This preliminary study aimed to develop a group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy(CBT) program for the adolescents with depression and anxiety disorders. The CBT program intended to alter the negative self- scheme and to train the social skills of the adolescents, which is required in the interpersonal relationships. Through a screening survey, 279 junior high school students with high scores in depression and anxiety was selected and then eight students(2 male, 6 female) among them was selected through detailed diagnostic interview. The CBT program was conducted to 8 students: two 2-hour-sessions per week, for three weeks. The subjects showed significantly lower scores in depression and anxiety after the treatment, and they also showed significantly lower level of social anxiety, especially in the subcategories of the performance anxiety and of the fear of negative feedback. And the subjects reported positive change of self concept, and the level of their depressive cognition, social anxiety cognition, and negative peer representation were decreased. The effects in depressive symptoms, performance anxiety, fear of negative feedback, and positive self-concept maintained at six months follow up. Lastly we discussed the results by subcategories and the clinical implications for the adolescents' depression and anxiety. Limitations and suggestions for future study were mentioned.
This study was to examined influences of family functioning, social support, parenting stress, and mothers' interactive style on the child development of young children with disabilities. Participants consisted of 50 mothers and their children who either had general developmental disabilities or had been diagnosed with Autism or Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD). The data used for this study included videotaped observations of parent-child play; a play based assessment; and standardized measures of mothers family functioning, social support and parenting stress. Correlational analysis indicated that there were low to moderate levels of correlations among family functioning, social support, parenting stress and mothers' interactive style. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that both family factors (family cohesion, satisfaction with support and parenting stress) and maternal responsiveness contributed independently to children's rate of development. However, maternal responsiveness was the strongest predictor, accounting for 14% of the variance in children’s development. Results from the hierarchical regression were supportive of the hypothesis that family factors moderate the impact of maternal responsiveness on children‘s development.
This study intends to hypothesize and testify the validity and fitness of cognition-mediated model of adolescent smoking by using AMOS. The number of subjects was 264 high school students(male: 201, female: 63), who were adolescent smokers. The variables of this study were as follows. First variables were the smoking of family and peer, and life unsatisfaction. Second variable was alcohol use behavior. Third variables were psychological variables, composed of depression and novelty seeking. Fourth variable was cognition variable(smoking abstinence efficacy and belief), which was composed of efficacy for smoking abstinence and smoking-related irrational beliefs and expectations. To testify and determine the most valid and economic model, this study hypotheized that the smoking of family and peer, life satisfaction, alcohol use behavior, depression and novelty seeking influence smoking behavior by mediating smoking-related cognition(smoking abstinence efficacy and belief). Model Ⅰ hypotheized full mediation of smoking-related cognition, but Model Ⅱ partial mediation of it. Model Ⅱ was testified more valid and fit than Model Ⅰ by the result of AMOS analysis. In Model Ⅱ, alcohol use behavior and novelty seeking directly infulenced smoking behavior in addition to the mediation effect of smoking-related cognition. Therefore, the smoking-related cognition(smoking abstinence efficacy and belief) was important in counseling and reducing adolescent smoking. Besides it was suggested that if the programs for coping with alcohol use behavior and novelty seeking were included in smoking abstinence program, the efficacy and outcome of smoking abstinence program would be more enhanced.
The temporal stages of the cognitive processes and the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the working memory were investigated using the 2-back task and event-related potential (ERP). Geometric figures such as a circle, triangle and square were used as stimuli. The target stimulus was a circle, while the triangle and square served as nontargets. The target stimulus was further divided into the match target and nonmatch target. If the current stimulus was a circle, and the circle was presented two trials earlier (match circle: MC), the subjects were required to respond. If the current stimulus was a circle, but the circle was either not presented two trials earlier (nonmatch circle: NC), or the current stimulus was either a triangle or a square (nontarget stimulus: NS), subjects were asked not to respond. The target stimulus, i. e., MC and NC produced a significantly higher N100 amplitude than the nontarget stimulus, which indicates that more attention was directed to the target stimulus than to the nontarget stimulus. In terms of P300, the MC than either the NC or NS elicited a greater amplitude and earlier latency. In addition, the P300 was at a maximum at the parietal sites in the MC, while it was at its highest at the frontal sites in the NC or NS. All three types of stimuli produced a positive slow potential with similar amplitudes and latencies. The amplitude of the slow potential was at a maximum at the frontal sites. These results indicate that such temporal stages of cognitive functions underlying the working memory as attention allocation, updating the working memory contents and the retention of sequential information can be reflected toward the ERP components. The results also suggest that the prefrontal and parietal cortex, which are known to be the neural networks of working memory, are associated with the retention process and updating working memory contents, respectively.
The present study was to investigate the theory of mind ability using two tasks in order to understand social deficits in schizophrenic patients. 22 schizophrenic patients and 22 normal controls were asked judge the appropriateness of a facial affect and intention behind the facial expression. Tasks were constructed from 38 pair of photographs of facial expression and social-emotional situation. Task-I was designed to test judgemental capacity for the appropriateness of a facial affect. Task-II was designed to investigate the intention behind the facial expression. Results showed that schizophrenic patients earned significantly lower scores and associations between two items(conceptual disorganization and difficulties in abstract thinking) of positive and negative syndroms and performance level in both tasks. These findings suggests that schizophrenic patients is difficult to represent the mental states of others and have problems in their social functioning.
This study was to classify alcoholics into several subtypes, according to the deficit patterns in social problem-solving process. In study, using five subscale scores of SPSI-R for 232 alcoholic inpatients, the cluster analysis was performed to identify a small number of groups such that within-group differences were minimized with between-group differences maximized. As a result, three subgroups emerged, which included one group with global deficits(called type 1), another group with mild deficits(type 2), and the other group of focal deficits(type 3). The current findings suggest that benefits from social problem solving training are increased to the substantial amount when social problem solving program is customized specifically to patient characteristics by subgroups having different types of problem solving process deficits. The limitations and suggestions for future research were also discussed.
This study was performed to two purpose. First, performance time evaluation of Trail Making Test(TMT) was a component of the neuropsychological test battery to be examined age and education were considered. Second, A difference(B-A) and a ration(B/A) score to be examined to offered useful information for severity of head injury. Test implement used to be TMT A, TMT B, wechsler intelligence subscale. The subject of normative control group consisted of number 94, subjects of patient included four group consisted of head injury number 53, postconcussional disorder number 26, schizophrenia number 24, neurotic patient number 53. The result are that TMT A, B, B-A were positive correlated with age and negative correlated with education in normative control group. Four patient group performance are significant difference appeared decending in order from neurotic group, schizophrenia group, postconcussional group, head injury group. The inclusion implicated that neuropsychological test result interpretation were considered with age and education. Also, a difference score B-A be useful to head injury evaluation.
The present study examined if there's any difference in heart rates of subjects responding to the Rorschach cards in relation to the actual patterns of control related variables. Heart rate was measured by “Polar Heart Rate Monitor System”. Subjects were 56 adult volunteers(male 29, female 27). All the responses were classified into following four groups; “responses with EA”, “responses with EA-es”, “responses with es”, and “responses without EA-es”. The results are as follows: First, The subjects' heart rates increased during the response phase of the Rorschach test. Second, the subjects' heart rates showed more increase on “responses with es” or “responses without EA-es” than “responses with EA”. Third, heart rates related to “responses with EA-es” ranked in the middle between “responses with EA” and “responses with es”. These results suggest that the pattern of EA and es, the control-related variables can be a compass giving clearer understanding of meaning of symbolic responses on the Rorschach test. Finally, need to verify these results for different clinical groups and with various physiological measures in the future.
This study investigated the attachment styles and the perceived parenting behaviors in paranoia and depression. The Paranoia Scale, the Zung Depression Scale, the Self-report Attachment Style Questionnaire, the Adult Attachment Scale, the Parenting Behavior Inventory, the Self-concept Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale were administered to 34 persecutory deluded patients, 34 depressed patients, and 34 normal controls. The persecutory deluded patients showed more fearful and preoccupied attachment styles than the control group. And they showed higher anxiety and lower intimacy in attachment relationships than the control group. The depressed patients showed more preoccupied attachment style than the control group, and they showed higher anxiety and lower intimacy and dependency in attachment relationships than the control group. In perceived parenting behaviors, the persecutory deluded patients perceived their parents as more intrusive and inconsistent than the depressed and the normal controls. Both the persecutory deluded and the depressed patients perceived their parents as more abusive and neglective than the normal controls. The letting behavior of parents', the inconsistency of mothers', and over-interference of mothers' were highly related to the adult attachment styles. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.
This paper covers the relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder group by self-reported ratings(below ADHD group) and Internet Addiction Disorder group by self-reported ratings(below IAD group). In the 1st study are as follows: First, IAD ratio of ADHD group appeared higher than that of non-ADHD group. Including the future probable IAD group to the Internet additive user group, students with ADHD have more propensities for Internet addiction. Second, as a result of correlation analysis between ADHD and IAD, it seemed that they have significant correlation. In the 2nd study, we looked into vulnerable characteristics to Internet addiction which makes ADHD children develop themselves into IAD, by comparing four groups; ADHD+IAD group, ADHD group, IAD group, and Control group. the one-way ANOVA was carried out to compare psychological characteristics among ADHD+IAD group, ADHD group, IAD group, and Control group. According to the results, ADHD+IAD group appeared the lowest self-esteem, the highest depression, the highest sensation-seeking tendency, and the lowest self-control than the other groups. Also, it tends to perceive their family relationship the most negatively than the other groups. This finding suggests that it is necessary to develop counsel program about ADHD characteristics, and it requires therapeutic intervention for counseling and treating IAD.
The purpose of present study is to examine the differences of impulsivity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) and Conduct Disorder(CD). The subjects of this study consist of four groups. ADHD patients(N=12) were sampled from psychiatry patients. CD group(N=17) and ADHD+CD comorbidity group (N=12) were sampled from a juvenile reformatory. Middle school students who were volunteer were assigned to Normal Control(NC) group(N=12). ADHD group, CD group, and ADHD+CD group were diagnosed using DSM-IV criteria. Four groups took the Intelligence test, executive function tests and MMPI. The results are as follows. Four groups had no difference in IQ. But ADHD and ADHD+CD group were significantly impaired on executive function measures compared with CD and NC group. CD group and ADHD+_CD group showed higher scores in MMPI 4(Pd) scale compared with ADHD and NC group. While CD group showed an average score in F scale, ADHD and ADHD+CD group did show high score in the same scale. This study suggests that impulsivity of ADHD reflects not impulsive personality trait but symptoms related to neuropsychological impairments. And it seems that impulsivity of CD reflects impulsive personality trait. While CD group showed ego-syntonic attitude toward their impulsivity, ADHD and ADHD+CD group show ego-dystonic attitude toward their impulsive problems. This study suggests that although ADHD and CD group show similar behavioral problems, different therapeutic approaches should be taken.
This study purported to develop a story recall test (SRT) for the elderly Korean population. It examined the reliability and validity of the test and developed norms for the elderly population. Effects of demographic variables on test performance were examined. Normative sample consisted of two hundred seventy-three elderly volunteers whose ages were between 55 and 89. Volunteers were residents of Seoul, Kyungki-do, Yesan, Daegu, Masan, and Dangjin. Education and gender proved to be significant factors influencing all SRT performances, while age was significant in some performances. Norms were developed considering significant demographic factors. The norms for the Immediate Recall were established for two education level (0-9 years, over 10 years) and gender, yielding four normative groups. The norms for the Delayed Recall and the Recognition were established for two education groups (less or equal to 9 years, and more than 10 years), two age groups (55-74 years and 75-89 years) and two gender group (male and female). In addition, memory characteristics of the normal elderly Korean population were described. The normative data of the Story Recall Test are expected to be utilized in detecting memory, learning and cognitive impairments in the elderly population. More efficient diagnostic procedures will be available for the patients with early Alzheimer's disease and other neurological conditions frequently found in the elderly population.
This study was designed to analysis the MMPI response characteristic of participants in court-ordered drunken driving offender's program, and thus to make a effective mediating program and therapy. The sample consisted of 87 men. As results, scores on Pd and Pt were elevated with T 62.7, T 62.9. This means to impulsivity, assertiveness, nonconforming, social alienation, low tolerance for frustration, and reduced sence of responsibility and morals. And it regards to experience anxiety and tension and so on about panalty in drunken driving and the situation to control for a while, fundamentally including anxiety and tension. By a section, from Hs, D, Hy, Mf Sc, Ma, there are many cases T 45～59 scores and from Pd, Pt measure and so on from T 60 to T 69. It comes out highly comparatively, it can guess that there are emotional unstability, irritability, impatience, and unadaptable person in daily life. In cluster analysis, about 19.5% of participants in court-ordered drunken driving offender's program were elevated in Pd, Pt, Sc scores to need to get a individual psychotherapy. Lastly alcohol dependent group comes out highly significant in D, Hy, Pd, Pa measure and so on compare with alcohol abuse group. But it is similar to MMPI pattern, so it is suggestive of insignificant that difference of character according to drinking degree.
Abstract: The psychometric characteristics of Maladaptive Self-Focused Attention Scale(MSFAS) are described for 425 undergraduate students. This scale was developed to assess the dispositional maladaptive self-focused attention which could be a important factor in developing and maintaining social anxiety. The preliminary items were mainly collected from the data of social phobic outpatients' interview sheet, psychological assessment records, the self describing records during cognitive behavioral group therapy, and from the relevant existing social anxiety scale items. Through the factor analysis the final 23 items are selected, and three factors are identified; rumination, other-consciousness, and self-absorption. The Cronbach's α is .92 which is a favorable level. Investigating the correlation matrix between MSFAS and other social anxiety scales show that this scale can assess the aspect of maladaptive self consciousness more consistently than existing self consciousness scale(SCS).
This study modified the items of revised Korean Personality Inventory for children parent-rating form (KPI-C-R-PRF) into children-report form (KPI-C-R-CRF) and tested the reliability and validity. The 4-6th grade elementary students (N=1,575) administered the KPI-C-R-CRF. Half-split reliability and internal consistency of 13 scales excluded ICN scale were .65-.85, .62-.85, respectively. Test-retest reliability tested on 129 students, .75-.86, was high. To test the convergent and discriminant validity, participants were separated into ten samples and administered nine validity indices and the KPI-C-R-PRF. Both validity were very high. Finally the results were compared with previous studies and the implication and limitation were discussed.
A lack of perceived control is known to be a psychological vulnerability to emotional disorders such as anxiety disorders. This article described four studies examining the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) developed recently to assess perceived control over external threats and internally generated emotional and bodily reactions. In Study 1, the results of factor analyses of the K-ACQ revealed a two-factor solution - “a sense of uncontrollability over anxiety-related events” and “perceived control over anxiety-related events” - , which was then replicated in an independent sample. The results of Study 2 demonstrated good test-retest reliability over both two- and four-week periods. In Study 3, the K-ACQ correlated more strongly with a measure of anxiety than did the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, a more global measure of perceived control. In Study 4, perceived anxiety control measured with the K-ACQ was shown to be significantly predictive of anxiety symptoms after the effect of life stress was controlled. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the K-ACQ is a highly reliable, valid measure to assess perceived control over anxiety-related events.
The aim of the present study is to develope scales Which assess an attitude of anger-out and anger-in. Initial items were sampled in 82 undergraduate students, and the preliminary Anger-out/Anger-in Attitude Scale were administered to 316 undergraduate students for exploratory factor analysis. Scales which assess anger expression behaviors were administered to 134 undergraduate students with the Anger-Out/Anger-In Attitude Scale to examine convergent and discriminant validity. The main results were: 1) The Anger-Out Attitude Scale was composed of 36 items, 4 factors(fear for negative assessment(10 items), active support of anger-out(10 items), expectation of negative interpersonal relationship(9 items), passive support of anger-out(7 items)). 2) The Anger-In Attitude Scale was composed of 23 items, 2 factors(anger-in con(23 items), anger-in pro(10 items)). 3) The internal reliabilities of each factors in the Anger-Out/Anger-In Attitude Scale showed .76～.89 and were acceptable. 4) Correlation analysis of the Anger-Out/Anger-In Attitude Scale with scales which assess anger expression behaviors supported consistently validities of the Anger-out/the Anger-in Attitude Scales. This findings indicate that attitudes for anger-out and anger-in influence consistently on anger expression behaviors