The main aims of this study was to propose the concept of forgiveness beliefs as meta-cognition beliefs that effect forgiveness decisions, and to develop the Forgiveness Beliefs Scale (FBS), which has been assumed to assess the meta-cognition of forgiveness and finally, to measure new aspects of forgiveness that had not been assessed by preexisting forgiveness scales. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the data collected from 454 high school students. Results suggested that the FBS consisted of three factors, i.e. Self Damage, Negative Effects, and Positive Effects. Reliability and other validity analyses of the FBS were conducted to validate the scale. Further, the relationships among the forgiveness beliefs, forgiveness, negative affects, and subjective well-being were explored. Results demonstrated that the FBS had good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results of a correlation analyses revealed that higher levels of forgiveness beliefs related to more forgiveness, less negative affects, and a higher subjective well-being. Overall, the results suggested that the FBS has both valid and reliable psychometric properties. The implications and limitations of these results were also discussed.
Anxiety sensitivity is the fear of anxiety-related symptoms, arising from beliefs that the sensation has harmful physical, social, or psychological consequences. To measure anxiety sensitivity, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index(ASI) is commonly used. Several studies have show the relationship between depression and anxiety disorder assuming multidimensional structure. In this study, ASI, BDI, and BAI were administered to 611 adult males and females, who had been -diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorder, upon visiting the psychiatric clinic. Exploratory factor and Confirmatory factor analyses were employed to test competing models, and the results suggested that the hierarchical model(comprising three first-order factors corresponding to physical concern, social concern and cognition concern) provided the best fit to the data. This finding was consistent with the results of previous studies. The current study also investigated(using an ANCOVA) differences with respect to the three factors of anxiety sensitivity in four clinical groups of patients who had been diagnosed either with social anxiety disorder(n=101), panic disorder(n=145), generalized anxiety disorder(n=33) or depressive disorder(n=135) and had been free of comorbidity. Results indicated that physical concern was significantly higher in panic disorder patients compared with the other three groups, and that social concern was significantly higher in social anxiety disorder patients. Further, generalized anxiety disorder patients and depressive disorder patients had more cognitive concern than social anxiety disorder patients. The implications and limitations of this study were also discussed.
This study examined memory for anxiety and threat words in individuals exhibiting high and low levels of anxiety. Based on the theory of Cognitive Avoidance, it was hypothesized that highly-anxious participants would show impaired memory for threat-related words. To compare the activation and elaboration processing bias for threatening words and to investigate the selective effects of these information processes, not only in regard to threat-related words but for words referring to uncertainty, were included. Although anxious individuals have a tendency to interpret uncertain cues as threats, compared to threatening cues, uncertain cues are less intimidating so it was assumed that uncertain words would have a lower potential to cause cognitive avoidance. High anxious (n=44) and low anxious (n=44) participants, who had been screened from university students, conducted a free recall and recognition task on neutral, threatening, and uncertain words. Results indicated that the high anxious group recognized significantly less threatening words than the low anxious group. Further, the high anxious group also recognized significantly less neutral and threatening words than uncertain words whereas the low anxious group showed no difference with respect to word type. These results suggest that anxious individuals respond sensitively to both threat and uncertain cues in the initial stages of information processing (activation phase), but selectively inhibit later stage processing (elaboration phase) on threat cues only.
To assess the importance of functional impairment, the first aim of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic consistency between symptom and impairment criteria of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD). The second aim was to compare the functional impairment of children and adolescents with ADHD according to the different measures of impairment and to ADHD subtypes. Seventy-five children and adolescents who met the full symptom criteria of the DSM-IV ADHD algorithm were assessed for impairment. In order to assess the impairment, we used the Children's Global Assessment Scale(C-GAS), a certified global measure of disability and measures, and two other symptom-specific impairment measures that were included in the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia(K-SADS) and Diagnostic Interview Schedule for child version IV(DISC-IV). As a result, diagnostic consistency was 79.2% to 100%, varying according to the impairment measure used. In our sample, impairment in social functioning was the highest and problems with parents were salient. In addition, there were no differences in impairment between ADHD subtypes. These results imply that measuring impairment is important in the diagnostic procedure of ADHD, and that it is necessary to attend to such impairment in social functioning when treating children and adolescents with ADHD. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study and suggestions for future researches have been discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in impulsivity and aggression between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) groups. Participants included 305 college students and normal adults. The Barratt Impulsivity Scale(BIS) and the Eysenck Impulsiveness Scale(EIS) were used to examine impulsivity. Further, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) - aggression, the Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), the PAI borderline (PAI - BOR), the PAI antisocial (PAI - ANT), and both the diagnostic test for personality disorder borderline and antisocial behavior were used. Multiple regression analysis showed that irritability, pervasive emotional regulation deficit, motor impulsivity, aggressive attitude, cognitive impulsivity, physical aggression, resentment, and negativism could predict BPD features. Further, the results demonstrated that action control deficit, physical aggression, motor impulsivity, verbal aggression, non-planning impulsivity, and emotional regulation deficit could predict ASPD features. These results implied that the BPD traits group and ASPD traits group experience impulsivity and aggression, but that the level of impulsivity and aggression between the two groups differed.
This study examined impairments of visual attention and driving performance in mild cognitive impairment(MCI), mild Alzheimer's disease(AD), and control groups. All groups were subjected to several web-based neuropsychological tests, including a continuous performance test, a visual search task, and a change blindness task in order to measure impairments in visual attention. In addition, a driving simulator was employed to compare driving performances among the three groups. As a result, AD group showed poorer performances on the visual attention task compared to MCI and control groups. Using a K-means cluster analysis with five driving performance scales, the declined cognitive function group(AD+MCI) was divided into Good/Bad driver subgroups. Finally, a discriminant function analysis was conducted to test whether the five measures of visual attention could successfully classify the two groups. As a result, 81% of the members were correctly classified, suggesting that impairments on visual attention in AD and MCI may cause poor driving performances. Also, it was demonstrated that visual attention tests might be useful in determining the suitability of obtaining or keeping a driving license in AD patients. Several limitations of the present study and suggestions for further research were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) for emotion regulation in a patient group. The MBCT group and treatment as usual group were assessed (pre/ post/ follow-up) in cognitive modes associations with negative emotions such as cognitive avoidance, ruminative response, difficulties in emotion regulation, depression, and anxiety. The results indicated that the MBCT group (n = 9) showed a significant improvement in observation and acceptance of mindfulness, and reduced cognitive avoidance, ruminative response, difficulties in emotion regulation, depression, anxiety, compared with the treatment as usual group (n = 9). These results continued to a six week follow-up. Further, the cohen`d of the MBCT group was large (.72-1.87). Overall, these results imply the applicability of the MBCT for emotion-regulation in a patient groups, MBCT can facilitate a change in cognitive modes which are associated with negative emotions. Futher, we have discussed therapeutic factors of MBCT for emotion-regulation, and suggested therapeutic processes for further study.
The purpose of this study was to verify the validity and clinical utility of Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5 in the screening of developmental delayed infants. The participants, who were screened by the Denver-II, included 40 developmental delayed infants(25 boys, 15 girls) and 326 normal infants(165 boys, 161 girls). Results indicated that the only 25 items among the CBCL 1.5-5 of total groups, 19 items of boys and 15 items of girls discriminate developmental delayed infants well. Further, discriminant validity was confirmed by mean differences on the subscales of Withdrawn, Attention Problems, Internalizing Problems, DSM Pervasive Developmental Problems and DSM ADHD between the two groups. Additionally, ROC analyses demonstrated that Withdrawn, Attention Problems, Internalizing Problems, Total Behavior Problems and DSM Pervasive Developmental Problems significantly predicted developmental delayed infants compared to normal infants. Also, the clinical cuttoff score criteria adopted in the Korean version of CBCL 1.5-5 for subscales of Withdrawn, Attention Problems and DSM Pervasive Developmental Problems were shown to be valid. However, the cutoff scores criteria for Internalizing Problems and Total Behavior Problems need to be lower by 55T. The implications of using the CBCL 1.5-5 in the screening of developmentally delayed infants and clinical suggestions were discussed.
Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of gratitude on a person's well-being and stress-buffering ability. Study 1 revealed that a disposition toward gratitude was associated with cognitive and emotional well-being and the following psychological resources: self-esteem, self-efficacy, optimism, and perceived social support. These positive correlations were remarkable in the high-stress group. In Study 2, the effect of a grateful outlook on well-being was examined. Participants who kept a diary about blessings for a week exhibited high cognitive well-being, self-esteem and optimism, and low negative affect relative to controls. These results confirm the function of gratitude in psychological well-being and suggest that a conscious focus on blessings is an effective way of achieving a happier life.
This study examined cognitive deficits in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment(MCI) and sleep apnea syndrome(SAS). Specifically, each of the MCI and control group was divided into high/low SAS risk groups, and they were subjected to two computerized attention tests, including a visual search task and a continuous performance test. In addition, the four groups were subjected to several frontal executive function tests, including a trail making test, a stroop test, and a word fluency test. As a result, while the SAS level significantly affected several attention indices in the MCI group, it did not significantly affected measures of frontal executive function tests. More importantly, SAS had a greater impact on attention deficits in the MCI group than in the control group, whereas it had greater impact on frontal executive functions in the control group than in the MCI group. These results suggest the importance of corresponding evaluation and medical intervention since SAS might act as a deteriorating factor of cognitive functions for both in MCI patients and normal elderlies. Given that there hasn't been many researches in SAS with MCIs in Korea, this study has significance for experimental research with respect to the characteristics of cognitive deficits and SAS risk in MCI patients, Finally, limitations of this study and directions of future research were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to test the effects of the acceptance-commitment group therapy(ACT) on the psychological well-being, depression, experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion mothers of children with developmental disabilities. Six sessions of the were administered. Twelve mothers of children with developmental disabilities were assigned to treatment group and were assigned to control group. Both were pre- post-treatment month follow-up assesment psychological well-being, depression, experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion. The results that the treatment group reported significantly higher psychological well-being and depression symptoms compared to the control group. In addition, the treatment group reported significantly lower scores level of cognitive fusion compared to control. No significant changes occurred experiential avoidance. Results indicated that the treatment group treatment effect than the control group psychological well-being, depression and cognitive fusion. hese results suggest that can be applied effectively. Finally, limitations of the present study and suggestions were discussed.
This study investigated the relationships between autonomous and conscious facial emotional processes and neuropsychological functions in nonclinical college students with psychometrically-defined schizotypal traits. Based on scores from the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire(SPQ), schizotypal trait(n=15) and normal control(n=15) groups were selected. For the measurement of autonomous and conscious facial emotional processes, gender judgment and emotional discrimination tasks were administered, respectively. Neuropsychological functions such as verbal/nonverbal memory, executive function and attention were measured. Results indicated that the schizotypal trait and control groups did not differ on the gender discrimination task both in terms of response time(RT) and error rate. However, the schizotypal trait group showed significantly higher error rates than did the control group on the emotional discrimination task. Further, RTs on the emotional discrimination task was significantly correlated with RTs on the Trail Making Test, part B and the Copy condition of Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, while the error rate on the emotional discrimination task was associated with total number of errors on the d2 test. These results indicate that autonomous emotional processing is maintained but that conscious emotional processing is impaired in nonclinical individuals with schizotypal traits, and that impaired conscious emotional processing seems to be related to attention, visuospatial perception and mental flexibility.
This study aimed to investigate a association between subjective memory complaints and objective cognitive functions in the elderly. Initially, 114 elderly participants living in the local community completed various neuropsychological assessments and a clinical Dementia Rating. A total of 73 elder people were classified into three groups (normal, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, early dementia of Alzheimer's type). Subsequently, differences in subjective memory complaints between the three groups were examined using the Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) through the elderly and Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire (KDSQ) through their care-givers. Differences in subjective memory complaints were analyzed using ANCOVA analysis after correcting for demographic variables. The KDSQ and both the PRMQ-P and PRMQ-R were significantly able to discriminate between the MCI and early dementia groups and normal and early dementia groups. This result demonstrate the presence of significant differences in subjective memory complains according to objective cognitive functions.
The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between Cloninger(1987, 2004)'s temperament dimensions and the character strengths of the VIA(Values In Action) classification, and to investigate the mediating effect of perceived parenting styles on the above relationship. In order to explore the relationships among the four temperament dimensions, three parenting styles, and 24 character strengths, correlation and regression analyses were carried out. The results showed that the temperament dimensions were separately related to specific character strengths, especially reward dependence to humanity-related strengths, and persistence to courage-related strengths. Furthermore, it was found that a warm-hearted parenting style partially mediated the relationship between reward dependence and humanity-related strengths. Based on these results, the influence of temperaments and perceived parenting styles on character strengths was discussed. Finally, the limitations of this study were discussed along with suggestions for further research.
The purpose of this study was to examine the congruency hypothesis in sociotropy and autonomy with respect to personality-relevant information processing. A sample of 34 undergraduate students(sociotropy, 17, autonomy, 17) wrote about stressful past experience. A dot probe task was used to investigate attentional bias regarding interpersonal- and achievement-relevant word stimuli. Both sociotropy and autonomy groups showed attentional bias within 1000ms. Further, the sociotropy group exhibited positive attentional bias toward both achievement-relevant words stimuli and positive interpersonal words. The autonomy group showed positive attentional bias toward achievement-relevant stimuli and negative attentional bias toward positive interpersonal words. These findings indicated that individuals who have a vulnerability to depression showed different patterns of attentional bias depending on the kinds of word stimuli. Limitations of current study and suggestions for further research were also discussed.
The present study explored implicit and explicit self-esteem of autonomous and sociotropic depressed college students. Specifically, we examined whether autonomous depressed students had lower implicit self-esteem than sociotropic depressed students, while exhibiting the same level of explicit self-esteem. Study 1 attempted to examine the differences between autonomous and sociotropic depressed students with respect to implicit and explicit self-esteem using the implicit self-esteem measure, IBPT(Initials and Birthday Number Preference Task) and explicit self-esteem measure, RSES(Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). The Personal style Inventory(PSI), IBPT, RSES, and Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) were administered to 391 college students. On the basis of PSI and BDI scores, two groups were selected: the autonomous-depressed students(A-D), and the sociotropic-depressed students(S-D). There was no group difference between the A-D and S-D groups in explicit self-esteem, however, A-D group had lower implicit self-esteem than the S-D group. Study 2 was carried out to confirm the differences between autonomous and sociotropic depressed college students with respect to implicit self-esteem using the implicit self-esteem measure, IAT(Implicit Association Task). The IAT effect was divided into competence-IAT and relation-IAT, and an anagram task was used to explore change in implicit self-esteem after a failure experience. Wih respect to the IAT, there were no differences between groups; however, the A-D group showed a decrease in their IAT score, implying an instability in implicit self-esteem. From the results of this study, it can be partially explained why previous studies have not found any differences in the level of implicit self-esteem between depressives and non-depressives. The results were discussed in terms of theoretical and clinical implications. Also limitations of this study and suggestions for future study were discussed.
In this study, we investigated MMPI-2(Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) profiles to explore clinical characters and personalities of those with bipolar and unipolar depression. MMPI-2 were completed by bipolar(n=29) and unipolar(n=31) depressive patients. Both groups showed elevated scores on the D(Depression), Pt(Psychasthenia) scales, demonstrating that two disorders shared similar depressive symptoms. iIt also may have suggested that bipolar patients, like unipolar patients, suffer from negative cognitive styles during depressive episode. The subtle differences between the two groups with respect to scores on subscales RC8(Aberrant Experiences) and, FAM1(Family Discord) may reflect cognitive and biogenetic vulnerability of bipolar depression. Based on these results, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
Emerging research emphasizes cultural influences on personality and psychopathology. In the present study, it was hypothesized that Sociotropy and Autonomy, the most well-known personality styles which make people vulnerable to depression, reflect cultural values and may have different effects in different cultures. The factor structures of Sociotropy and Autonomy were investigated in relation to psychological adjustment in Korea. Three hundred and five university students completed the Personality Style Inventory (PSI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). As the results, both Sociotropy and Autonomy correlated positively with the measures of depression and social anxiety. Factor analysis of the PSI showed that Autonomy, consistent with previous western studies, consists of two subfactors of ‘Being in Control of One’s Plans’ and ‘Defensive Separation’. However, Sociotropy showed different subfactors from previous western studies, and the subfactor ‘Trying Not to Offend Others’ correlated more strongly with the BDI and SIAS than the subfactor ‘Fear of Being Separated from Others’. Unlike previous western findings in which the second subfactor of Sociotropy was named ‘Dependency’ and was related with psychological maladjustment, it was newly interpreted that such maladaptive effect is attenuated in Korea which emphasizes maintaining relationships with others. On the contrary, it was suggested that the implicit social standard that one should behave in the way that meets others’ expectations may function as a psychological pressure.
This study attempted to verify the factor structure of the Korean Version of Interpersonal Problems Personality Disorder Scales(K-IIP-PD) by applying a confirmatory factor analysis to psychiatric patients. To evaluate the goodness of fit of three alternative models taken from factor structures which had been previously reported. the confirmatory factor analysis was carried out on the K-IIP-PD with respect to a group of 239 patients. As a result, it was found that the model with five first-order intercorrelated factor was the best fit for the data. This result differed from previous US-based studies which had reported that a hierarchical model with 1 second-order factor and 5 first-order factors was the best fit. Unlike the US-based studies, potential factors representing character disorders were not found here: however it seems that the model will be useful in sorting character disorders in ‘Stage 1’, and its utility will be further developed in measuring the level of character disorders by modifying items in the future.