As a tiered system of supports, School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) is an evidence-based practice in the educational system of Korea. An important aspect of SWPBS is the ongoing progress monitoring and evaluation of implementation fidelity. This study aimed to develop and validate the Korean Tier 3 School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Implementation Fidelity Checklist (KT3-FC). The preliminary KT3-FC consisted of a 37-item, 6-factor checklist. In the first phase of the study, 10 experts reported that the range of content validity of the KT3-FC was adequate. In the second phase of the study, 185 teachers (52 men and 133 women) who implemented SWPBS completed the KT3-FC, Individualized Supports Questionnaire, School Climate Questionnaire, School Discipline Practice Scale, and PBS Effectiveness Scale. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 5-factor structure, with 20 items, instead of 37 items, consisting of: (a) progress monitoring and evaluation of the individualized supports, (b) provision of supports by aligning and integrating mental health and SWPBS, (c) crisis management planning, (d) problem behavior assessment, and (e) establishment of individualized support team. The internal consistency of the KT3-FC was good (full scale α = .950, sub-factor α = .888 ~ .954). In addition, the KT3-FC showed good convergent validity, having statistically significant correlations with the Individualized Support Questionnaire, School Climate Questionnaire, School Discipline Practice Scale, and the PBS Effectiveness Scale. Finally, the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 5-factor model of the KT3-FC had some good model fits, indicating that the newly developed fidelity measure could be a reliable and valid tool to assess the implementation of Tier 3 supports in Korean schools. Accordingly, the KT3-FC could contribute to implement SWPBS as an evidence-based behavioral intervention for Korean students.
김영란, 박지연 (2014). 학교차원의 긍정적 행동지원이 특수학교 장애학생의 수업참여행동과 문제행동, 개별화교육목표 성취에미치는 영향. 특수교육학연구, 49(3), 1-28.
김영아 (2018). 유아 문제행동 지도를 위한 긍정적 행동지원 평가도구 개발. 미래유아교육학회지, 25(1), 159-182.
김우리 (2014). 학교차원의 긍정적 행동지원(SWPBS) 모형의 중요성과 학교 현장에서의 실행가능성에 대한 일반교사와 특수교사의 인식. 특수교육, 13(3), 119-145.
나현정, 장은진, 한미령, 조광순 (2018). 학급차원의 보편적 긍정적 행동지원이 초등학생들의 문제행동 감소와 학업수행 증진에미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 학교, 15(1), 91-109.
송원영, 장은진, 최가영, 최재광, 조광순, 원성두, 한미령 (2019). 초등학생 문제행동선별척도: 교사용(CPBS-E)의 개발과 타당화. 한국심리학회지: 학교, 16(3), 433-451.
임민경, 이지혜, 이한나, 김태동, 최기홍 (2013). 근거기반실천과 심리치료. 한국심리학회지:일반, 32(1), 251-270.
장은진 (2017). 초등학교 학급차원의 보편적긍정적 행동지원 모형개발. 사회과학연구, 28(1), 175-191.
장은진, 이미영, 정재우, 조광순, 이동형, 송원영, 한미령 (2018). 다층지원체계 중심의긍정적 행동지원에 관한 한국과 미국의실험연구 비교분석. 한국심리학회지: 학교, 15(3), 399-431.
정길순 (2011). 유아교육기관 차원의 긍정적 행동지원 평가 준거 개발. 공주대학교 대학원, 박사학위논문.
조성웅 (2011). 특성화고등학교 교사의 변화몰입과 교사효능감, 학교풍토 및 학교장 변혁적리더십의 인과적 관계. 서울대학교 대학원, 석사학위논문.
조은경, 조윤경 (2017). 3차원 긍정적 행동지원전략에 대한 보육교사와 특수교사의 중요도와 실행도 분석. 특수교육, 16(4), 63-87.
Anderson, C. M., Childs, K. E., Kincaid, D., Horner, R., George, H. P., Todd, A. W., Sampson, N. K., & Spaulding, S. A. (2009). Benchmarks for Advanced Tiers (BAT). Unpublished instrument. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon &University of South Florida
Anderson, C. M., Lewis-Palmer, T., Todd, A. W., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Sampson, N. K. (2011). Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool (ISSET). Eugene, OR: Educational and Community Supports. Available from http://www.pbis.org
APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (2006). Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology. American Psychologist, 61(4), 271-285.
Bambara, L. M., & Kern, L. (2005). Individualized supports for students with problem behaviors:Designing positive behavior plans. New York:Guilford Press.
Bear, G., Yang, C., Mantz, L., Pasipanodya, E., Hearn, S., & Boyer, D. (2014). Technical manual for Delaware School Survey: Scales of school climate, bullying victimization, student engagement, and positive, punitive, and social emotional learning techniques. Newark, DE:Funded by the Delaware Positive Behavior Support Project at the Center for Disability Studies at University of Delaware and Delaware Department of Education.
Bradshaw, C. P., Debnam, K., Koth, C. W., & Leaf, P. (2009). Preliminary validation of the implementation phases inventory for assessing fidelity of schoolwide positive behavior supports. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 145-160.
Chambless, D. L., & Hollon, S. D. (1998). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(1), 7-18.
Chambless, D. L., & Ollendick, T. H. (2001). Empirically supported psychological interventions: Controversies and evidence. Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 685-716.
Cohen, R., Kincaid, D., & Childs, K. E. (2007). Measuring school-wide positive behavior support implementation: Development and validation of the benchmarks of quality. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(4), 203-213.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics.
Horner, R. H., Dunlap, G., Koegel, R. L., Carr, E. G., Sailor, W., Anderson, J., . . . O’Neill, R. E. (1990). Toward a technology of “nonaversive” behavioral support. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 15(3), 125-132.
Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42(8). 1-14.
Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Todd, A. W., & Lewis-Palmer, T. (2000). Elements of behavior support plans: A technical brief. Exceptionality, 8(3), 205-215.
Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T., Irvin, L. K., Sugai, G., & Boland, J. B. (2004). The school-wide evaluation tool (SET)a research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), 3-12.
Irvin, L. K., Horner, R. H., Ingram, K., Todd, A. W., Sugai, G., Sampson, N. K., & Boland, J. B. (2006). Using office discipline referral data for decision making about student behavior in elementary and middle schools: An empirical evaluation of validity. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(1), 10-23.
Johnson, B., Stevens, J. J., & Zvoch, K. (2007). Teachers’ perceptions of school climate: A validity study of scores from the Revised School Level Environment Questionnaire. Educational and psychological measurement, 67(5), 833-844.
Kazdin, A. E. (2008). Evidence-based treatment and practice: new opportunities to bridge clinical research and practice, enhance the knowledge base, and improve patient care. American Psychologist, 63(3), 146-159.
Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity 1. Personnel psychology, 28(4), 563-575.
Stormont, M., Lewis, T. J., Beckner, R., & Johnson, N. W. (2007). Implementing positive behavior support systems in early childhood and elementary settings. 노진아, 김연하 (2012)<프로그램․ 학교 차원의 긍정적 행동지원 시스템을 실행하기>. 서울: 시그마프레스.
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2006). A promising approach for expanding and sustaining school-wide positive behavior support. School Psychology Review, 35(2), 245-259.
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2010). School-wide positive behavior support: Establishing a continuum of evidence-based practices. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 11(1), 62-83.
Turnbull, A., Edmonson, H., Griggs, P., Wickham, D., Sailor, W., Freeman, R., . . . Park, J. (2002). A blueprint for schoolwide positive behavior support: Implementation of three components. Exceptional Children, 68(3), 377-402.