well, while the simple effect model didn't and in the full model direct path of dysfunctional beliefs to socially phobic symptoms wasn't significant. Study 2 attempted to examine whether the results of Study 2 might be cross-validated in short-term longitudinal data from 289 undergraduates. The results of structural equation analyses showed that the linear mediation model fitted the data, while the simple effect model didn't and the full model as a saturated model was not adequate in explaining obtained data. Hence, the short-term longitudinal data of Study 2 as well as the cross-sectional data of Study 1 supported the linear mediation model. In conclusion, the findings of the present studies suggest that the linear mediation model apply to the explanation of socially phobic symptoms well.
People may try to suppress or avoid unpleasant, unwanted thoughts, but deliberate attempts to suppress particular thoughts actually produce ironic rebound effect. Wegner and Zanakos(1994) developed a self-report questionnaire measuring general tendency to suppress unwanted thoughts. The current article investigates Korean version of WBSI's reliability, factor structure, and correlates of the WBSI with the various inventories measuring individual differences and psychopathological symptoms. Finally, strategies for controlling unpleasant, unwanted thoughts and their relation with psychopathology and symptoms such as generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, and autogenous and reactive obsessions are investigated.
The purpose of the present study is to clarify the common and separate characteristics of obsessional symptoms and worry. Measures included the MOCI(Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory), PI(Padua Inventory), and PSWQ(Penn State Worry Questionnaire). Correlations with the 4 PI subscales and the PSWQ showed that they were all significantly correlated each other. So, it is suggested that self-reported various obsessional symptoms and worry are closely associated. But partial correlations controlling the 'impaired mental control' subscale scores showed that the 3 remaining PI subscales and the PSWQ were not significantly correlated each other. It is suggested that obsessional symptoms and worry both are characterized by the common personality factor of 'excessive need for control'.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate psychological correlates of private self-consciousness which has shown both adaptive & maladaptive aspects. Three-hundred forty undergraduates completed the Self-Consciousness Scale(SCS), the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale(CES-D), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI). the Private self-consciousness Subscale of the SCS was correlated negatively with depression and anxiety, while the Public Self-consciousness Subscaie shared positive correlation with anxiety, and the Social Anxiety Subscale, with depression & anxiety. The present study also replicated previous findings of the two-factor structure of private self-consciousness, with differences in the content of each factor. In the present study, the first factor was interpreated to represent general reflectiveness of self and the second, awareness of immediate emotion. General reflectiveness of self, but not awareness of immediate emotion, had negative correlations with depression and anxiety, an indication of high adaptiveness. On the basis of these findings, clinical implications and cultural differences of private self-consciousness were discussed.
The present study focused on the interaction between women's depressive symptoms and the quality of their family relationship. 150 women between 20 and 60 of ages who live in the metropolitan Seoul area responded to the questionnaire consisting of Center for Epidemiological studies for Depression(CES-D), Parenting Stress Index, Parenting Sense of Competence, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale. The results showed that depressive symptoms significantly correlated with parenting stress(r= .40), parenting sense of anxiety(r= .41) and marital dissatisfaction(r= -.51). Also, parenting stress, parental sense of competence, and marital dissatisfaction accounted for 45.7% of the variance in concurrent depressive symptoms. Women who scored above 24 on CESD were divided into two subgroups; Clinical Depresion Group consisting of women who meet the DSM-IV criteria for major Depressive Disorder and Subclinical Depression Group consisting of women who do not. The Subclinical Depression Group did not differ significantly from the Clinical Depression Group on the levels of parenting stress, parental sense of competence, and marital dissatisfaction. No significant differences between the two subgroups suggested that intervention for subclinically depressed women is needed and the therapeutic approach based on the family for women's depression would be helpful.
The present study compared women who scored above 24 on CES-D and met the DSM-IV criteria of Major Depressive Disorder(Clinical Depression Group) and women who scored above 24 on CES-D but did not meet the DSM-IV criteria of Major Depressive Disorder(Subclinical Depression Group) on psychosocial characteristics and persistence of depressive symptoms. 591 women between the ages of 20 and 60 who live in the metropolitan Seoul area responded to the questionnaire consisting of CES-D, Social Adjustment Scale-self report form, questions concerning DSM-IV MDD criteria, life stress, coping style, perceived social support, and self efficacy; of the 591, 150 women responded to the second wave of questionnaire at the 3 month follow-up. At the initial assessment, 8.1% of the 591 women were categorized as Clinical Depression Group, and another 15.4%, Subclinical Depression Group. The Subclinical Depression Group did not differ significantly from the Clinical Depression Group on the level of self reported life stress, perceived social support, social adjustment-subjective satisfaction and self-efficacy. However, the two groups differed significantly on the style of coping behaviors and functional aspect of social adjustment with the Clinical Depression Group showing more severe impairment. Furthermore, the Clinical Depression Group were more likely to remain depressed at the 3 month follow-up than the Subclinical Depression Group. The results were discussed in terms of implications for clinical management of women with clinical and subclinical depression.
By exploring the influences of personality on drinking problems in general population, it was hoped that the present study could identify personality factors of drinking behavior and problems. Also the clusters of personality traits, which were composed of by Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) subscale scores, were compared by the degree of alcohol use and drinking problems. Helping to screen target person whom we must intervene first for alcohol prevention was first consideration of the study. Results through hierarchical multiple regression analyses were as follows. Personality was found to have significant influence on alcohol use and drinking problems. Both Novelty Seeking(NS) and Harm Avoidance(HA) were significant predictors of alcohol use and drinking problems. Even when alcohol use was controlled, these two dimensions had strong roles in explaining drinking problems. In other words, this fact suggests that personality directly affects on drinking problems without mediating factors such as alcohol use. Depending upon the clusters of personality traits, the degree of drinking and ensuing problems were different. Among the clusters of personality traits, passive-aggressive cluster was most prone to drinking problems, whereas hyperthymic cluster showed relatively less dangerous level in drinking problems. The overall findings suggested that for predicting the possible drinking problems of people, we should consider types of personality.
The purpose of the present study was to develop the Korean Marital Satisfaction Inventory. The Korean Marital Satisfaction Inventory(K-MSI) consists of two validity scales(Inconsistency and Conventionalization) and one global affective scale(Global Distress), and eleven additional scales measuring specific dimensions of relationship distress(Affective Communication, Problem Solving Communication, Aggression, Time Together, Disagreement About Finances, Sexual Dissatisfaction, Role Orientation, Family History of Distress, Conflict With In-Laws, Dissatisfaction With Children, Conflict Over Child Rearing). The Conflict With In-Laws scale was developed to assess conflicts in relationship with in-laws. Two preliminary studies for selecting items by item analysis were executed and the final 160 items were administered to 440 married men, 540 married women residing in Seoul and Kyung-gi area for standardization. The effects of the demographic variables such as gender, age, education, family income and job were examined. Coefficients of internal consistency of individual scales ranged from .71 to .92 and the coefficients of temporal stability(test-retest) ranged from .70 to .96. Results of factor analysis with Principal Component Analysis indicated the existence of single factor, explaining 43.37 percent of total variance. Overall, results suggested a high internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Implications for use of the instrument both as a clinical tool and a research instrument are discussed.
Cognitive variables have been known to be particularly important in social phobia. However, there has not yet been developed any instrument to define systematically and measure objectively dysfunctional beliefs regarded as one type of main cognitive contents of social phobia. Based on the systematic definitions of dysfunctional beliefs of social phobia, a pool of 220 preliminary items were sampled, and 199 items were initially selected through the examination of content validity. And then the Dysfunctional Beliefs Test(DBT) with 70 items was constructed using a series of factor analyses on the data of 199 items, and was examined its reliability and validity in two separate studies. The DBT was highly reliable in terms of internal consistency, split-half reliability, and test-retest reliability. Factor analyses revealed that it had three factors labeled 'Negative Concept of Social Self', 'Excessive Demand for Others' Approval', and 'Negative Belief of Others and Excessive Concern over Mistakes'. And the DBT was significantly correlated with maladaptive automatic thoughts, emotional and behavioral symptoms, and trait anxiety related to social phobia as well as a vulnerability to fear of negative evaluation, but not with social stressor. In conclusion, the DBT appears to be a highly reliable, valid measure to assess dysfuntional beliefs of social phobia. Lastly, both the implications of the present studies and the utilization of the DBT in the cognitive study and treatment of social phobia were discussed.
The Korean translations of Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory(MOCI) and Padua Inventory(PI) were developed in this study. The MOCI and the PI were administered to 675 and 244 college students respectively, and their psychometric properties were evaluated. As compared with the MOCI, the PI was found to have higher internal consistency and temporal stability, have more stable factor structure, and include more comprehensive obsessional phenomena. On the contrary, the MOCI was found to have higher discriminant validity than the PI. Correlational analyses revealed that the subscales of two measures have good convergent/divergent validity. Finally, the nature and implications of 'doubting' and 'impaired mental control' subscales were discussed.
An attempt was made to confirm clinical validity of MMPI-168 through comparison of clinical interpretation between the original MMPI and MMPI-168 on the basis of high-point codes. MMPI and the psychiatric symptom checklist were administered to 133 psychiatric patients including 59 males and 74 females. Clinical symptoms and diagnoses from the high-point codes of both original and short-form MMPI were compared and no significant difference was found between the two forms of MMPI in terms of clinical characteristics and diagnoses. This study provided with a rational basis for clinicians to use MMPI-168 in place of the original MMPI for differential diagnosis as well as clinical description of psychiatric patients although further replication is needed to confirm the present results.
The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of Draw-A-Person Test among personality disorder cluster A, B, C. Size, placement, sequence, posture, placement of arm, pressure of line, continuity of line, shading, body simplification, head simplification, sexual elaboration, sexual differentiation, total 12 variables in Draw-A-Person Test were scored. In ANOVA or chisquire analysis, Size, sequence, stroke showed significant difference among cluster A, B, C. To further We differentiated the specific characteristics between two clusters. The results were as follows:(1)variables differentiated between cluster A and B were size, sequence, light pressure, discontinuity of line, (2)variables differentiated between cluster B and C were left placement, sequence, continuity of line, discontinuity of line, light pressure, (3)variables differentiated between cluster A and C were size, below of page, body simplification, sexual differentiation. In discriminant analysis, when all variables were put into analyses, hit-ratio was 71 % and this discriminant functions effectively differentiated the three clusters. The results suggest that size, sequence, continuity of line seem very important to differentiate among cluster A, B, C.
Although memory deficit is one of the most common features of various brain diseases and dementia, its assessment tool with satisfactory reliability and validity has not yet been developed in Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine clinical usefulness of the K-MAS(Korean form of Memory Assessment Scale) and to collect normative data. K-MAS is Korean version of MAS(Memory Assessment Scales; Williams,1991), in which several original items were adjusted to the Korean culture. But we made every effort to ensure that the same cognitive processes that MAS aims to assess would be tapped in K-MAS. We administered K-MAS to 408 normal adults. The results revealed that the score patterns of K-MAS were similar to those of MAS, indicating the same internal structure as that of MAS. The traditional notion that memory function is correlated with age and educational level was confirmed in this study. Especially, memory weakening seems to begin as early as in the forties. It is thought to be desired that the ase range be divided into categories of age of between 19-39, between 40-59, 60 or over, and the levels of education into categories of educational year of 6 or below, between 7 and 12, 13 or over. All subtests and summary scales of K-MAS were highly correlated with Global Memory Scale, verbal subtests with Verbal Memory Scale, and visual subtests with Visual Memory Scale. The Names-faces subtest was correlated with both Verbal and Visual Memory Scales, which confirms that the task measures the ability to associate verbal(names) and nonverbal(faces) material. The above results suggest K-MAS has high internal consistency. Finally, the results revealed that the memory functioning of the Korean elderly was poorer than the American elderly in any educational level. Further investigation is needed to explore possible factors which might explain such difference.