The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of anger expression type on therelationships between Adolescent's depression and somatization. The subjects of this study were 555students in the 1st and 2nd grade in high schools located in Seoul and Gyeonggi-Do. They were assessedby The Center for Epidemiological studies Depression scale(CES-D), State-Trait Anger ExpressionInventory-Korean version(STAXI-K) and Korean Children's Somatization Inventory. The results showed asfollows: First, adolescent's depression had significant effect on somatization. It was found that the moreadolescent experienced depression, the more they experienced somatization. Second, adolescent's depressionhad a significant effect on anger-in and anger-out. It showed that the more adolescent experienceddepression, the more they experienced anger-in and anger-out. Third, anger-in had a significant effect onsomatization. It was found that the more adolescent experienced anger-in, the more they experiencedsomatization. Fourth, it was found that anger-in had a moderating effects on the relationships betweentotal score of depression and somatization. Finally, the moderating effects of anger-out and anger-controlwere not significant.
This study examined the development and validity of daily stress response inventory for adolescent. Wecomposed 91 preliminary items through existing scales and literature investigation and comprised 32 itemsthrough item analysis and discussion of licensed clinical psychologists. We examined the main surveytargeting 622 middle and high school students living Seoul and kyonggi-do and conducted validityanalysis for 576 people (man: 295, woman: 281) excluded 47 persons. Result of exploratory factoranalysis, 3 subfactors (behavioral, emotional and physical stress response) explained 40.96% of totalvariance of inventory. Next, result of confirmatory factor analysis, Fit-indices of model were good. Wedecided 27 items as final items excluded 3 items which standard regression weights below .50 andsquared multiple correlation below .20. the internal consistency coefficient was .928. Finally, theapplication of inventory and future studies were discussed.
This study was designed to develop a program for the training of a phoneme analysis aimed at improvingunderachieved children’s basic learning skills and to verify its effectiveness through the evaluation ofmemory ability. To investigate effects of phonemes analysis training on improvement of memory andworking memory for children with learning disability, 31 children in the 4th and 5th grade of elementaryschool in G province were selected in this study. Experimental group was organized by selecting childrenwith underachievement and control group was made from general children. The experimental group wastrained for 12 weeks - one session each week, 12 sessions in total. Measurements before and after thetraining was compared. A series of repeated measure variance analysis revealed that there was thesignificant treatment condition*time interaction effect for SVLT-C and 8 measure values of the subtest fordigit span. Also, three scales such as implementation3, recall, total learning quantity showed significantincrease in experimental group. This implies that memory ability of children with underachievementsignificantly improved by the program. But working memory was not improved. Finally, limitations andimplications of this study, and suggestions for further studies were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to identity mediating effect of emotional difficulties on the associationbetween insecure attachment and career indecision and career decision making self-efficacy. For this, a totalof 190 undergraduates were asked to complete the questionnaires that measuring adult attachment, careerdecision scale, career decision making self-efficacy, emotional difficulties(trait anxiety and trait pessimism,state anxiety and state pessimism). The data was analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and SPSS Macro. The mainfindings are as follows. First, there was a full mediation effect of state anxiety and state pessimism onrelationship between attachment anxiety and career indecision. However, there was indirect-only mediationeffect of state pessimism on relationship between attachment avoidance and career indecision. Second,relationship between insecure attachment(attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and career decisionmaking self-efficacy was full mediated by trait anxiety and state pessimism. Third, there was an significantdifferences in the career indecision, career decision making self-efficacy, state anxiety, trait anxiety andstate pessimism according to the differential adult attachment style. These findings contribute to theunderstanding of the path between adult attachment and career development and highlight the importantrole of emotional difficulties in the process of career decision making problems.
While school counselors listen attentively and empathically to students during counseling sessions, theycould experience vicarious traumas through the clients' presented traumas. The vicarious trauma couldaffect the counselor negatively but yet bring about positive changes such as posttraumatic growth (PTG). Among many variables, resilience has been found to be significantly related with posttraumatic growthexperience. Also, previous studies show that the better self-regulation ability an individual has, the moreresilient he/she is. In addition, mindfulness has been known to be positively related with self-regulationability. Based on the prior research findings, the purpose of this study was to examine the doublemediation effects of mindfulness and self-regulation on the relationship between the counselors' vicarioustrauma experience and their posttraumatic growth. The participants of this study were 133 schoolcounselors (male 14.3%, female 85.7%) and their average counseling experience was two years and threemonths and their average age was 42.5. The results supported the hypothesis and proved a partial doublemediation effect of mindfulness and self-regulation. Implications, limitations and suggestions of the findingswere discussed.
The hierarchy in classrooms and the participant roles in bullying are suggested to be the importantpredictors of school bullying. With the hypothesis that student's authoritarian personality would have animportant bearing in bullying, which occurs from the formation of in-class ranks and the differentiation ofparticipant roles, the current study investigated the effects of authoritarian personality on differentparticipant roles in bullying situations (bully, follower, victim, outsider, and defender) with regard toin-class popularity. 559 first-grade co-ed middle school students in Seoul and Gyeonggi Provinceparticipated. Bullying, following, and ignoring were positively correlated to each other, and both bullyingand following showed positive correlations to being-victimized. Also, bullying, following, ignoring, andbeing-victimized were positively correlated with authoritarian personality while ignoring andbeing-victimized were negatively correlated with popularity. In regression analyses, authoritarian personalitywas found to be an important factor in predicting pro-bullying behaviors such as bullying and following,showing that authoritarian students took the leading roles in bullying. Ignoring and being-victimizedoccurred more with high authoritarian personality and low popularity. However, neither of them weresuitable for explaining defending behavior. Indicating the authoritarian aspect of school bullying, theresults showed the effects of authoritarian personality and popularity in accordance with each of theparticipant roles in school bullying.
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of middle-aged female teachers by finding outwhat their job-related stress was and examining on their life. Interviews were conducted three times to sixfemale teachers who were middle-aged and have worked at middle school or high school for more than20 years. The interview data were analysed and interpreted based on the phenomenological researchmethod introduced by Giorgi. From a thorough investigation on the participants’ experiences, 114meaning units were derived. Based on them 24 sub-constituents and 9 constituents were constructed. Theresult showed that teaching and student guidance, fellow teachers and administrators, workload and theeducational system caused the job stress of middle-aged female teachers. The level of stress increases ordecreases according to rigid attitudes, responsibility and will to act. The experiences of stress can be anobstacle to get frustrated. However, the experiences of stress can be ultimately a good stepping stone tochange a life. A cause factor of work stress, a control factor and the result of the experiences areconsidered a phenomenon that is associated in a cyclical system. The essential meaning of the job stressexperienced by middle-aged female teachers can be described as growing and becoming mature after thepains and frustrations. Limitations to the current study and recommendations for future research arediscussed.
This study aimed to compare factors affecting inter- and intra-individual differences of resilience. Depression and anxiety, academic self-concept, coping strategies, and resilience were measured among 400middle school students in Seoul. The first analysis was to determine risk and protective factors affectingindividual differences on resilience. Independent variables of the first analysis were depression, anxiety,academic self-concept, and coping strategies, and dependent variable was resilience, all of which weremeasured at Time 1. The second analysis was to identify factors influencing intra-individual difference ofresilience, which is the change of resilience, using standardized residuals of resilience as dependent variable. In this analysis, independent variables were depression, anxiety, academic self-concept, and copingstrategies, all of which were measured at Time 1. Results of regression showed that risk and protectivefactors affecting inter- and intra-individual differences were different. When it comes to individualdifferences, academic self-concept, problem-focused coping positively influenced resilience, while depressionand wishful thinking coping negatively affected resilience. On the other hand, academic self-concept, anddepression influenced intra-individual difference of resilience positively and negatively, respectively. Resultsof this study indicated that different factors affect inter- and intra-individual differences of resilience. Implications and limitations of the current study were discussed.
This research examines gender difference in the relationship of Parent-Child Relationship, Informal Labeland Delinquency using the data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey(KYPS). More specifically, usingautoregressive cross-lagged modeling, this study analyzed the third, fourth and fifth wave data whichincluded 1,084 students with a delinquent history. The findings of this study were as follows. First,Parent-Child Relationship had negative relationship with Delinquency, and Informal Label had positiverelationship with Delinquency. Next, female students showed more Parental Attachment and ParentalMonitoring, but less delinquency behavior than male students did. Lastly, there were gender difference inrelationship among Parent-Child Relationship, Informal Label and Delinquency. That is, in case of femalestudents, Parent-Child Relationship and reputation influenced on Delinquency. On the other hand, malestudents’ delinquent behaviors had impact on Parent-Child Relationship and reputation. The findingssuggest that prevention and intervention of adolescent delinquency should be gender specific. Theimplications of results are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to identify the structural relationship among the level and stability of socialself-esteem, social achievement goals, aggression, and social anxiety of adolescents. This study also examinedwhether social achievement goals play significant roles in the mediation of the level and instability of socialself-esteem on aggression and social anxiety. The participants were 705 students(48.4% boys), first graders inhigh schools. Main results were as follows. First, the level of social self-esteem had positive effects on socialmastery goal and social performance-approach goal. Second, social mastery goal was negatively associated withproactive aggression, whereas social performance-approach goal was negatively associated with social anxiety. Social performance-avoidance goal was positively associated with proactive aggression, reactive aggression andsocial anxiety. Third, social mastery goal mediated the relation between social self-esteem level and proactiveaggression. The social performance-approach goal mediated the relation between social self-esteem level andsocial anxiety. More importantly, social self-esteem instability predicted proactive aggression, reactive aggressionand social anxiety indirectly through social performance-avoidance goal. These results suggested that highlyunstable social self-esteem raised a possibility to pursue social performance- avoidance goal, which, in turn,increased the involvement in proactive aggression, reactive aggression and social anxiety. The importance ofthe level and instability of social self-esteem as well as social achievement goal were discussed for the morecomprehensive understanding of aggression and social anxiety among adolescents.
This study explores the relation between calling and career decision making process. This study aims toexamine whether confirmation bias mediates the relationship between calling and career-related advicereceptivity and whether BAS and subjective grade moderate the relationship between calling andconfirmation bias. In this study, data were gathered from 218 amateur high school musicians in Busan,Korea. Our results indicated that (a) calling was positively correlated to, and also a significant predictor ofconfirmation bias and, (b) calling lowered career-related negative advice receptivity, and confirmation biaspartially mediated this relationship (c) both BAS and subjective grade moderated the relation betweencalling and confirmation bias. The authors discuss the findings in terms of the implications andlimitations.
The present study classified groups based on latent profile of self-determination motivation(amotivation,external motivation, intrinsic motivation), and examined the determinants for each group. The data wascollected through panel data of Korea Education Longitudinal Study(KELS), total 5,459 participants whoanswered questionnaires of self-determination motivation of two times both second grade of middle schooland second grade of high school. To identify the change motivational type, standardized residual wasconducted using SPSS 17.0., and the latent classes for the change of motivational type was investigatedusing M-Plus in the frame work of Latent Profile Analysis(LPA). The results indicated that fivegroups(increase of self-determination, self-determination maintenance, self-determination developmental delay,elf-determination confusion, decrease of self-determination group) were classified based on latent profile. Inaddition, parental control, academic self-concept, teacher-student relationship, test anxiety, avoidanceorientation, gender, father's education, and income were significantly related to each group. Lastly, theimplications for directions of the adolescent counseling, limitations and future research are discussed.
Since the emergence and development of online space, online communication becomes more popularamong adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine how attachment styles would predict changesin responsiveness experience in online space, which, in turn, affect the level of intimacy with close friends. A total of 650 adolescents (males 49.9%, females 50.1%) with an age range between 14 and 17completed a questionnaire three times in a 6-month interval. Latent growth modeling was used to test amodel in which changes in responsiveness experience would mediate the relationship between attachmentstyles and intimacy. Results supported the linear change model of responsiveness experience. Avoidantattachment was negatively associated with the initial level of responsiveness experience. Anxious attachmentwas positively related to the initial level of responsiveness experience, but negatively predicted the changesof perceived responsiveness. Finally, the implications, limitations, direction for future studies were discussed.
The negative effects of exposure to domestic violence on children’s development are well established in theliterature. However, not all of the children who have been exposed to domestic violence are maladjusted butsome are resilient in the face of such adversity. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderatingeffects of external and internal developmental assets on the relations between children’s exposure to domesticviolence and their interpersonal problems. Six-hundred eighty-three 5th- and 6th-graders (351 boys, 332girls) participated in this study. Data were collected through a questionnaire designed to measure theexposure to domestic violence, developmental assets, and interpersonal problems. Correlational analyses andthe structural equation modeling were conducted to test research hypotheses. The results of this study weresummarized as follows. First, the moderating effect of external developmental assets on the relations betweendomestic violence and interpersonal problems was not significant. However, external assets had a positivemain effect on interpersonal problems. That is, regardless of the level of domestic violence, externaldevelopmental assets functioned as assets in decreasing interpersonal problems. Second, the moderating effectof the internal developmental assets was significant. Therefore, the relations between children’s exposure todomestic violence and the level of interpersonal problems differed by the degree to which they have internaldevelopmental assets. Particularly, the moderating effect of internal developmental assets was stronger in thelow domestic violence exposure group than in the high domestic violence exposure group. These resultsimply that internal developmental assets work as protective factors to ease off the negative effects of the riskcalled domestic violence. Prevention and early intervention should be effective when provided before childrenare exposed to domestic violence or immediately after domestic violence exposure occurs. Finally, thelimitations of this study and suggestions for future research were discussed.
Character strengths and virtues are considered as important factors which may contribute to child andadolescent happiness. The present study examined the mediating effects of school adjustment on therelationship between character strengths and virtues, and happiness. The subjects were 393 elementaryschool children (199 boys, 194 girls) from grade 4 to 6 were participated in the study. The correlationanalysis revealed that character virtues were positively correlated with happiness and school adjustment. Then the mediating effects of school adjustment on the relationship between character strengths andvirtues, and happiness were examined using structural equation modeling. The result revealed that schooladjustment fully mediated the relationship. In conclusion, the present study showed that child andadolescent character strengths and virtues affect happiness indirectly through school adjustment. Accordingly, it is suggested the importance of school adjustment for child and adolescent happiness. Lastly, the implications and limitations of the present study were discussed.