The primary purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate the effects of group play therapy program for depressive children. Eight elementary school children with depressive symptoms among psychiatric outpatients were provided with 12 sessions group play therapy, and compared with the same number of a control group who did not received the therapy. Treatment outcome was assessed by parent reports on social behavior, internal problem, and external problem, and self-reported depression, anxiety, and aggression. The results revealed that, after treatment, children exhibited less degree of depression and anxiety, but there was no significant difference for changing parent reports. It implied that a group play therapy were effective in significantly decreasing depression ,however it did not bring about noticeable changes parents can perceive. Therefore, the findings of this study suggest that parent have to be participated in the therapy with their children so as to ensure generalization and long term maintenance of treatment effects.
The primary purpose of the present study was to explore characteristics of self-representation, object- representation, and interpersonal problems associated with autonomous and sociotropic subtypes of depression. Five-hundred undergraduates completed Self-Esteem Scale(SES), Object-Representation Scale, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems- Circumplex Scale(IIP-C), Personal Style Inventory(PSI), and Beck Depression Inventory(BDI). On the basis of PSI and BDI score, two groups were formed: the autonomous-depressive(A-D) group with 20 students, and the sociotropic-depressive(S-D) group with 23 students. The results were as follows. There were no group differences between the A-D group and the S-D group in self-representation, but the A-D group was more negative than the S-D group in object-representation. In interpersonal problems, the A-D group was more autocratic, competitive, cold, and socially avoidant, but less nonassertive, exploitable, overly nurturant, and overly expressive than the S-D group. The A-D group reported more difficulties in autonomy-related areas(autocratic, competitive, cold, and socially avoidant) than in sociotropy-related areas(nonassertive, exploitable, overly nurturant, and overly expressive) compared to the S-D group. In addition, while autonomy-related interpersonal problems were predicted by both object- representation and self-representation, sociotropy-related problems were predicted only by self-representation. Further analyses indicated that autonomy-orientation mediated the path from object-representation to autonomy-related interpersonal problems, while sociotropy-orientation mediated the path from object-representation to sociotropy- related problems. Implications of these findings, particularly the effects of object-representation on interpersonal problems in depressives, were discussed.
This study investigated the effects of dysfunctional beliefs, negative automatic thoughts and social self-efficacy on speech anxiety. The Dysfunctional Beliefs Test(DBT), the Speech Anxiety Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire(SAATQ), the Social Self-Efficacy Scale(SSES), and the Speech Anxiety Scale(SAS) were administrated to 353 college students. The results showed that dysfunctional beliefs influenced speech anxiety by mediating of negative automatic thoughts as a vulnerable factor, and the mediating effect of negative automatic thoughts was powerful. The effects of social self-efficacy not only influenced speech anxiety by mediating of negative automatic thoughts but also influenced on speech anxiety directly. Finally, clinical implications of the study were discussed. In fact, limitations of the study and suggestions for future study were also considered.
The purpose of this study was to explore the rate, type, and severity of spouse abuse, and the attitude and perception of victimized wives regarding to domestic violence. In addition, we examined the effect of domestic violence on abused partner's functioning and parenting behavior as well as their potentiality of child abuse. Subjects consisted of 721 married women in community and 13 victimized wives referred by police or court. Clinical psychologists who were trained in clinical interview and psycho-diagnostic tests collected data from the subjects using a structured clinical interview and questionnaires. Self-report questionnaires, including Negative Life event Questionnaire, Coping Strategy Questionnaire, CTS-2, Parenting Behavior Inventory and a Scale for Attitude and Perception about domestic violence were used. In community group, wives who have experienced domestic violence were 192(26.6%). Among them, the percentage of physical abuse was 19.1%, verbal abuse 81.6%, emotional abuse 27.9% and sexual abuse 20.9%. Women with abused history in community group perceived their husband's violent behaviors as an expression of concern, and as more changeable than women without abused history. Furthermore, abused women in community group reported that domestic violence could be understandable, while non-abused women reporting it would be absolutely unacceptable. Abused women in community group as well as clinical group were found to have more severe life stress compared to non-abused women. Abused women in community group showed more controlling and consistent attitude toward their children. But, victimized wives in clinical group showed higher potentiality of child abuse due to problems in spousal relationship than abused women in community group. And also they show more physical and emotional abuse as well as neglect to their child.
This study was performed to investigate the relationship among separation experience from parents, attachment to parents, and friendship quality, depression and loneliness of children. Participants were 426 children(mean age=10.3) in the 4th and 5th grade in an elementary school and their parents, including 206 who reported separation experience(SE) and 220 who didn't(NSE). Children reported the levels of perceived attachment to parent, friendship quality, depression and loneliness; parents reported separation experience before 6 age of children. The results were as following; First, there was no difference in depression, and loneliness between SE and NSE groups. But as for friendship quality, children who reported separation experience were likely to have less pleasure in the peer relationships. Second, to verify the general relationship among each variable, a path analysis was performed. It is shown that separation experience from parents which was mediated by attachment on mother and father and friendship quality influenced negative affect(depression and loneliness).
The implicit memory deficit in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was investigated using event-related potentials. For the measurement of implicit memory, a lexical decision task was administered. Among 320 words and 140 non-words, 200 words were repeated, 120 words and 140 non-words were not repeated. For explicit memory a continuous recognition task was administered, in which 280 words were repeated (old) and 100 were not repeated (new). On the recognition task, both controls and OCD patients showed more positivity to the old words than the new words (repetition effect). The two groups did not differ in terms of the performances on Korean version of California verbal learning test, but OCD patients showed impaired performances on immediate and delayed recalls of Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test (RCFT). On the lexical decision task, controls showed the repetition effect, whereas OCD patients did not. In addition, OCD patients showed prolonged response time to the old words compared to the controls. The results of source localization, which was performed to find the cerebral generators of repetition effect, showed that left caudate body is a strong candidate for the generator. The absence of the repetition effect on the implicit memory task and the impaired performance on RCFT indicate that OCD patients have implicit memory deficit, which seems to be caused by encoding or organizational difficulties. Furthermore, implicit memory deficit in OCD patients seems to be related to the dysfunction of prefrontal-striatal system, which is known as the neural substrates underlying OCD.
The present study explored the effects of dispositional self-presentational motivation and interpersonal evaluation on situational social anxiety. It was hypothesized that people with high self-presentational motivation who are faced with the prospect of interpersonal evaluation will experience high social anxiety. Subjects who scored high or low on a measure of self-presentational motivation were asked to tell four stories about themselves to an interviewer in the anticipated-evaluation condition or in the anticipated-no-evaluation condition. As predicted, subjects with high self-presentational motivation reported higher state anxiety in the evaluation condition than in the control condition, but subjects with low self-presentational motivation didn't. Stories of subjects with high self-presentational motivation were less appropriate in the evaluation condition than in the control condition, but subjects with low self-presentational motivation didn't. Inconsistent results were found in speech duration and speech speed. According to the perspective that social anxiety is defined as cognitive-affective responses excluding behavioral responses, the findings of this study suggest that self-presentational motivation is an important cause of social anxiety.
This study examines the inflated responsibility in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The concept of responsibility is divided into moral/causal responsibility and commission/omission. In study 1, the relationship between responsibility belief and OC subtypes are examined by using a newly developed responsibility belief questionnaire(RSQ). The results are as follows : ‘being contaminated’ factor is positively correlated with moral or causal responsibility, 'impaired control over mental activities', 'checking behaviors' and 'reactive obsession' are positively correlated with causal responsibility, and 'urges and worries about loss of control over motor behavior' and 'autogenous obsession' are negatively correlated with moral responsibility. And obsessionals, especially 'checking behaviors' and 'reactive obsession' types, are more sensitive to omission than commission. In study 2, the inflated responsibility appraisal in OCD is examined with a semi-idiographic measure(RQ). The result shows that the responsibility appraisal is inflated in ‘being contaminated’, 'impaired control over mental activities', 'checking behaviors' and 'reactive obsession' types, but not in 'urges and worries about loss of control over motor behavior' and 'autogenous obsession'. When regression analysis is conducted, the responsibility appraisal is best predicted by causal responsibility in omission. Implications for theory, measurement and research directions are explored.
This study was performed (A) to examine a difference between inmates's compared with normal subjects and (B) examine response tendency of criminals in terms of their gender, criminal frequency and criminal subtypes in NEO-Personality Inventory(NEO-PI-R). At first, MANOVA was done to the 372 inmates and 358 normal subjects. The results has it that the inmates show type combining low Neuroticism(N) with high agreeableness(A) compared with normal groups. And then, MANOVA analysis was done to the 1,138 inmates completed the NEO-PI-R. and it reveals that (a) the men inmates show high Extraversion(E) and Excitement-seeking(E5) with low Straightfowardness(A2) and Self-Discipline(C5) compared with the women inmates: (b) The serial offenders show high Neuroticism(N), Impulsiveness(N5) and Excitement-seeking(E5) with low Agreeableness(A) and Conscientiousness(C): and (c) there significant difference in Neuroticism(N), Agreeableness(A), Conscientiousness(C), Impulsiveness (N5), Vulnerability(N6), Excitement-seeking(E5), Compliance(A4), Order(C2), Dutifulness(C3), Achievement striving(C4) at the six criminal subtypes.
We discuss nonverbal emotional recognition of the children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and with depression. Children were classified into three groups, with ADHD, with depression and normal controls, and each group consisted of sixteen children of which the age ranges from eight to thirteen years. The participants made the pleasant-unpleasant rating of the emotional cues from the pictures of facial expression and the voice recordings. In addition, to examine the cognitive bias, we compared each group's ratings of nine facial and nine vocal expressions as one of positive, neutral and negative emotion. From the results, it was found that the children with ADHD were significantly less accurate at recognizing the facial expression than the normal controls. However, we could not find the statistically significant differences in the facial expression between the depression group and normal control group. For the vocal expression, no significant differences were found between each group. In addition, it was shown that the depression group tended to rate the negative facial expressions more positively than the normal control group. On the basis of the results, it can be concluded that ADHD group's nonverbal decoding errors are originated from the failure in attending stimulus whereas depression group's errors are resulted from the biased perception of emotion.
The current study was conducted to examine the utility of the Korean MMPI-A in discriminating between normal and abnormal adolescents and among different diagnostic groups. MMPI-A profiles of 85 Korean adolescent psychiatric patients were compared with those of 254 Korean adolescents and 713 American adolescent psychiatric patients. Results suggested that the Korean MMPI-A seems to be sensitive to separate general psychiatric sample from a normal group as indicated by scale level and item level comparisons. Scale means of Korean psychiatric sample were significantly higher than those of Korean normal group, with the scales F, D, Hy, Pd, Pa, Hs, DEP, HEA, and FAM showing over one standard deviation separation between the two Korean adolescent groups. Mean scores of Korean psychiatric sample were higher than those of American counterpart, with the scales F, Hs, D, Hy, A-hea, and A-sod showing the highest differences between two national samples. Scales Pd and D were effective in discriminating among conduct disorder group, depression group, and normal sample. For both diagnostic groups as well as total psychiatric sample, neurotic scales (Hs, D, and Hy) were elevated, suggesting neurotic triad may be an underlying or comorbid characteristic in all Korean adolescent psychiatric patients. Compared to normal adolescents, adolescent patients with conduct disorder more frequently reported to have school and family problems and those with depression reported more physical complaints, negative mood, isolation, and pessimism. Comparisons between American and Korean adolescent clinical samples suggested some sociocultural factors. Finally limitations of this study and suggestions for further studies were also discussed.
This study was to construct the Emotional Experience Scale(KPANAS), and to examine its reliability and validity. Based on the study of an Appropriateness and Frequency of Emotion Terms in Korea, a pool of preliminary items were selected and administered to 230 undergraduates, and KPANAS with 22 items was constructed using factor analyses on the data. To confirm its reliability and validity, KPANAS was administered to 258 undergraduates and 105 normal adults,. KPANAS was highly reliable in terms of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Factor analyses revealed that KPANAS had consistently two factors labeled 'Positive Affect' and 'Negative Affect'. The study evaluated the fit of two competing models to data using confirmatory factor analysis. The independent two-factor model fit the data well. And KPANAS was found to be significantly correlated with anxiety, depression and general health, hence these results indicated that KPANAS had good construct validity. Also, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
The purpose of the study was to develop the Scale of Parent-Child Interaction Behavior in Korea, based on Rapee's Parent-Child Interaction Scale(1997) and examine its reliability and validity. The subject of this study consisted of 82 parent-child dyad (51 normal children, 15 externalizing problem children and 16 internalizing problem children). Children were given 5 tangram pulzzles to do in the presence of their mothers. The mother-child interaction was videotaped for 5 minutes. Two raters independently scored the parent and the child interaction behaviors, respectively. The mothers' behaviors were rated with each item of “Warmth” and “Involvement” on 9 point Likert Scale and children's behaviors were rated with each item of “Mood” and “Acceptance” on 9 point Likert Scale, respectively. The results were as follows. First, the Parent-Child Interaction Behavior Rating Scale had appropriate internal reliability. Second, factor analysis study of the Parent-Child Interaction Behavior Rating Scale confirmed that two factor model accounted best with mother and child, respectively. Third, the results obtained by the Parent-Child Interaction Behavior Rating Scale were compared to those by the frequency analysis of mother-child Interaction Behavior per 10 seconds. The correlation between the two methodologies about similar items was significant. The validity of Parent-Child Interaction Behavior Rating Scale is proved. The acquired results of this study successfully supported reliability, validity and clinical utility of Parent-Child Interaction Behavior Rating Scale.
The present study was to examine the diagnostic efficiency of the Rorschach Perceptual-Thinking Index(PTI; Exner, 2000) as compared to Schizophrenia Index(SCZI; Exner, 1993). Participants were 69 children and adolescents psychiatric patients; 25 with psychotic disorder, 27 with depression, 17 with conduct disorder. The results showed significant difference among three groups on PTI and psychotic disorder patients showed a higher level of PTI than comparison groups. The cutoff score of 3 for PTI resulted in the greatest diagnostic hit rate, 83%. As compared with SCZI, PTI had no difference on false negative rate, whereas produced lower false positive rate than SCZI. Implications and limitations of this study were discussed.