This study was conducted to examine the influence of responsibility, memory confidence, and maladaptive perfectionism on obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Four hundred fifteen college students (223 male students (53.7%) and 192 female students (46.3%)) from Jinju, Busan, Cheongju, and Masan participated in this study. Their average age was 21.5. To measure the variables of this study, we used the Obsessive Belief Questionnaire-Responsibility (OBQ-R), the Multidimensional Perfectional Scale (FMPS), the Memory and Cognitive Confidence Scale (MACCS), and the Padua Inventory (PI). The following summarizes the results of the analysis using structural equation modeling. It was verified that responsibility, memory confidence, and maladaptive perfectionism have a significant influence on obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Responsibility and memory confidence influenced the obsessive-compulsive symptoms with maladaptive perfectionism as a mediator. This finding indicated that maladaptive perfectionism is a critical variable for the generation and continuation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The meaning and limitations of this study were also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the gender difference of the mediation effect of ego-resilience in the relationship between parental overprotection and depression. Two hundred thirty three undergraduate students participated in this study and they completed the questionnaires on parental overprotection, ego-resilience, and depression. The results were as follows: (1) female students reported significantly higher levels of parental overprotection, adhesive control, projective overprotection, and depression than males. (2) For males, parental overprotection was significantly associated with the levels of ego-resilience and depression, and there was also a significant association between ego-resilience and depression. On the other hand, for females, ego-resilience was significantly associated with the level of depression, but parental overprotection was not significantly associated with ego-resilience or depression. (3) In the male group, the relation between parental overprotection and depression was mediated by ego-resilience. We also discussed the implications and limitations of this study.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the body shame mediated the relationships between the covert narcissistic personality tendency and disordered eating behaviors. Three hundred eight seven undergraduate students participated in this study. They were asked to complete the questionnaires concerned with the covert narcissism scale (CNS), the body shame scale and the disordered eating behavior scale (EAT-26). The results indicated that through structural equation modeling, the complete mediation model for the influence of body shame between the covert narcissistic personality tendency and disordered eating behaviors was confirmed. Additionally, we examined the differences in the three subtypes of disordered eating behaviors in the proposed mediating model. The results showed that the complete mediating effect was confirmed for anorexia, and the partial mediating effect was confirmed for binge eating behaviors. On the other hand, the mediating effect was not confirmed for eating control behaviors. The results suggest that if people with the covert narcissistic personality tendency feel body shame, then they are apt to show disordered eating behaviors. Finally, we addressed the implications and limitations of this study and we made suggestions for future studies.
The present study analyzed effects of age, education, and gender on 11 cognitive measures in a sample of 756 older Korean adults. Partial correlations were computed to control for significant correlations among the demographic variables. The major findings were as follows. First, the effect of age ranged from .6 to 21.4% across 11 measures, with a mean of 8.0%. The age effect was the highest for the measures of the naming and memory functions. Second, the effect of education ranged from 1.2 to 38.3% across 11 measures, with a mean of 13.5%. The education effect tended to be high for the measures of learned knowledge and low for the measures of the executive as well as the memory function. Third, the effect of gender ranged from .1 to 5.3% across 11 measures, with a mean of 1.4%. The gender effect was relatively high for the measures of the information function (male > female) and memory function (female > male). The total effect of age, education and gender ranged from 1.9 to 52.7% across 11 measures, with a mean of 23.0%. Those measures with high total effects tended to show stronger effects of education relative to age, whereas those measures with low total effects tended to show stronger effects of age relative to education. These results provide useful data for understanding the cognitive characteristics of Korean older adults and their clinical evaluations.
The aim of this study is to explore the latent classes of ADHD in order to determine if the latent class structure of the ADHD subtypes found in western countries can be replicated in a sample of culturally different Korean children sample. Previous studies have shown inconsistency regarding hyperactive-impulsive subtypes: some studies have reported that there were no hyperactive-impulsive subtypes and others stated that there were indeed hyperactive-impulsive subtypes. Therefore, the present study sought the reasons for these discrepancies of the ADHD latent subgroups by classifying three different age groups using low, middle, and high age thresholds. The Korean version of the ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) was completed by 1732 mothers of children between the ages of 6 to 12 (904 boys and 828 girls) and who were attending elementary schools in the greater Seoul metropolitan area. Latent class analysis was applied to the 18 items of the K-ARS. LCA revealed a five-cluster ADHD model as the best fit with the non-symptomatic class and 4 ADHD classes for the children who were 6 to 7 years of age. The 4 ADHD classes can be grouped into three subtypes: 2 combined classes (Severe Combined or Mild Combined), 1 inattentive class, and 1 hyperactive-impulsive class. LCA also revealed the six-cluster ADHD models as the best fit with a non-symptomatic class and the 5 the ADHD classes as the best fit for children 8 to 10 and 11 to 12 years of age, respectively. The 5 ADHD classes can be grouped in two subtypes: 3 combined classes (Severe Combined, Moderate Combined or Mild Combined) and 2 inattentive classes (Severe Inattentive or Mild Inattentive) without a hyperactive-impulsive class. That is, the low age group was of the predominant hyperactive-impulsive class, but the middle and high age groups were not of the hyperactive-impulsive predominant class. In addition, no talkative-impulsive class emerged as a separate class in the present study, either. We also discuss the similarities and differences and their implications between the previous study and present study regarding the ADHD latent classes and comorbid problems.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of self-control training program on relief of online game addiction level, aggression, and impulsivity of college students with online game addiction. Five hundred college students who lived in Chonbuk province completed the Game Addiction Scale, the Aggression Scale, and the Impulsivity Scale. The students who scored more than 72 points on the Game Addiction Scale and spent more than two and half hours per day playing online games were screened. Twenty one people selected by those scales were randomly assigned to the Self-Control Training Group (n =10) and the waiting-list control group (n=11). A self-control program was administered for 10 sessions. All the participants completed the Game Addiction Scale, the Aggression Scale, and the Impulsivity Scale at pretreatment, the end of treatment, and the 4 weeks follow-up. The results of this study were as follows: the game addiction level and the impulsivity level of the therapy group were decreased more than those of the waiting-list control group, but the aggression level was not decreased in both group. Finally, the implications and the limitations of this study, and suggestions for future study were also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to compare parenting stress among mothers with PDD, AHDH, and typically developing children and its association with children's problem behaviors. Mothers completed K-PSI and K-CBCL. One-way ANOVA and standard multiple regression was used for the analysis. The results showed that mothers of PDD and ADHD reported significantly higher parenting stress and more child problem behaviors as compared with the control group. Higher stress was reported inon the restricted role and acceptability subscales of the child domain for the mothers of child with PDD and inon the reinforcement and attachment subscales of the parent domain for mothers of child with ADHD. No differences were found inon the health and social isolation subscales. Parenting stress was affected by child's problem behaviors, though its association was rather different depending on the diagnosis. Both the PDD and ADHD groups showed lower correlation between the parenting stress and the internalizing behavior problems than did the control group. However, in terms of externalizing problem behavior, only the ADHD group showed lower correlation than the control group. The PDD group showed no differences. The implications, limitations, and directions for future research were discussed.
The current study was conducted to shed light on the specific mechanism by which self-compassion, separately from or activated by life stress, influences psychological health. Based on previous studies and literatures, mediated moderation models were proposed, in which decentering plays a mediating role in the link between self-compassion and psychological health, as well as in the moderation effect of self-compassion and life stress on psychological health. Four hundred eighty five university students completed an assessment battery consisting of the measures of self-compassion, life stress, decentering, psychological well-being, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Path analyses and Sobel's tests were used to evaluate the mediated moderation models and the mediational effects of decentering. The results indicated that the mediated moderation models provided a close fit to the data on psychological well-being, as well as depressive or anxiety symptoms. Decentering partially mediated the influence of self-compassion on psychological well-being and it fully mediated the impact of self-compassion moderated by life stress on psychological well-being. In contrast, these mediational effects of decentering on depressive and anxiety symptoms were not supported. These results suggest that one way via which self-compassion, separately from or activated by life stress, has positive effects on psychological well-being is through increasing decentering. In addition, self-compassion interacted with life stress such that it played a more prominent role in protecting against anxiety symptoms during higher life stress than during lower life stress. Finally, the results were discussed in terms of the possibility of other constructs to mediate the relationship between self-compassion and psychological health, particularly depressive or anxiety symptoms, and their implications for research and treatment, as well as the limitations of this study.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the level of depression and inhibition bias. In the present study, the mood-congruent inhibition bias was measured in the depression group. The depression group (n=31) and the control group (n=29) were recruited from a pool of college students on the basis of the CES-D score. They were given a ‘Go-No/Go task’, which consisted of a ‘gender discrimination task’ and a ‘facial emotion discrimination task’. For 'the gender discrimination task', the subjects were presented with 100 pictures of men or women with neutral facial expressions and they were given instructions to selectively inhibit their response to one gender. For the 'facial emotion task', the subjects were presented with 100 pictures of happy or sad expressions and they were given instructions to selectively inhibit their response to one of the facial emotions. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the depression group and the control group for the rate of hits, false alarm errors and the mean response time on the gender discrimination. However, the depression group made more false alarm errors when they were to inhibit their responses to pictures of sad facial expressions. These results suggest that the depression group has difficulty inhibiting mood-congruent facial emotions, while their ability to inhibit responses to non-emotional faces appears intact.
This study investigated the effect of computerized attention training on the improvement of cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia. A total of 40 schizophrenic patients were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: the experimental(n=13), comparative(n=13) and control (n=14) groups. The attention training and Korean typing program were administered to the experimental and comparative groups, respectively. No training was given to the control group. The attention training consists of 10 sub-programs, which were developed to train sustained, selective and divided attention. Comprehensive neuropsychological tests such as the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test(ROCF), the Trail-Making Test, the Stroop test, the K-CVLT, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the PANSS were administered before and after training. The three groups did not differ on the performances of any of the neuropsychological tests and for the PANSS scores administered prior to training. The experimental group showed significantly improved performances on the copy and delayed-recall conditions of the ROCF and the Stroop Color-Word Interference condition, which were administered after training, than did the comparative and control groups. In addition, the experimental group showed significantly reduced negative and general pathological symptoms after training, but the other two groups did not. These results indicate that attention rehabilitation training is effective for improving the cognitive functions of chronic schizophrenic patients. In addition, these results indicate the importance of cognitive rehabilitation for the treatment of schizophrenia.