This study was conducted to design the optimism enhancement program on the basis of the Penn Prevention Program and to examine its effects on middle school girls’ dispositional optimism, depression, and psychological well-being. The participants were 73 eighth-grade female students attending a girls’ middle school in K City. Thirty-seven students were assigned to the experimental group, who were given the optimism enhancement program and the rest were assigned to the comparison group. The experimental group received 10 weekly sessions (45 minutes per session) of the optimism enhancement program. To test the effects of the optimism enhancement program, the Life Orientation Test-Revised, the Children’s Depression Inventory, and the Scale of Psychological Well-being were administered. Data were collected through pre-test, immediate post-test, and one month-delayed post-test. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were run with group (experimental, comparison) as the between-subjects variable, measurement session (pre-test, immediate post-test, one month-delayed post-test) as the within-subject variable, and measures of optimism, depression and psychological well-being as the dependent variables. The results are summarized as follow. First, the group × measurement session effect in the level of dispositional optimism was not significant. Second, the optimism enhancement program was effective in decreasing the level of depression. The immediate effect of the optimism enhancement program on depression was significant and maintained at the one-month delayed post-test. Third, the optimism enhancement program was effective in increasing the level of psychological well-being. The immediate effects of the optimism enhancement program on ego acceptance, positive interpersonal relations, autonomy, and environmental control were maintained at the one-month delayed post-test. These results imply that the classroom-based optimism enhancement program be feasible and effective in improving middle school girls’ psychological well-being as well as reducing depression. However, the enhancement of dispositional optimism may require a longer-term intervention program including future-oriented components such as putting it in perspective and future goal setting. Finally, limitations of this research and suggestions for further research were presented.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of shame in the relationships between adolescents' narcissism and depression. The subjects were 674 high school students in grades 1 through 3 in kyung gi province. They were assessed by The Narcisstic Personality Inventory, The Narcisstic Personality Disorder Scale, The Internalized Shame Scale, and The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The results were as follows: First, adolescents' depression and overt narcissism showed a significant negative correlation. However, adolescents' depression and covert narcissism showed a significant positive correlation. Second, both adolescents' overt and covert narcissism had a significant effects on adolescents' depression. However, the effect of covert narcissism on adolescents' depression was relatively bigger than overt narcissism. Third, both adolescents' overt and covert narcissism had a significant effects on shame. However, the effect of covert narcissism on shame was relatively bigger than overt narcissism. Fourth, shame mediated the relationship between adolescents' overt and covert narcissism. Among adolescents' over narcissism, shame mediated partly superiority and authority to depression. However, shame did not mediated entitlement and depression. And shame mediated completely the relationship between self-praise and depression. Among adolescents' covert narcissism, exaggerated self-perception, selft-greatness, and egocentrism are mediated completely by shame. The results suggested that shame was proved to have the mediating effects between adolescents' narcissism and depression.
This study aim to clarify reliability and validity and construct the scale to measure children's covert narcissism and overt narcissism drawing clinical features and symptom generally with narcissism. 64 preliminary items were drawn collecting item of scale which have been used to measure narcissism at home and abroad, firstly some items of 64 preliminary items were excepted examining the notional inconsistence to measure children's narcissism and considering the relation with skewness, mean, standard deviation, internal consistency and social desirability scale. I considered item dis crimination, item information and item characteristic appling item response theory, drew final 24 overt narcissism items and 18 covert narcissism items through factor analysis, and searched form fit indices with confirmatory factor analysis. To clarify reliability of the scale constructed, I considered split-half reliability, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The result from calculating internal consistency showed overt narcissism scale were .93 and covert narcissism scale were .87. And split-half reliability of overt narcissism scale were .91 and covert narcissism were .84 and test-retest reliability of overt narcissism scale was .84 and covert narcissism scale .70, it revealed as fine. Next, to clarify convergent of narcissism scale for children and discriminant validity, 8 validity scales and relation were drawn. Finally I comment constraint and supplementation for application in elementary school field.
This study aims to develop group consulting programs that increase the morality for juveniles with conduct disorder and examine the effectiveness of the programs in reducing immorality of juveniles with conduct disorder. In order to verify those issues, 9 students for an experimental group, 10 students for a comparative group, and 10 students for a control group were selected in the 1st and 2nd grades at D probation office and S alternative school in Seoul and 10 students for an experimental group, 9 students for a comparative group, and 11 students for a control group were selected in the 1st and 2nd grades at H middle school and B middle school. The total of 8 session programs were conducted to the experimental group (a program for increasing morality) and the comparative group (other group consulting programs) twice a week. A post-test was conducted to the control group (no measures applied) after conducting a pre-test at the same time duration. A pre and post-tests for three groups were conducted with “morality measurement test” developed by Nam Gung-dal-hwa (2004) and “behavior scale for antisociality” revised by Kim Jun-ho (1990) and one way anova and paired t-test were used to compare and analyze the results. The results of examining hypothesis are as followings: The group consulting programs for improving morality had an effect in increasing the morality for juveniles with conduct disorder. Both the group consulting programs for improving morality and other group consulting programs had effects in reducing antisociality of juveniles with conduct disorder. Lastly, the clinical implications and limitations of this study, and the further study were suggested.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the subtypes of aggression based on the factor analysis of Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist 6-18 aggressive syndrome scale. Participants were the normative sample for the K-CBCL 6-18 revised version (1,353 boys and 1,263 girls) and the K-YSR 6-18 revised version(850 boys, 779 girls). Exploratory factor analyses produced a 2-factor solution on 14 of the K-CBCL's original aggressive behavior subscale 18 items. Factor 1 was "Oppositional Aggression", factor 2 was "Direct Aggression". In addition, we confirmed the fitness of 2-factor structure according to a confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling, which indicated that 2-factor structures exist for both the K-CBCL and K-YSR. When the differences in mean of each subtype of aggression for different age and gender groups were explored, the results varied according to age and gender. In the case of girl groups, oppositional aggression was significantly higher than direct aggression. However, in the case of boy groups, direct aggression was significantly higher than oppositional aggression. Oppositional aggression escalated between the lower grades and the higher grades of elementary school, decreased with age. On the other hand, direct aggression showed the highest scores among the lower grades of elementary school, and declined over time. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that oppositional aggression showed higher correlations with internalizing problems while direct aggression showed higher correlations with rule breaking behavior(externalizing problem), and this provided good evidence that 2-subtypes of aggression model is valid.
In this study, narcissistic group of the junior high school students were divided into two subtypes of overt and covert. To investigate differences of two groups the Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale(in PDDS-A), the Covert Narcissism Scale (CNS), The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and The Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) were administered to 325 students of age 13-14. 35 students of those were overt narcissistic and 45 students of those were covert narcissistic. The control group was consisted of 37 students. Correlation analysis have been carried out using SPSS. As a result, the covert narcissistic students showed statistically higher Novelty seeking and Harm avoidance but lower Persistence compare to the overt narcissistic and control students. After looking for empathy between groups, we found that overt narcissistic student present better perspective-taking than covert. And overt and covert narcissistic students showed higher fantasy compare to controls. There was no difference between groups on empathic concern. On personal distress, covert narcissistic students showed higher score than the overts and the controls. These results suggested that covert narcissists have more malfunctioned aspects on the other hand the overt narcissists are rather adaptive in a real world.
This study was conducted to explore how middle school students regulate motivation, and to explore the relationships between the strategies of motivation regulation and the motivation types of self-determination, and to explore the differences in the strategies of motivation regulation between high school achievement group and low school achievement group according to the motivation types of self-determination. Five hundred seventy four middle school students participated in this study. The results of this study showed: (a) that the regulation of environment is most frequently used by middle school students, followed by the performance self-talk, the task value, and the regulation of interests; (b) that the regulation of motivation has significantly positive correlations with introjective motivation, identified motivation, and intrinsic motivation, and the strategies of motivation regulation have explained intrinsic motivation and identified motivation among the motivation types of self-determination; (c) that the regulation of motivation has positive correlation with school achievement, and the higher school achievement the students have, the higher self-efficacy scores they have, regardless of the types of self-determination. The results of this study were discussed and the further studies based on the limitations of this study were suggested.