A comparison was made between the MMPI standard form and the MMPI-168 short form in terms of psychometric qualities in order to confirm the ability of the latter to screen normals from psychiatric cases. Subjects were 300 normals and 298 psychiatric patients of both sexes aged from 13 to 65. Concurrent validity and differences of means and standard deviations of each validity and clinical scales between the two forms of MMPI suggested that there is no significant difference between the two. Discriminant and classification analysis through double cross-validation confirmed than there is no more than 1% difference in the accuracy of classification between the two forms. Therefore, the MMPI-168 short form is found to effectively screen, at least, normals from psychiatric cases instead of the standard MMPI of 566 items.
The present study attempted to detect the faking-good response set effectively on the MMPI in social situations such as applying for a job and counseling, At intervals of one week, 105 male and 104 female college students took the MMPI under the standard instruction(ST), and again under the faking good instruction(FG), College male MMPI records were compared with 129 male MMPI records(J) which were gathered from the public official job entrance examination. In the present study, ten indices were used to detect the faking good response set on the MMPI. These were : L raw score ; K raw score ; F-K raw score ; L+K raw score ; Wiener's(1948) obvious items(WO) ; Wiener's(1948) subtle items (WS) ; Wiener's(1998) O-S score (WO-WS) ; Park, Yi, Ahn, and Kim's(1991) obvious items (MO) ; Park, et al.'s(1991) subtle items (MS) ; Park, et al.'s(1991) O-S score (MO-MS), The MMPI profiles of J and FG were obviously different from that of ST, the profile of J was similar to that of FG. In the MMPI profile of FG, L ways higher than 70, F was lower than 40, K was higher than 60, and scale 5(Mf) and scale 9(Ma) were higher than any other scale, scale 0(Si) was lower than any other scale. In discriminating ST and FG for each faking good detection index, the optimum cutting scores which had the highest hit rates were acquired. As a result, except for WS and MS, all detection indices were expected to detect effectively the faking good response set on the MMPI. Compared to Wiener's subtle-obvious scale for the effectiveness of the faking good detection, Park, et al.'s(1991) subtle-obvious scale showed little difference. Contrary to WS and MS, WO and MO were considered to be valuable as the faking good detection indices.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory has been one of the most powerful diagnostic toot in psychological assessment, This study investigated how well MMPI discriminated the depressive patients and what profile pattern this group showed. MMPI was administered to 118 depressive patients. So it was founded 2-1-3-7 profile by total mean of T score of each MMPI scale. Three subgroups were formed as a result of multivariate cluster analysis of T scores each. The first subgroup(52%) showed a profile 2-1-3, the second subgroup(36%) 3-2-1, and the third subgroup(12%) 2-1-8-7. This findings suggest MMPI has a remarkable discriminating power in depressive group, in addition, Korean compared to western norm concerns about somatic symptoms.
The purpose of this research was to empirically reexamine the diagnostic discrimination power and clinical applicability of the Sc scale of the MMPI in Korean culture. In order to improve sensitivity and practicallity of the items of the Sc scale, an attempt was made to construct a new scale on the bases of item response rate obtained from comparing criterion group with norm group. It was found that mean difference of raw score on the modified Sc scale named MSc scale which was composed of 60 items was statistically significant between normal and schizophrenia group, which should better results compared with that from the existing Sc scale. Discriminant analysis and cross validation study also proved that MSc scale is better than Sc scale in discriminating schizophrenia from normal group. These results suggest that MSc scale could be better adopted for the purpose of identifying schizophrenia group at least in the present korean culture. It is recommended that further empirical researches be done in order that the newly developed MSc scale ca be used safely in clinical settings.
The study newly investigated the psychometric characteristics of the MMPI scales for DSM-III-R personality disorders(MPDS) which was developed using a combined empirical/rational strategy, and analyzed the factor structure of these scales to examine the construct validity. The result showed the high internal consistency and the constant psychometric characteristics of MPDS in a psychiatric patient population as well as in a normal population. It is suggested that the probability of these scales for personality disorder diagnosis be favourable. The similarity between the factor structure of the MWB scales and these scales comfirmed the construct validity of these scales. Also, the fact that these scales shared many factors with 16PF suggested the usefulness of these scales as scales for normal personality types.
This study aimed at testing the validity of the Korean Presonality Factor Test(KPFT) standardized in Korea, which was not satisfactorily done by the time of its standardizing to help clinicians use it better in their assessment work. The Tests used in examining the constructvalidity in this study are MMPI, Ehwa Defense Mechanism Test and Stress Report Inventory. It has been turned out that in most of the scales of the KPFT the results shown in this study corresponded to those of the standardization study or those of other antecedent researches The correlations of the scales of the KPFT with MMPI came out mostly in expected direction and the correlation study with the Ehwa Defense Mechanism Test helped understanding the dynamic aspects of the scales of KPFT. The use of the Stress Reporting Test which included ratings by a psychiatrist and a psychologist enabled this study to avoid problems that arise often in the studies using only self reporting inventories Discriminance analysis using scales of KPFT classified 54.8% of schizophrenics, 53.1% of mood disorder psychoses, 34.6% of neurotics and 53.2% of normals correctly.
This study investigated the reliability and validity of three widely used self-report depression measures : the Beck Depression Inventory, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and the MMPI Depression Scale. Each inventory was administered to 39 outpatients diagnosed dysthymia or major depression and 51 normal adults. And the BDI was administered to 159 university students and 256 community-bank clerk trainees. The three inventories were found to have high internal consistency, and the item-total correlation coefficients of BDI and SDS fall within acceptable range, but many of those of MMPI-D scale were low. The 2-week interval test-retest reliability coefficient of BDI was reasonably high in university student sample. The means of three measures of outpatient-group were significantly higher than those of normal adults, and all correlations between the measures were significant and respectably high. Most items of BDI and SDS showed good validity index. These findings suggest that the BDI and SDS are reliable and valid measure of depression. Three factors in university sample and four factors in trainee sample were abstracted from the BDI by factor analysis. We discussed the cutoff scores for diagnosis and screening, and the need for multiple assessment measures.
This study attempted to explore the relation between self-concept and mental health. To begin with, tools to measure the concepts ware performed and subfactors from each tools were extracted through factor analysis. These extracted factors were regarded as newly-made variables and CCA (canonical Correlation analysis) was performed regarding the sub-factors of self-concept as predictor variables and those of psychopathological symptoms as criterion variables. CCA result between subfactors of self-concept and those of psyhcopathological symptoms was summerized. First, persons who perceived themselves to show the lackness in social ability and problem solving were related with social anxiety, depression, and psycosomatic symptoms. Second, Persons who perceived themselves to have poor health and dissatisfaction of family life were related with psychosomatic symptoms. Third, persons who were social but didn't meet the expectation of their families, couldn't control their mind, and had difficulty in problem solving were related with depression, insomnia, and nervousness. Fourth, persons who perceived themselves to speak vulgarly and have dissatiafaction of family life were related with impulse and guilty.
Present research aimed to investigate a linkage of criminality and personality traits. For the purpose, this research was to find out the differences between confirmed criminals and normals on psychoticism, extraversion, impulsivity and sensation seeking. Subjects were 62 recidivists(whose crimes concerned violence and property) being in imprisonment as a criminal group and 30 normals as a control group. All subjects were asked to complete the Korean version Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ), Barratt impulsivity Scale(BIS) and Sensation Seeking Scale-V(SSS-V). Results were as fallow: a) Criminal group was scored significantly higher than contort group on psychoticism(P) and impulsivity on motor activity(Im), while control group was scored significantly higher than criminal group on boredom susceptibility(BS). And there was no difference between two groups on extraversion(E). b) On the analysis of correlation between various subscale(P, E, N, L, Ip, Im, Ic, TAS, ES, Dis, BS) score, it was clear that most of all the measures intercorrelated significantly in criminal group, while no intercorrelations were found among 3 tests in control group.
An attempt, based on a control theory, was made to develop a life stress scale for college students. Items used in the scale were selected from a variety of sources, including references on life stress in both English and Korean. In addition, some items were selected from a preliminary survey on life stress and coping, using an open questionnaire. In devising the scale, special attention was made to incorporate elements of both the objective approach (Dohrenwend & Shrout, 1985) and the subjective approach (Lazarus et al., 1985). More specifically, scale items were objectively described (Zautra et al., 1986) reflecting the objective approach, while scale items were also rated on the importance of the events reflecting the subjective approach. Furthermore, ratings on controllability over life stress were also made, based on a control theoretical perspective. Participants were 192 (Study 1) and 263 (Study 2) college students. Scales used in the studies were the life stress scale developed here and the Korean version of SCL-90-R (1984). Results revealed that (1) reliability and validity of the life stress scale were shown to be satisfactory, suggesting the utility of the present life stress scale, and that (2) as predicted from a control theory perspective, the impact of life stress on SCL-90-R was proportional to ① the importance of life events and ② the frequency of life events, while inversely proportional to ③ controllability of life events. Furthermore, when combined the multiple ratings on frequency, importance and controllability, the effects of life stress on psychological and physical distress were significantly increased in terms of explanatory power. Finally, implications for future study are discussed in the light of the present results.
This study was attempted to identify MMPI subscals which significantly discriminate between the chronic schizophrenics and the normal on the basis of MMPI scores. Also, it was designed to classify the types of MMPI profiles in the chronic schizophrenics. Subjects were 134 college students and 134 chronic schizophrenics who were inpatient or outpatient in Seoul National Mental Hospital during the period from Sep. 1989 to Mar. 1991. In the MMPI subscales, execpt L, K, and Si scale, chronic schizophrenic group had significantly higher score than the normal group. It was F, Sc, Pa, and Pt that well discriminate these two groups. Three subgroups were extracted from the chronic schizophrenics by cluster analysis of MMPI. The first group showed a typical psychotic profile in which T scores of L, F, and K scale belonged to above 70, configured a reverted "V" pattern, and T scores of Sc, Pt scale belonged to the range of 65 to 75 point. The number of case classified into this subgroup was 44 subjects (32.8%). The second subgroup showed a neurotic and psychotic profile which had L, F, and K scale with normal range of 55 to 59 T score and Hs, D, Pd, Pt, and Sc scale with range of 60 to 64 T score. The number of 45 subjects belonged to this subgroup(33.6%). The third subgroup showed a normal profile which had T scores of all validity and clinical scales that belonged to the range of 40 to 60 point. The number of 45 subjects belonged to this subgroup(33.6%). Among the chronic schizophrenics the percentage of cases had above of 60 point have diagnostic meaning. Finally the factors considered in administration and interpretation of MMPI were discussed.
The present study was designed to investigate the characteristics of memory process and memory performances in schizophrenia. In experiment 1, the words based on their semantic relatedness were administered to a schizophrenic group(SCH), nonschizophrenic group(non-SCH) and normal controls. And then, analyses were done on scores of free recall task, recognition task, and scores of memory clustering from their free recall task. Further analyses were done on memory strategies in three group. In Experiment 2, it was further hypothesized that if the differential memory deficit of schizophrenics were due to organization difficulties at an encoding stage, giving instructions on memory organization should enhance free recall, recognition, and memory clustering on free recall tasks. The major findings of the present study were as follow ; the scores on free recall task by SCH were significantly lower than those of non-SCH and of normal controls, also the later two groups were comparable. And there was no explicit differnce in recognition scores among three groups. Scores on memory clustering by SCH were significantly lower than normal controls. In fact, schizophrenic's memory deficits were due to organization difficulties and the problem in mnemonic strategies at an encoding stage. Instructions on memory organization could facilitate the free recall scores and memory clustering scores. More specifically, SCH given an instruction beforehand performed much better than those that did not. Normals did not show any effect of instruction on free recall scores, which might be considered to be due to a ceiling effect. Finally, there was no effect of instruction on recognition task.
The present study was conducted to investigate positive and negative schizophrenia's cognitive process on prose memory and mental process of comprehension. For schizophrenic patients positive symptoms were related to loss of cognitive processing control, whereas negative symptoms were associated with lowed processing capacity(restriction), two clinical symptoms reflect independent cognitive process. The hypothesis applyied to positive and negative schzophrenia's language disorder. The simple prose were employed in this study. Schizophrenia subject were classified using Andreasen and Olsen's criteria for positive negative and mixed type. Three experiment were conducted with employing various different tasks, In experiment I, a free recall task was given and the amount of free recall analyed. The results did not show significant difference between positive and negative symptom group. This two groups reflect causal recall system deficit. In experiment II, normal, positive and negative schizophrenic subjects were given a question-answering task, with four different questions for positive symptom group severe delayed question-answering latency on implicit no condition than explict yes condition. This result shows a loss of cognitive processing control in positive schzophrenia. In experiment III, a task of free generation of inference was given two analyzing criteria was adapted for protocol analysis. The result of the experiment showed that backward inference was less frequent with positive symptom group than negative symptom group. For forward inference, two groups less frequence than normal subject. The results explained that two group showed manifestation of restriction in cognitive processing. And positive symptom group reflect controlled processing deficit. The implication of the results of the three experiments were to be drawn. The indepent processing of the positive symptom and negative symptom groups was not shown to exist. But Positive symptom group's abnormally functioning cognitive processes conformed.
This study is to provide tentative Korean adult norms of Rorschach responses based on Exner's Comprehensive System. The means and SDs of 70 variables, and the frequencies and percentages concerning directionality for 17 structural variables provided by Exner were calculated from 278 cases of over-18 years old normal adults, and compared with Exner's American adult norms. The results indicated as follows : First, Korean showed smaller number of R, P, Content Category, pure H, all H, Zf, and greater A than did American adults. Second, Korean showed relatively greater W, and W : D=1 : 1. Third, in Form Quality, which was scored according to Exner's Form Quality Tables, the percentage of good Form Quality was very low and those of poor Form Quality was very high. Fourth, Korean showed less M and greater FM, and the directionality of M and FM was M<FM. Fifth. Korean showed Iess FC, CF+C, and Wgt Sum C, and the directionality of FC and CF+C was FC<CF+C. In Shading responses, Korean showed less Sum C' and Sum T. and greater Sum V and Sum Y. Sixth, over half of Korean was Zd<-3.0. Seventh, Korean showed low Egocentricity Index and over half of Korean was under 0.30 in Egocentricity Index. Finally, cultural differences between Korean and American were discussed. Form Quality Tables. Popular Reponses, and Location area must be investigated based on Korean samples.
The present research was conducted to investigate sustained attention of ADHD children using vigilance tasks, 50 boys(25 ADHD boys and 25 normal boys) between the ages of 5 years 4 months and 12 years 5 months were given three types of Continuous Performance Test(CPT)-Korean letter CPT, Card CPT, Degraded Digit CPT-under feedback and no feedback condition. The performance of ADHD group and normal group was compared on the two parameters derived through signal detection analysis-d', for perceptual sensitivity and for decision criterion cutoff. The effects of positive feedback were also evaluated. The results indicated that ADHD children showed lower perceptual sensitivity suggesting that attention deficit of ADHD is related to deficit in perceptual sensitivity at the early stage of information processing. Although there was no group difference in the decision criterion cutoff, ADHD children showed more anticipatory responses than normal children, which indicates a deficit in the inhibitory control mechanism. Under the positive feedback condition, both groups of children obtained more hits, made fewer errors, and showed higher perceptual sensitivity than under the no feedback condition, indicating positive feedback was beneficial for both normal and ADHD boys. Further studies using a variety of CPT tasks with varying task difficulty will be necessary to clarify inconsistent results reported in the literature and also to develop a task most sensitive to subtle attentional deficits of ADHD.
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether interpersonal problem solving skill training(IPSS) would enhance interpersonal problem solving skills and behavioral adjustment of preschool children. Children between the ages of 5 to 6 received 7 weeks of IPSS training with a total of 35 sessions in all. The IPSS program used in the study was adapted from of Shure and Spivak's(1976) ICPS(Interpersonal Cognitive Problem Solving) program. On the basis of assumption that children who are able to generate more alternative solution and who were more better able to predicted consequences of their actions would be better adjusted in real life situations, the training program attempted to train children to think up more alternative solutions and to better predict the consequences. One calls consisting of 15 boys and 10 girls were given IPSS training over 7 weeks. Another class consisting of 15 boys and 10 girls from the same preschool was included in the study as a control group and were given free play for the same amount of time as the training group. Both groups of children were assessed before and after the training on the number of alternative solutions solutions and the number of consequences predicted, their behaviors were also assessed by parents(Child behavior checklist) and their teachers(Hahneman Preschool Behavior Rating Scale). Results showed a significant improvement alternative thinking and consequence thinking in the experimental group compared with the control group. However, behavioral rating by the parent and the teacher yielded no significant differences between the groups indicating that the significant improvement of IPSS did not lead to a noticeable improvement in behavioral adjustment. The results were discussed in terms of their implications for the development of a more effective primary prevention program for young children.
This is a study on the effect of self-focused attention on anxiety. Subjects in this study consisted of 22 patients who were receiving treatment in two university hospitals and one private psychiatric clinic under the diagnosis of panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder : 26 university students with high anxiety level, and 24 university students with low anxiety level. In order to show the effect of self-focused attention on the cognitive aspect of anxiety, the effect of self-focused attention on the cognitive failure was investigated as a preliminary measure. Results revealed that the cognitive failure during the state of anxiety was more closely related to self-attention than anxiety itself. Then the effect of self-attention to the selective attention of the highly anxious group was studied. The modified Stroop test was used to evaluate the patterns of selective attention which were measured by reaction time and the number of errors in each experimental condition The experimental conditions consisted of four types: (i) words of physical threats (ii) words of social threats (ⅲ) neutral words and (iv) positive words. Because of the age difference between the patient groups and student groups and the correlation between age and dependent variables, covariance analysis was conducted as a statistical procedure in which the age was the covariate variable. Results show that the selective attention of the highly anxious group is not confined to negative words but to all the self-related words regardless of its content. In other words, it seems that the self-focused attention of the highly anxious person activates the negative cognition in memory and it acts as a mediating variable in information processing.
중년 여성을 대상으로 신경증집단과 정상집단의 성 역할을 비교해보았다. Bem의 체계에 따라 남성형, 여성형, 양성공존형, 미분화형으로 나누었다. 결과는 정상집단이 신경증집단에 비해 양성적인 사람들의 수가 많았으며, 신경증집단은 양성이 모두 낮은 미분화형의 사람들이 많았다. 한편 실제 자기의 성 역할과 이상적 역할을 비교해 본 바 신경증집단이 정상집단보다 남성성에서 큰 차이를 보였다. 즉 신경증집단이 정상집단 보다 남성적인 특성을 갖기를 원하는 정도가 큰 것으로 나타났다.
In this study, the cognitive aspects of depressive and anxious group which are very similar but distinctive, were compared. Especially, among many cognitive aspects, irrational beliefs and attributional style were studied. Such study will be helpful to understand the features of depression and anxiety, and also, to find the discriminative therapy. To start with, the reliability and factorial validity of Irrational Beliefs Test and Attributional Style Questionnaire were examined in the preliminary study. In study 1, correlation and multiple regression analysis were executed for 260 college students, and One-way ANOVA and discriminant analysis were executed for 104 students. In study 2, the results from study 1 were cross-validated with new samples. The results were as follows. In irrational beliefs, the common features of depression and anxiety were 'anxious over-concern' and 'helplessness over the past'. The irrational belief which could discriminate between depressive and anxious group was 'high self-expectation', which was specific to anxious group. With regard to attributions, depressive group and anxious group made more unstable attributions far positive events, and more stable, unchangeable, and uncontrollable attributions for negative events than control group. Such dysfunctional attributional style appeared in depressive group and anxious group commonly, but when the situations were specified, the latter made more dysfunctional attribution than the former in the negative achievement situations. This result shows that anxious group is very sensitive to achievement, which is similar to the fact that anxious group shows 'high self-expectation' and 'high desire for achievement' in irrational beliefs. The implications of this study to cognitive therapy, the limitations of this, and the direction of further research were discussed.
The Present study examined the effect of depression and impulsivity on adolescent suicidal behavior. The results showed that impulsivity was not significant in predicting suicidal ideation and mostly depression was correlated with suicidal ideation, while suicidal ideation interact with impulsivity to have an effect on suicidal attempt. The more adolescents have suicidal ideations, the more suicidal attempts increase even after impulsivity was statistically controlled. These results suggest the necessity of emotional support and impulse control training for depressed adolescents to prevent suicidal behavior.
An investigation of the relation between perceived stress and suicidal ideation of high school students led to two major conclusions. Stress experienced by younger or cognitively immature adolescents could influence suicidal ideation without cognitive processing of the information about the source and the controllability of stress. On the other hand, older or cognitively mature adolescents may try to understand the nature of stress, and if the understanding is unfavorable, the stress may increase suicidal ideation. The second conclusion is that suicidal ideation of Korean high school students may be associated mostly with interpersonal problems involving parents, teachers, and opposite-sex peers. Academic difficulties and dissatisfaction with own physical appearance may greatly contribute to those interpersonal problems. Implications of these findings for the prevention of adolescent suicide were discussed.
The present study was designed to test the effects of cognitive-behavioral treatment on personal construct and depression in a depression group. The cognitive-behavioral treatment program used in this study was based on Beck`s method. Among volunteers of this program, 21 college students who had a high level of depression were selected and assigned randomly into two groups : the experimental group(cognitive-behavioral treatment)and the waiting-list control group. The period of cognitive-behavioral treatment in the experimental group was 10 sessions, 2 sessions a week. But 16 subjects, 8 in each group, were analyzed at the final analysis. Depression level, self-esteem and social perception level of personal constructs in the two groups were not significant differences before treatment. The depression level of the cognitive-behavioral treatment group was significantly lower than the waiting-list control group after treatment. The self-esteem and social perception level of personal constructs in the cognitive-behavioral treatment group were also significantly higher than the waiting-list control group after treatment. These results showed that the depression level was alleviated as a result of the effects of cognitive-behavioral treatment on personal constructs. Also, the follow-up study, after one month, revealed continuous treatment effects in the experimental group. Finally, implications, restrictions and suggestions of the present study were discussed.
The present study examined the differences of the object and its content of the focused attention of three different depressive group such as the nondepressed, the subclinical and the clinical depressed group, if any. These 3 groups were operationally made based on the score of Beck`s Depression Inventory (BDI). Each group had equal number of 20 subjects. To meaure the focused attention, Self-focus Sentence Completion Scale(SFSC) was administered. Responses on the SFSC, which meaured the focused attention, were classified into 4 categories such as the self-focused, the external focused, the ambivalent and the neutral in terms of the objects focused. The focused attention was again classified into 3 categories such as the positive, the negative and the neutral, from different perspective of the content of the attention focused object. One-way ANOVA was applied to treat the data. The result objected that the depressed group were found to be more self-focused than the nondepresed group. And the content of the focused attention of the nondepresed group tend to be more positive but the clinical depressed group showed more negative content, The content of the external-focused attention between the nondepressed group and the depressed was not statisticantly different.
Two control experiments based on the theory of signal detectability were conducted in an effort to determine whether the illusion of control among nondepressed individuals and depressive realism among depressed individuals are phenomena occurring in the perceptual level or the judgmental level. The results were not clear for the subjects who appeared to be severely depressed on BDI. However, for those who appeared to be nondepressed or mildly depressed on BDI, the degree of depression was negatively related with d' but not at all with β. Moreover, the difference in d' between the mildly depressed and the nondepressed subjects was due to the fact that the mildly depressed subjects committed a larger number of judgmental errors than did the nondepressed subjects in the situations where the task was actually controllable. In other words, the difference in d' between the mildly depressed and nondepressed subjects was resulted from the difference in hit rate between the two groups. The two groups did not differ from each other in false alarm rate. This result casts some doubt to the existence of the phenomena so called "illusion of control" and "depressive realism". Individual differences in attentiveness to and interest in control tasks were discussed as possible explanations for the negative relation between BDI score and d'.