This study evaluated the comparative effects of cognitive-behavioral parent training(CBPT) and behavioral parent training(BPT) on mothers of children(ages 6-11 years) with disruptive behavior disorders. BPT consisted of basic behavior modification procedures such as improving parental selective-attending skills, improving parental deliverance of commands, improving children's play behavior, parental use of time out, behavior contracting with response cost as disciplinary methods, and parental planning/ activity scheduling as problem prevention measures. Additionally, CBPT consisted of BPT procedures and more component such as cognitive reattribution of the disruptiveness of one's children(changing dysfunctional parent thoughts), problem solving training, anger control training, and enhancing communication skills of parents. 26 mothers of children with disruptive behavior disorders were recruited from 3 child psychiatric clinics in Seoul. Among them, 14 mothers were assigned to CBPT and 12 mothers to BPT with consideration of children's similarities on age, sex, and clinical problems. Both of parent training programs have 6 one and half hour sessions over the course of 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of training, there was significant improvement in children's disruptive behaviors, parent stress, dysfunctional thoughts, parent efficacy, and subjective satisfaction of family members in both CBPT and BPT groups with repeated ANOVA procedure, The improvement in both of parent training groups were maintained in the 6 weeks follow-up as supporting clinical effects of parent training. The post and follow-up assessment compared to pre-assessment, there were no differences between the two parent training groups on most of the outcome measures. Finally, limitations of the present study and suggestions were discussed for further studies.
This study investigated the impacts of medication/symptom management education program on persons with psychiatric disorder. Participants for the study were 21 clients with chronic mental illness(the experimental group 10, a control group with no treatment 11). Psychoeducation program were administered two times weekly, total 19 sessions and tested pre, post, and 6 months after. The results showed that first, clients assigned to psychoeducation program had more favorable knowledge scores than controls in feature of mental illness, medication and symptom management test. Second, the experimental group also showed lowered tendency on total SCL 90-R scores than the control group, significantly being reduced in obsessive- compulsiveness, anxiety and phobic symptom. Third, the monitoring change readiness revealed that education gained both contemplation stage and maintenance stage scores. And in the number of person in stages over time, while the number of person within a precontemplation stage increased in controls, persons within a action stage increased in experimentals. It implies that psychoeducation program develops change readiness and also keeps clients from retrogressing themselves into lower stages of change readiness. Finally suggestions about medication/symptom education service delivered in clinical practice were discussed.
This study examined the rates and correlates of a childhood history of anxiety disorders in adult with anxiety disorder. The presence of a childhood history of anxiety disorders was assessed by structured interview, and its association with comorbid disorders, anxiety severity, functional impairment and chronicity variables was examined in 110 patients (52 persons with social phobia and 58 persons with panic disorder). 37.3% of the patients met criteria for anxiety disorders during childhood, but rate of a childhood history of anxiety disorders was significantly higher in social phobia relative to panic disorder(48.1% vs 27.6%). A history of childhood anxiety was associated with the earlier age of onset, greater anxiety morbidity, lower global functioning, greater severity of fear and avoidance on social situation. These results indicate that majority of adult anxiety disorder patients, especially social phobia, had a history of anxiety disorder in childhood and the presence of childhood anxiety disorder was linked with a more severe clinical characteristics.
The propose of present study is to find the cognitive way how the women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric symptoms(PMDS) perceive their physical symptoms as well as to confirm that PMDS has a cognitive factor. For this purpose, this study screened 202 unmarried females for PMDS and analyzed their cognitive style of somatic symptoms. The participants wrote out Somatosensory Amplification Scale(SSAS), Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire(SIQ). As well, they rated their symptoms related to PMDS prospectively during 39 days. The daily rating operated on the web. The results show that the women suffering from PMDS are different from non-PMDS women in the respect of cognition of physical symptoms; they attributed their symptoms to emotional causes more than non-PMDS women did(p<.001) and they perceived common somatosensory exaggeratedly(p<.05). The logistic regression analysis also revealed that PMDS could be effectively predicted from the emotional attribution style. The strengths of this study include application of the prospective assessment through a computer program. Also, the result of this study supports the cognitive theory of premenstrual syndrome. However, this result is limited to be generalized to the women who suffer from premenstrual dysphoric symptoms. Thus, future studies should examine whether the result of this study can be applied to women who suffer from premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
The present study was to explore the relationships of mental representations on self and significant others and to perceived parenting behaviors in people with paranoid tendency. Study 1 was carried out to investigate mental representations on self and significant others in people with paranoid tendency. For this, 370 college students were asked to complete the Paranoid Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Self-Others Representation Inventory which is a self-report measure evaluating self, mother, father, and friend in terms of benevolence, capability, sociality, and obstinacy. The results showed that paranoid tendency related closely to the dimension of other-benevolence which is to view other as hostile or bad, to the dimension of self-benevolence which is to regard self as bad or cold, and to the dimension of self-obstinacy which is to consider self stubborn or dominant. Study 2 was conducted to investigate the perceived parenting behaviour and the mental representations on parents in childhood of people with paranoid tendency. As a result, paranoid tendency showed close relation to abuse, overinterference, inconsistency or negligence of the perceived parenting behaviors in childhood. And the representations on parents suggested that people with paranoid tendency had the image of bad and hostile parents in childhood.
This article presents data on the clinical and psychosocial characteristics of college students with panic attacks and panic disorder (PD). Compared with subjects (n=13) who met DSM-Ⅳ criteria for PD, infrequent panickers (n=51) reported less severity of panic symptoms, less interference with life due to panic, less visits to a doctor or counselor for an anxiety problem, and less use of avoiding the situation to cope with panic attacks. The infrequent panic group displayed higher anxiety sensitivity (AS) than the nonpanic group but lower AS than the PD group. Both of the panic groups reported stressful life events and anxiety symptoms more than the nonpanic group, whereas they did not differ significantly from each other. These findings were discussed in terms of the factors contributing to the development and maintenance of panic attacks and PD in college students.
Gay men confront gay-related stressor that are caused by homosexual orientation in heterogeneous orientation centered society. Gay men are exposed chronically to gay-related stressor because sexual orientation are fixed. 85 gay men that participated in gay human right organization, gay community were studied to examine the impact of gay-related stressor on mental health of gay men. The result from multiple regression showed that important predictors were differentiated according to mental health feature. While AIDS related stressor was the most important predictor of anxiety and somatization, financial stressor was the most important predictor of depression. Gay-related stressor explained the variance of anxiety and somatization than depression.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the Five-Factor Model of Personality (McCrae & Costa, 1985) and subjective quality of life(QoL). The Revised NEO Personality Inventory(NEO-PI-R) and Happy-Quality of Life Scale(Kook, 2001; Happy-QoL Scale) were administered to 200 schizophrenic patients and their psychopathology using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale(PANSS) was assessed. The partial correlations controlling the psychopathology between personality and subjective QoL were calculated. Additionally, the patients' personality profiles were clustered by cluster analysis on the subscales of NEO-PI-R, and then the subjective QoL among the clusters controlling the psychopathology were compared. The results are as follows: Three other personality factors (openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness) as well as neuroticism and extraversion were related with subjective QoL. However, fantasy of the subscales was not related and some subscales had weak correlations with subjective QoL. Three profiles of personality were showed. The cluster 1 was the group which had high scores on the subscales of neuroticism and low scores on the subscales of four other personality factors, but the cluster 3 was the contrary group and the cluster 2 was the intermediate group. The subjective QoL of the cluster 1 was the poorest and that of the cluster 3 was the best of three clusters. Finally, the suggestions, limitations and further issues for future study were discussed.
This study investigated the reliability and validity of Gambling Passion Scale(GPS). GPS, Korean Form of South Oaks Gambling Screening(K-SOGS), Beck Anxiety Inventory(BAI) were administered evaluated with adults(N=738). Internal consistency coefficient(Cronbach α) of GPS was .91. Factor analysis of GPS revealed that 2 factor(obsessive passion, harmonious passion) model was appropriated. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.
The present study attempted to develop a self-reported scale to assess social phobia and anxiety. This study translated the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory(SPAI) in Korean and explored the reliability and validity of the Korean-version of the SPAI(K-SPAI). The K-SPAI has good internal consistency and high test-retest reliability. Factor analysis showed that a two-factor solution can be derived from the K-SPAI. The factors correspond to the original subscales: the Social Phobia subscale and the Agoraphobia subscale. The K-SPAI was significantly correlated with K-IAS, K-SAD, and K-FNE. Socially phobic students classified by DSM-Ⅲ-R diagnostic criteria scored significantly higher on the SPAI than their non-socially anxious counterparts. The findings of this study indicated that the Korean-version of the SPAI is a reliable and valid instrument to assess social phobia and anxiety.
Primary stressors, core variable in the model of the stress process in dementia patients' caregivers that Pearlin et al.(1990) proposed, are divided into objective stressors and subjective stressors, which are distinct and hypothesized to be differently related to patients and/or caregivers variables. The Revised-Memory and Behavior Problem Checklist(R-MBPC) measures objective stressors and the Burden Interview(BI) evaluates subjective stressors in dementia patients' caregivers. In this study, we translated the R-MBPC and the BI according to the Korean situation and tested the reliability and validity of the two scales. For this, two scales were administered to 128 dementia patients' caregivers. As a result, the internal consistencies of the R-MBPC:Frequency, the R-MBPC:Reaction and the BI were from .90 to .93, and the test-retest reliability were from .91 to .97. In addition, the correlations between the two scales and scales that assess patients' cognitive abilities, daily living abilities, and caregivers' emotions were suitable. Through factor analysis, it was confirmed that the R-MBPC is composed of three factors as presented in the original article, but it was suggested that the two factors of the BI in the original article has limitations in the Korean situation. Lastly, in the analysis for the caregivers' objective and subjective stress according to dementia severity, the significant difference between the mild dementia patient group and the moderate or severe dementia patient group was remarkable. The influence between the caregivers' characteristics and cultural background was discussed, and in the future, a comprehensive model for the stress process in the caregivers of dementia patients should be investigated.
The Hopelessness Depression Symptom Questionnaire(Metalsky & Joiner, 1997) is developed to measure of eight symptoms posited by Abramson, Metalsky and Alloy(1989) to comprise a specific subtype of depression-hopelessness depression. To study validation of the Hopelessness Depression Symptom Questionnaire-Korean version for adolescents, a battery of scales was administrated to 213 high school students. Exploratory factor analysis showed that 9 factors were extracted. Based on this results, the reliability and validity of this questionnaire was investigated. Internal consistency was acceptable, and confirmatory factor analysis showed that one factor model is theoretically and empirically preferable, and supported that the latent variable-hopelessness depression was specified, which was measured by each sub-hopelessness depressions. On the basis of this results, the Hopelessness Depression Symptom Questionnaire of Korean version is useful to measure and evaluate hopelessness depression.
This study was attempted to validate self-report measurement, Object Relations Inventory(OR Inventory). Study 1, to confirm reliability and factory structure of OR Inventory and to gain Korean factor score coefficient, OR Inventory were administered to 416 undergraduate & graduate students. In the results, Crohnbach α coefficient, split half reliability coefficient(Spearman-Brown), and item-factor score correlation of OR Inventory were found to have acceptably high, and the 3-week interval test-retest reliability coefficient of OR Inventory was reasonably high. Therefore, internal consistency and the stability over time OR Inventory were ascertained. In the results of factor analysis, like the structure of English version of Object Relations Inventory in Bell et al's validation study(1985), four factors of insecure attachment, social incompetence, alienation, and egocentricity were extracted, and factor score coefficient matrix of OR Inventory was put out. In study 2, to confirm concurrent validity of K-OR Inventory, the scales measuring schizoid personality disorder, self-centricity, sociality deficiency, attachment-dependence, attachment-anxious, and attachment-close with the K-OR Inventory were administered to 240 undergraduate students. K-OR Inventory factors score applying factor score coefficient of K-OR Inventory put out in study 1 were gained, the correlations between these K-OR Inventory factor scores and corresponding the measures were found to be moderate to almost high positive. The above results show that K-OR Inventory has good psychometric properties as a measure of object relations. The implications and limitations of this study were discussed along with some suggestions for the further study.
The purpose of this study was to develop Continuous Performance Test based on level of difficulty and trial order and to investigate attention characteristics and diagnostic efficiency of ADHD. In the developed diagnostic test of attention, stimuli were presented simultaneously, trial orders(low-high frequency trials vs high-low frequency trials) were varied by presentation frequency of stimulus and the level of difficulty was controlled by the shape of stimuli. 32 ADHD children and 40 normal children between the age of 7 and 9 completed the diagnostic test of attention. The MANCOVA of group × trial order and group×(level of difficulty) was performed on omission error, commission error, mean response time, standard deviation of response time, anticipatory responses, d' and β. The results were as follows. First, in terms of trial order, difference between ADHD children and normal children in high-low frequency trial was more than that in low-high frequency trial. Second, in terms of level of difficulty, difference of standard deviation of response time and d' between ADHD children and normal children at low level was more than those at high level. On the other hand, difference of mean response time between ADHD children and normal children at high level was more than that at low level. Third, according to the discriminant analysis, accuracy rates in high-low frequency trials(94.3%) were higher than those in low-high frequency trials(73.0%). Accuracy rates at low level +high level(83.3%) were higher than those at low level(79.2%) and high level(77.8%). In conclusions, the developed test of attention based on trial order and level of difficulty compensate for the weak points of the existing continuous performance tests.
This article describes three studies examining the psychometric characteristics of a Korean version of the Speech Anxiety Thoughts Inventory (K-SATI) - an instrument recently developed to measure maladaptive cognitions associated with speech anxiety. In Study 1, factor analyses of the K-SATI revealed a two-factor solution -“prediction of poor performance” and “fear of negative evaluation by audience”, respectively. In Study 2, the two-factor structure was replicated. In addition, the results revealed high internal consistency, satisfactory test-retest reliability over both two- and eight-week periods, and good convergent and discriminant validity. In Study 3, the scale demonstrated its predictive value for anxious responding to a public speaking task. These findings suggest that the K-SATI is a highly reliable, valid measure to assess negative cognitive features of speech anxiety. Lastly, the utilization of the K-SATI in the research and clinical practice of speech anxiety as well as the limitations of the present studies were discussed.