This study was performed with a purpose to specify the path from socially-prescribed perfectionism (SPP) to interpersonal anxiety in middle school students, and particularly intended to test the significance and the directionality of the effect between the two mediators (i.e., fear of negative evaluation and irrational beliefs). For this, a research packet including measures of multidimensional perfectionism, fear of negative evaluation, irrational beliefs, and interpersonal anxiety scale for adolescents were administered to 267 students (107 men, 158 women) enrolled at two middle schools in Gangnam-gu, Seoul who included freshmen, sophomores, and seniors. To examine the relationships among the variables (i.e., the hypothesized models), structural equation modeling were performed. The result indicated that the mediation model 1 (fear of negative evaluation preceeding irrational beliefs) was significant, while the mediation model 2 (irrational beliefs preceeding fear of negative evaluation) was not significant. This result suggests that the main target for intervention should be the emotional aspect (i.e., fear of negative evaluation) that can be followed by the second target, the cognitive aspect (i.e., irrational beliefs) when school counselors work with middle school students who suffer from high levels of socially-prescribed perfectionism and interpersonal anxiety.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of primary school students' life goals on their well-being mediated by their basic psychological needs and to evaluate consistency of their structural relationships among these variables across gender groups. The subjects of this study were 418 5th or 6th graders(232 male and 186 female students) who were selected from three primary schools located in D-City. The proposed model was evaluated for its validity through SEM analyses. As a result, it was observed that primary students' intrinsic and extrinsic life goals had differential effects on their basic psychological needs and well-being. The intrinsic life goals showed only indirect effects on well being through mediation of the basic psychological needs, whereas the extrinsic life goals had only direct effects on it. In addition, the results of the multiple-group SEM analyses showed that intrinsic life goals had positive direct effects on three kinds of basic psychological needs for both gender groups. However, extrinsic life goals had significant direct effects on well-being only for the male group. Finally, importances of establishing and pursuing intrinsic life goals for primary school students are discussed.
The present study aims to investigate the dual mediating effects of online-offline self-discrepancy and communication competence in relationship between social anxiety and social capital for adolescents. A total of 316 students participated and completed the Social Anxiety and Distress Scale, Self-Discrepancy Scale modified for measuring online and offline self-presentation, Communication Competence Scale, and Social Capital Scale, along with a consent form three times. Structural equation modelling was used to compare the fit of the research and alternative models, and found that the research model as the best model for the present data. Results showed that social anxiety had directly a effect on social capital and indirectly a effect on social capital via online-offline self-discrepancy, which also functions as a mediator between social anxiety and communication competence, and communication competence, which also functions as a mediator between on-offline self-discrepancy and social capital. Limitations, future research and therapeutic implications were discussed.
This study investigated experiences of six mothers whose children were victims of school violence. Mothers were confused since they did not understand the reasons behind the school violence and did not know how to help their children. Initially, they looked for reasons of school violence in their children, but the relationships with their children deteriorated as a result. However, soon, the mothers accepted and empathized with their children, and made efforts to advocate for their rights to the assailants and teachers. The children stabilized after their mothers changed their initial attitudes toward them and school violence. The mothers felt angry with the aggressors who harassed their children and with the teachers who were not active in protecting their children. The mothers lost their confidence as care-takers since their children had become victims of school violence, and they don't know how to intervene at first. They got help from books and other media sources regarding child-rearing and school violence to help their children. They got support from their husbands and members of the immediate family, but did not seek help from the mothers of the children's friends. After seeing their children became victims of school violence, the mothers were always alert regarding and observed detail's of their child's school life. Even though it was hard experience, they found positive changes. Both mothers and children perceived that they got stronger by getting through the experiences, and the family became more cohesive than before. Furthermore, some mothers looked for career paths in helping adolescents since they came to realize that victims of school violence did not get help from their own parents or teachers. The results of this study provide empirical data in order to educate and counsel the mothers of victims of school violence and are discussed with the myth of school violence, family resilience, and the role of school psychologists.
The purpose of this study was to examine the mediation effects of children’s academic failure tolerance on the relation between their self-determinated learning motivation and their mother’s parenting attitude on autonomy support, involvement and structure. For this study, the subjects were 352 students sampled from 5th and 6th grade of three elementary schools in Seoul, Incheon, Gyeonggi. The results of the study are as follows: First, the results reveal that children’s most frequent response of their learning motivation level was the external regulation. Second, in terms of correlations among variables, intrinsic motivation and identified/integrated regulation show positive correlations with mother’s autonomy support, involvement and structure. External regulation and introjected regulation show negative correlations with mother’s parenting attitude in general. Children’s academic failure tolerance show positive correlations with intrinsic motivation and identified/integrated regulation, but negative correlation with motivations of introjected regulation, external regulation in general. Third, in the examination of mediating effects of academic failure tolerance, mother’s autonomy support, involvement, and structure indirectly influenced children’s self-determinated motivation for learning. This study suggests that enhancing academic failure tolerance through mothers’ parenting attitude of autonomy supporting, involving and structuring help students to have high self-determined motivation to overcome frustration caused by the pressure of achievement, comparison, and competition.