The purpose of the study is to develop and validate a Happiness Scale for the Korean college students in indigenous psychological perspective. Based on the previously developed empirical evidence and FGI, 102 preliminary items are yield. The data of 565 students were used for conducting an exploring factor analysis. In result, the 23 items scale consist of six-factor of a Happiness subscale(4 items of majority satisfaction, orientation for appearance, sociability, family relationship, orientation for Achievement and 3 items of opposite-sex relationship). For the final scale, an confirmatory factor analysis were conducted from the data of 378 students. A result revealed that the six- factor structure of a Happiness Scale was appropriate to represent the happy structure of Korean college students. The internal consistency of each factor was reasonably high ranging from .86 to .68. Implications for counselling practice and future research were suggested.
This study explored the helpful aspect and dissatisfied aspect in school counseling perceived by the middle school student client' and compared these with the school counselor's conjectures using the concept-mapping method. A total of 21 middle school student clients and 10 school counselors were interviewed on the helpful and dissatisfied aspects of ongoing school counseling service (5-15 session). The key sentences from the interviews were extracted, sorted and rated by themselves. Multidimensional Scaling and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis method were used in order to identify dimensions and clusters of their experiences. The cognitive characteristics of middle school student clients' and school counselors' perceptions were explored, and their similarities and differences were discussed. This study is meaningful as it explores the helpful aspect and dissatisfied aspect of school counseling through the middle school student client’s point of view. The helpful aspect will enhance the impact of school counseling by strengthening the level of services to be provided, and the dissatisfied aspect analysis will highlight the area of reforms and improvements in order to establish a strong base on school counseling. In addition, the suggestions on methods to practice the result of school counseling were discussed, and the limitations of this study and implications for future study were suggested.
The purpose of this research was to verify the effect of study skills training program and special supplementary learning program on improvement of underachievers' learning ability. In order to accomplish this purpose, first, the Study Skill Training Program and Special Supplementary Learning Program is reconstructed to fit for level of underachievers in middle school students. The samples of this research are two specific classes of third grade middle school students in H middles school of Incheon city. This students consisted lower 20% group in term test, especially below 60 points in Korean Language, English, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies. Each class where contains 10 students were identified as a sample of an experimental group and a controllable group. Belonged to experimental group, eleven 60 minutes sessions of study skills training program and special supplementary learning program were performed twice a week whereas session were not provide for control group. Collected data from the test was statistically analyzed by ANCOVA of SPSS 15.0. As a result, in terms of the experimental group who participated in sessions, the level of study habit and self-directed learning ability were significantly increased than control group who was not provided for sessions. The result imply that both study skills training program and special supplementary learning program are significantly effective to improve underachievers' study habit and self-directed learning ability.
In this study, we developed a program in which various evidence based reading skills and strategies are applied to game activities for the children with reading difficulties. In study 1, twelve children selected from elementary classrooms and an after school study group, who have decoding skills but difficulties in understanding texts participated as an experimental and a control group. In study 2, twelve children with reading difficulties selected from an after school study group and assigned to two groups: a high IQ and a low IQ group, participated in the game reading program. Reading skills and strategies transformed into game acitivities are: repetition, reading with pause, making image, predicting the next story, question making, story mapping, analysis of grammatical constituents, and understanding themes. To sum up the results of the study 1 and study 2, the game reading program increased the children's attention span and reading capabilities.
The present study was conducted to examine the reliability and validity of the Korean Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale for Children(DAS-C), which was developed to measure cognitive vulnerability of depression in childhood. Participants of the study were 763 children in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grade at 2 elementary schools in D City. Results showed that the Korean DAS-C is consisted of 2 factors: Self-Critical Perfectionism(SCP) and Personal Standards Perfectionism(PSP). Results also indicated that the Korean DAS-C and its subscales were significantly correlated with such variables as stress, depression, and anxiety. Internal consistency of the Korean DAS-C was found to be adequate, and the test-retest reliability(.79) indicated temporal stability of the scale. The current study explored whether the Korean DAS-C scores differed depending on children's gender, grade, and depression level. Results showed that 6th graders received a higher score on SCP than 4th graders. In addition, children in the depressed group showed higher scores on all DAS-C subscales, especially on the SCP, compared to those in the nondepressed group.
The purpose of the present study is to verify the validity of Ego State Scale through analyzing the correlation between Ego State Scale and Lim's Character Style Inventory (LCSI) Personality Test. For this purpose a survey was conducted for 1,073 students attending middle and high schools in Busan metropolitan city. The results of this study are as follows. First, five factors of ego state which consists of CP, NP, A, FC, and AC showed difference in average between boy and girl students as well as middle and high school students. But there was no difference between students attending general and technical high school. Girl students showed high average in NP and FC in comparison with A, AC and CP, which appear 'M' in ego gram. Second, CP showed high positive co CP showed h with challenge, no CP showed h with sociability and prudence, and negative co CP shoed h with acceptability and stability. According to these results, most students in middle and high school catagorized into M type with high FC and NP. Therefore, they are thought to be emotional, sensible, and warm-harted but insufficient of logical thinking. In conclusion, the correlation between Ego State Scale and LCSI Personality Test indicates high validity of Ego State Scale. In addition, the limitations of the study and possible follow-up projects are proposed in the conclusion section.
The purpose of this study was to analyse differences in frontal lobe executive function of delinquency juveniles. In order to find out fundamental factors of the delinquency, this study divided the group into Adolescence- Limited and Life-Course-Persistent Delinquency juveniles with the use of delinquent classification scale. Then, this study was executed by three main neuro-psychological assessment scales(Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Tower of Hanoi, go-no-go and the like) to compare the differences of the executive function between sub-domain groups. The participants are normal juvenile group(n=28), Adolescence-Limited Delinquency juveniles(n=23), and Life-Course-Persistent Delinquency juveniles(n=27). The Results indicate that first, in the course of using WCST(Wisconsin Card Sorting Test), there were significant differences in cognitive flexibility between normal juveniles and Adolescence-Limited and Life-Course-Persistent Delinquency juveniles. Second, there were differences between normal and delinquent juveniles on the Tower of Hanoi Test which is assessed the planning and organizing ability, but no outstanding differences between the sub-domain delinquent groups at the first operation except the concept of the planning time. Third, through the Stroop Task, the study was also able to focus on differences of self-control and inhibition between Adolescence-Limited and Life-Course-Persistent Delinquency juveniles. These result suggested that by indicating the hypothesis about the defect of the executive function of the delinquent juveniles and shedding light on the differences between sub-group of them, it is possible to hypothesize that there was defect or developmental immaturity on the frontal lobe of the delinquent juveniles. This study is important in that it is proved that there was neurological defect only in Life-Course-Persistent Delinquency juveniles with the neuro-psychological assessment scales. Moreover, the more effective measures for the proper guidance and education can be put into effect by reasoning the causes of juvenile delinquency.
The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a scale for measuring children's reactions to peer bullying. The children's reactions scale to bullying(CRSB) consisted of 16 pictures and episodes, each of which described direct or relational bullying situations. Children were asked what they would do if they witnessed peer bullying situations and forced to choose one of four response options for each episode. Four subscale scores were computed by summing the number of each response, retaliating on perpetrators, advocating bullies, watching bullying and doing noting(bystanding), or helping victims. The CRSB and a series of questionnaires were administered to a sample of 266 grade 6 elementary school students to establish its psychometric properties. The results suggested that 4 subscales had good internal consistencies(Cronbach's alpha = .71～.86). Correlation and factor analysis were used to investigate construct validity. There were significant correlations between advocating behavior and bullying experience(r=.36, p<.01), bystanding behavior and prosocial behavior(r=-.30, p<.01), and helping behavior and prosocial behavior(r=.34, p<.01), and bullying experience(r=-.27, p<.01). A three-factor solution emerged, consisting of a bystanding/helping, retaliating, and advocating behavior factor. These factors accounted for 36.5%(bystanding), 24.30%(retaliating), and 21.07%(advocating) of the variance on the CRSB, respectively. When children were categorized as ‘bullies’, ‘bully/victims’, ‘pure victims’ or ‘not involved’ on the basis of Social Experience Questionnaire, bullies were less likely to help the victims and more likely to advocate the perpetrators than other children. Limitations of the current study and implications for future research were discussed.
This study aimed to analyze the effects of factors on school achievement and self-directedness of middle school students using a path model. In particular, it examined the hypothesis that the mother’s social support functions as a mediator between the temperament of adolescents and their school achievement and self-directedness development. We tried to seek and analyze factors affecting the social support provided by mothers. To achieve the research goals, a total of 116 middle school students (male=57, female=59) and their mothers were assessed through the TCI (the Temperament and Character Inventory), the Junior-TCI, Questionnaire on Parental Social Support, and a questionnaire about school records. As a result, we determined that the mother’s social support was influenced only by the financial status among a total of 20 variables concerning the mothers’ and children’s personal and demographic information. Under variables related to the mothers’ social support, the informational support was especially related to the adolescent’s school achievement and self-directedness. In the analysis of the path model, the family’s financial status had a significant yet indirectly positive effect on the adolescent’s school achievement and a simultaneous indirect, negative effect on their self-directedness through the mother’s informational support mediator. However, there was no mediating effect of a mother’s social support between the adolescent’s novelty seeking temperament, and their school achievement or self-directedness. This outcome was interpreted to mean that the mothers’ social support, for the researched group, is not affected through the children’s reactions.